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Congregationalism in gorftsljire* 







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The late Rev. Thomas Scales, of Leeds, whose name is 
deservedly honoured among our Independent Churches, de- 
signed to compile a history of Yorkshire Nonconformity, and 
was engaged, during some years, in gathering materials for 
this purpose. The pressure of public engagements prevented 
him from building his detached fragments into a perfect 
whole. It is an affecting circumstance that his last entry 
was the record of the death of Rev. J. Paul, Wibsey (May 24, 
i860). In proceeding from Gomersal to preach the funeral 
sermon for this lamented minister, Mr. S. was suddenly seized 
by a stroke, which terminated his own useful and laborious 

After Mr. Scales' death, his papers became the property of 
the West Riding Congregational Union. The entire work 
was intended to embrace the history of the three Yorkshire 
Nonconformist denominations — the Presbyterian, Baptist, and 
Independent. The West Riding Congregational Union, 
being desirous that the project should be executed so far as it 
regarded their own body, placed the papers in the hands of 
the present compiler. 

A few sentences only of the intended work were composed 
by the originator : these will be found under the head of 
" York." The mass of papers exhibits a miscellaneous com- 
bination of facts and dates, strongly illustrating the industry of 
the collector, but very incomplete and imperfectly arranged. 
Many considerable periods of time are passed over, informa- 


tion regarding which needed to be sought out from indepen- 
dent sources ; the records of other periods demanded re-ex- 
amination and verification, and the notices of the churches 
given in the Appendix could only be furnished by a new and 
elaborate process of mosaic work. The volume may be there- 
fore regarded as, in the main, a new compilation. 

The Author has not aspired to be a laborious collector 
of trivial antiquarian details. This would have demanded 
more time than is compatible with his public and pastoral 
life. But much pains and labour have been bestowed on 
giving shape to the scattered materials, and the following up 
of the design by minuter touches must be left to other hands, 
though with the conviction that there is much which might 
prove worth the investigation. Nor has he studiously encum- 
bered his pages with references which could be productive of 
no adequate advantage. 

Among those to whose aid he acknowledges himself much 
indebted are G. Hadfield, Esq., M.P., Joshua Wilson, Esq., 
Rev. T. Hunter, Dr. Williams' library, Rev. J. H. Morgan, 
and Rev. D. Jones, secretary to the movement. 

He dedicates this volume to the honoured memory of the 
late Rev. T. Scales and to the Congregational Churches 
of Yorkshire, especially those of the West Riding, and he 
commends them and it to the blessing of Almighty God. 

Bradford^ July 13M, 1868. 







REVOLUTION. A.D. \66z 1 68 8 ..... 69 



ANNE. A.D. l688 1 714 • • • • • • .IO5 









I783 — l800 ......... l6o 



COLLEGE. A.D. 1 80O 1 83 I . . . . . . 1 69 



THE PRESENT TIME. A.D. 183I — I 868 .... 1 86 


lord wharton's bible charity . . . . . . 219 

synoptical history of yorkshire churches .... 223 


Page 224. Advertisement, for "would," read "must." 

Page 251, eighth line from bottom, for " 1846," read " 1848." 

Page 264, fourth linear "Bush," read "Busk." 

Page 288. Instead of "his native town," read "Hull." Ninth line from bottom ; 
the quotation is an extract from Scales' copy of the Dagger Lane Record. I am informed, 
however, by Rev. A. Dodgson, that there is no such passage in the original. 

Page 300, note, for " Rusted," read "Rustedt." 

Page 334, first column, for " Sales," read " Sale." 

Page 346. Selby ; Insert in the blank the following : — 

1 8 12. Rev. J. Pinchback. In 18 15 he removed to Woodbridge. 
1 8 16. Rev. J. Mayhew. He remained till 1821. 
1821. Rev. J. Watkinson. He left in 1829. 

Page 334. Note, for "Rogers," read "Rayner." 

Page 359. The note in the second column ought to be placed in the first, and to be 
attached to the name of Rowterby. 

Cottswsatwttaltsm in ^oxHfym* 



A.D. I558 1662. 

The History of Evangelical Religion in Yorkshire, im- 
mediately after the Reformation, is clouded by much 
obscurity. Less is known respecting it than concerning 
that more remote time when early Christianity first made 
its appearance in this part of England. Antiquarian 
# researches have been lavishly expended upon the former 
period ; little attention has been bestowed upon the latter. 
It may be feared, however, that, at this crisis, Yorkshire 
as a whole was not conspicuous among the counties of 
England for its attachment to the principles of the Pro- 
testant faith. Archbishop Grindal describes the inhabitants 
of this region as being, in 1550, cc not well affected to 
godly religion ;" and complains that cc among the people 
there are many remanents of the old" (faith). cc They 
keep holidays and fasts abrogated ; they offer money, 

eggs, etc., at the burial of their dead ; they pray beads," 

1 *■ 


i Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

etc., cc so as this seems, as it were, another church rather 
than a member of the rest." In the same letter, he speaks 
of the natives of the county as characterized by cc great 
ignorance, much dulness to receive better instruction, and 
great stiffness to retain their wonted errors." Even so late 
as 1569, Sadler wrote to Elizabeth "that there were not 
ten Gentlemen in Yorkshire that did allow her proceedings 
in the cause of religion." * 

Yet two names of distinguished eminence in the history 
of spiritual liberty had been furnished by this large and 
remote district. A turn of the river Tees in the neigh- 
bourhood of Richmond (Wycliffe) supplies the name of 
England's Proto-Reformer, and indicates the place of his 
birth (circ. 1324.) But we have no proof that Yorkshire- 
men had been eager to follow that spiritual hero in his 
denunciation of error and in his intrepid promulgation of 
truth, though his energies were warmly seconded at Oxford 
and in the midland counties. Miles Coverdale, also (for 
some time Bishop of Exeter), was a Yorkshireman by 
birth, though he does not seem to have maintained, in his 
subsequent career, much connection with his native region. 

The rise and development of that singular and fanatical 
movement, " The Pilgrimage of Grace," is the strongest 
possible illustration of the hold which Romanism possessed 
over these northern regions. Indeed, when we remember 
how some greater or smaller religious establishment had 
crept into almost every fC coigne of vantage " throughout 
the greater part of this wide county, we naturally infer 
how many would be the interests ready, at all perils, to 
sustain the system which gave them birth. There were 
also stronger things than even interests ; there were blind 

1 Froude's History of England," ix. p. 529. This statement must be 
taken with considerable exceptions. 

Development. 3 

and superstitious attachments. At the divorce of Catharine 
of Arragon, the loud threat had been uttered that cc the 
king would not reign long ; for York will be in London 
hastily." We look in vain for any very strong demonstra- 
tion on the part of Yorkshire Protestants to countervail 
such contumacy. Yet it is probable that the inhabitants 
of the ancient cc regiuncula " or little kingdom of Elmete, 
(which included Leeds, Halifax, Bradford, Wakefield, 
Cleckheaton, Heckmondwike, &c.,) were inclined to the 
old Christianity which their forefathers had received before 
Roman Missionaries visited these shores, rather than to any 
form of Romish corruption ; it is certain that many 
inhabitants of these districts were afterwards most con- 
spicuous for their Protestant and Evangelical opinions. 
And as in the course of this insurrection cc the burning of 
heretics " was a privilege much insisted on by the rebels, 
it may be naturally supposed that they knew of heretics 
who in their estimation were fit fuel for such a fire. The 
religious thoughtfulness awakened in other districts must 
have been contagious even in stolid and self-willed York- 
shire. Still, during the reign of Elizabeth, mass was 
openly celebrated ; and the number of the adherents of the 
old faith is said to have been cc overawing." It is, indeed, 
recorded by Mather that, during the reign of Mary, York- 
shire furnished only a single Protestant Martyr. This 
was an apprentice named John Leaf, who heroically 
suffered with John Bradford in the flames of Smithfield. 
Thus arose the saying that <c for all the fires in the 
days of Mary, Yorkshire, though the largest county in 
England, only furnished a single leaf" 1 But this epigram 
must be received with some modification ; for Robert 
Farrer, Bishop of St. David's (who was martyred in the 

1 Mather's " Magnalia," B, II. 

B 2 

4 Congregationalism in Tor k shire. 

town of Caermarthen, 1555), was born in the parish of 
Halifax, in the church of which a monument is erected to 
his memory. And Foxe mentions two inhabitants of 
Bedale, named John and Richard Snell, who, towards the 
close of Mary's reign, were summoned before Dr. Dakins, 
of Richmond, on the charge of heresy. They were 
inquisitorially examined ; were threatened with cc fire and 
faggot ;" were imprisoned till their toes rotted off, and 
one of them could only walk by the aid of crutches ; were 
compelled to hear mass, &c. At length one of them, 
tempted by the offer of a sum of money, recanted and was 
set free, only to drown himself, as he did immediately 
afterwards, in the river Swale. The other brother was 
consigned to be burned. When the flames arose around 
him, he cried out three times cc Christ help me ! " One of 
the spectators, Robert Atkinson, called to him — fc Hold 
fast there, and we will all pray for thee ! " cc And so," 
says Foxe, cc this blessed Martyr ended his life," 

Thoresby, in his Cf Vicaria Leodiensis," says (p. 47): 
cc This West Riding of York had a double share in the 
nativities of the celebrated Bishops of that age (the 
Reformation), witness Farrer, a pious martyr ; Coverdale, 
a religious confessor and learned exile; Baines, Hebrew 
Professor in France ; Oglethorpe, who crowned Queen 
Elizabeth; Hopton, a benefactor; Tonstall, a learned 
and moderate divine ; Bentham, Best, and Guest, three 
eminent confessors of the first famous set of Queen 
Elizabeth's bishops in England; and Loftus, the first 
Protestant Archbishop of Armagh, in Ireland." x 

In the course of Elizabeth's reign, the principles of 

1 Thomas Bentham, D.D., minister of a Protestant congregation in 
London in the days of Mary, was born at Sherburn. He became, on 
the accession of Elizabeth, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, and died 
Feb. 21, 1578-9. (Wilson's "Dissenting Churches," Vol. i.) 

Development. 5 

Protestantism advanced in Yorkshire with great rapidity. 
The accession of that Queen proved a fearful disappoint- 
ment to those who, returning joyfully home from exile, 
had anticipated the end of their religious difficulties. 
They were now on the threshold of a new era; having 
suffered greatly for their adherence to the reformed 
religion, they justly expected that the restored Pro- 
testantism would regard them for their past sacrifices, 
would respect their religious scruples, and would institute 
a system in which their conscientious piety might have 
large room. And it would have been well for the Church 
of England and the interests of truth had these expecta- 
tions been realized. But, as in other similar instances, 
the cause of religion suffered from the too generous con- 
fidence of its leaders. The tendencies already shown by 
the new Sovereign, who had a monarch's love for an 
imposing ritual, might have well suggested caution, and 
prompted demands on the Puritan side for a satisfactory- 
settlement. It is probable that, had this been strongly 
insisted on at the beginning, it would not have been with- 
held. But the enthusiasm of hope drowned the whispers 
of prudence ; the opportunity was lost, and it only returned 
after long years of oppression and disaster. In truth, 
men's minds were as yet in their nonage, and liberty, 
then little understood, was only to be acquired by very 
gradual advances. In the meantime, the Queen's popu- 
larity with the people encouraged her in every strong 
assertion of Tudor will, and prompted her to the main- 
tenance and enlargement of her Royal prerogative. 

It is impossible to review the history of the early 
Puritan conflicts without remarking how many of the 
principles of modern Congregationalism were embarked 
in the issue. It has often, indeed, been the mission of 
Independency to give life to systems which never acknow- 

6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

ledge the parentage. Cranmer himself was strongly of 
opinion that Bishops and Presbyters were but difFering 
names for the same office, and that their appointment 
ought to be ratified by the voluntary choice of the people. 
The religious societies which had been formed abroad by 
the emigrants varied in no important respect from those 
afterwards called Congregational, and the idea which 
floated before the minds of the returned exiles was dis- 
tinctly un-prelatical. A preference for extemporary prayer; 
a recognition of the self-government of the church ; an 
acknowledgment of the right of Christian people to elect 
their ministers ; freedom in religious worship and the 
utmost simplicity of ecclesiastical attire, were points 
strongly and repeatedly insisted on in all the manifestos 
of the early Puritans. But added to these was one claim 
-—the fly in this pot of precious ointment — which marred 
and corrupted the whole. That demand was for the 
coercion of the Royal power in affairs of religion. 1 As 
a matter of theory, the early Puritans believed this inter- 
position to be a necessity (under certain restrictions not 
very clear to us or even to themselves) ; the notion of a 
modified Theocracy filled their minds, and led their 
imaginations astray ; and, practically, they desired to over- 
come force by force, and the only means they saw of 
destroying a Papal religion was by substituting the legal 
penalties of a Protestant establishment. Unwittingly they 
were sowing the wind. They little thought what a whirl- 
wind the hardest would prove. 

The earliest steps taken by Elizabeth were ominous ; 
although some time elapsed before the consequences were 

1 Sandys, when Bishop of London, states the following as one of the 
requisitions of the extreme Puritans : That " the judicial laws of Moses 
are binding upon Christian princes, and they ought not in the slightest 
degree to depart from them," 

Development, 7 

fulJy developed. 1 By virtue of the ecclesiastical powers 
assumed by the Sovereign, the Queen issued a set of edicts 
for the regulation of the Reformed Church. This might 
well appear an outrage in the eyes of the Romanists. It 
called forth the protest of Heath, Archbishop of York, 
who led the way in opposing such an ecclesiastical assump- 
tion. He contended that the Queen, not being a spiritual 
person, was utterly incompetent to exercise spiritual powers. 
Scot, Bishop of Chester, joined in the protest. From 
whatever quarter it came, there was reason in the objection; 
the subsequent history of the church demonstrated its force. 
But the earlier Puritans did not as yet perceive how unten- 
able was the principle of Royal religious patronage ; and, 
when they did, they found themselves weaklings in the 
hands of a power resolute to crush all opposing pre- 

It is the misfortune — to use no stronger word — of the 
English Reformation that, originating in the will of an 
imperious sovereign, it set up a religion, not that which 
seemed most nearly to resemble the pattern of the New 
Testament, but that which was the most convenient to the 

1 Camden says (life of Queen Elizabeth) : " The change of religion was 
not in her time suddenly made, but by little and little, by degrees ; for the 
Roman religion continued in the same state it was at first for a full month and 
more after the death of Queen Mary. The 27th December it was tolerated 
to have the Epistles and Gospels, the Ten Commandments, the Symbols, 
the Litany, and the Lord's Prayer, in the vulgar tongue. The 22nd 
March, the Parliament being assembled, the order of Edward VI. was 
re-established, and by Act of the same the whole use of the Lord's Supper 
granted under both kinds. The 24th June, by the authority of that which 
concerned the uniformity of public prayers and administration of the 
sacrament, the sacrifice of the mass was abolished, and the liturgy in the 
English tongue more and more established. In the month of July the 
oath of allegiance was proposed to the bishops and other persons ; and in 
August images were thrown out of the temples and churches, and broken 
or burnt." 

8 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

royal hands which moulded it. We do not, therefore, 
wonder that one of the first measures of a Tudor princess 
should have been the imposition of a strong Act of 
Uniformity. Such a proceeding was new to the Church. 
Romanism, though subject to a single head, had always 
admitted a large variety of religious administration ; but 
such liberty was not congenial with the wishes of 
Elizabeth's despotic mind. Accordingly, the Act of 
Uniformity, which was passed in the early days of her 
reign, after revising the Prayer Book (in a manner by 
no means ultra-Protestant), enjoined an absolute sameness 
in the mode of worship, and authorized the Queen, 
cc with the advice of her commissioners and metropolitan, 
to ordain and publish such public ceremonies and rites 
as may be for the advancement of God's glory and 
edifying His Church, and the reverence of God's holy 
mysteries and ceremonies." All this, too, under heavy 
penalties. An accompanying Act — the Act of Supre- 
macy — declared the Queen to be supreme governor, not 
only in matters temporal, but things spiritual, and con- 
ferred on her Majesty power to commission any of her 
born subjects " to visit, reform, redress, order, correct, 
and amend all heresies, schisms, abuses, contempts, 
offences, and enormities whatever," whether defined 
already, or to be defined hereafter. There was, it is true, 
an apparent limitation to this power in the proviso that 
nothing should be pronounced heresy unless so declared 
by Scripture or by some acknowledged council ; but the 
exception was so vague as to be of no practical value; 
and the Act, as Blackstone remarks, rendered a man 
"liable to be burnt for what he did not understand to 
be heresy till the ecclesiastical judge should so interpret 
the words of the Canonical Scripture." Such was the 
origin of the <c Court of High Commission," a court 

Development. 9 

which, when constituted, claimed powers not foreseen 
by the Act under which it was appointed ; and which 
proceeded to institute ex officio and inquisitorial oaths ; and 
to fine, imprison, and maltreat the subjects of the realm 
by such wanton acts of ecclesiastical tyranny as afterwards 
rendered its very name a terror and execration through 
successive generations. Thus, whilst the cry of the 
Church was for greater liberty, retrocession was the policy 
of the Court. It is not wonderful if such opposing 
currents soon wrought the sea into the fury of a tempest. 

As only one Bishop (LlandafF) consented to take the 
oath of supremacy, the other sees were declared, after 
an interval, to be vacant. To fill them was not, however, 
easy ; for many of the returned exiles, among whom were 
Knox, Bernard Gilpin, and Miles Coverdale (heretofore 
Bishop of Exeter) declined the offered appointments. It 
was not without much hesitation that Grindal (who had 
been chaplain to Ridley, and had given much aid to Foxe 
in the compilation of the Book of Martyrs) accepted the 
Archbishopric of York. 1 Though many Popish priests 
were removed from their livings, it was not easy to over- 
come the scruples of the Protestants, and to induce them 
to accept the vacant benefices. 

At the beginning of Elizabeth's reign the aversion 
of the foremost Puritans was extremely strong against the 
imposition of ecclesiastical vestments, the gown, square 
cap, tippet, and surplice, especially the last. 2 During 
the life of Edward VI. they had been, by the advice 

1 His chaplain was Rev. Edmund Bunney, D.D., born near Wakefield. 
When he was at Oxford, there was not a single preacher in his College, 
and very few in the University. He was a thorough Calvinist, and a 
most laborious preacher from place to place. Grindal gave him a prebend 
in York cathedral, and the rectory of Bolton Percy. He afterwards 
became sub-dean. His death took place in 16^7. 

2 See Strype's "Reformation," vol. i. pt. ii., p. 125. &c. 

io Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

of Bucer, mainly set aside, and bishops and clergy alike 
despised and detested them. Those prelates who, like 
Archbishop Parker, used the provisions of the new Act of 
Uniformity to enforce the attire, did so, not so much from 
preference for the apparel, as from a desire to maintain the 
authority of the Sovereign. Some of the objections 
urged against the use of these vestments may appear 
to us to be pertinacious and unreasonable. Let it, how- 
ever, be remembered that the nation was just emerging 
from an era of Popish domination in which ecclesiastical 
laws had been written in blood, and that the majority 
of those who now held livings were suspected to be but 
Romanists in disguise. Froude tells us: — cc The vast 
majority of the clergy, unambitious of self-sacrifice, or, it 
may be, acting under secret instructions and with a 
dispensation for perjury when hard pressed, abjured the 
Pope, retained their benefices, and laboured in secret for 
the cause which they seemed to desert. Out of 9,400 
persons holding cures of souls in various forms, less than 
200 refused to the last to comply with the statute, and 
resigned their livings. But several years passed before 
they could all be sworn. They evaded the visitation, 
or protected themselves in the house or behind the 
authority of some Catholic neighbour, too powerful for 
the commissioners to meddle with. They absented them- 
selves altogether from their parishes ; they closed their 
churches, rather than consent to read there what they 
considered heretical ; and Elizabeth, except in the towns 
where the Protestants were strong, was compelled to bear 
with them till she sat more firmly on the throne." 1 It 
was natural, therefore, that decided Protestants should 
regard with extreme disfavour all that tended to restore 
the old and hated ritual. But the matter went farther. 
1 Froude's "History of England," vol. vii., p. 89. 

Development. 1 1 

In the eye of the Puritans, religion was too subtle and 
sacred a matter to be confounded with mere ceremony. 
It was the assent of the understanding, the adoration 
of the soul, the obedience of the life. They could not 
consent to receive the husk in the place of the kernel. 
Many of them would have refused the vestments had 
their adoption been a matter of indifference ; but when 
their use became a necessity, the absolute law of a carnal 
commandment ; and when men who, however high in 
office, had no true conception of a heaven-born religion 
were endeavouring to enforce their inadequate impressions 
on those whose minds were expanding with all the 
grandeur of a Divine life, the whole religious nature 
rebelled. In the early days of Christianity the martyrs 
had refused to offer the single grain of incense, not 
because it was incense, but because it was an offering to 
a false God. In like manner these habits were now 
rejected, not merely because of the uselessness of the 
garments themselves, but from the resolution to keep 
the commandments of God inviolate from human admix- 
ture. Was it right to constitute such a trifle as a cap 
or a hood a test of fitness for the ministry ? Was the 
observance or non-observance of so paltry a ceremony 
to be the measure of the reality of a man's religion, and 
the condition which authorized or disqualified him as 
a true servant of Jesus Christ ? 

The vestments were not, however, the only point on 
which objection was taken to the proposed uniformity. 
No small dislike was felt to a liturgy as tending to cramp 
the utterances of God's Spirit from within. And not even 
the grand diction of the Book of Common Prayer could 
reconcile Christian freed-men to a state which they regarded 
as one of spiritual vassalage. Not to speak of the cross in 
baptism, the marriage-ring, kneeling at the sacrament, the 

1 2 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

veil used in the churching of women, and the use of 
musical instruments in public worship, — still graver objec- 
tions were taken to the prelatical titles ; to the reading of 
the Apocrypha; to sponsors in baptism, the disfavour 
shown to married clergy, the assertion of the real presence 
in the Sacrament, the want of due discipline, and the denial 
of a large liberty in matters not essential to salvation. 

The state of religion throughout the kingdom was at 
this time deplorable. Many churches were closed ; the 
inhabitants of not a few large districts never heard a 
sermon ; carelessness and neglect prevailed on every hand. 
Yorkshire, as might be imagined, furnished no exception. 
Many parishes were utterly uncared for. Sermons were 
extremely rare. Many parish clerks were unable to read. 
Pedlars sold their wares in the church-porches during 
Divine service. It frequently happened that morrice- 
dancers, &c, in anticipation of the amusements which 
were to follow the prayers, came into the churches in 
their motley garb, thus withdrawing the attention of the 
worshippers from their devotions, or dealing out scoffs, 
jests, and wanton gestures among the audience. cc Many 
there are," said Sandys, when a little later he preached 
before the Queen, cc that hear not a sermon in seven years, 
I might say in seventeen ; their blood will be required at 
somebody's hand." 

This state of things roused the zeal of all the pious 
clergy. They formed themselves into societies for volun- 
tary religious services, in which preaching occupied a con- 
spicuous place, and the meetings were hence designated 
" prophesyings." (i Cor. xiv. ji.) The practice began 
at Northampton, and soon reached the northern counties. 
Grindal, a.d. 1574, threw himself warmly into the move- 
ment, and these preachings, in some districts, were termed, 
after him, cc Grindalizings." 

Development. 1 3 

Lectures of this kind were set up at Manchester and 
in Halifax, a town early distinguished for its adherence to 
Puritanism. When objections arose to the practice, and 
Elizabeth herself expressed her dislike, Grindal thus 
vindicated it in a sermon before the court : — 

cc What bred the rebellion in the north ? l Was it not 
Papistry and the ignorance of God's Holy Word, and 
through want of preaching ? And in the times of that 
rebellion were not men of all estates that made profession 
of the Gospel most ready to offer themselves for your 
defence? Insomuch that one poor parish in Yorkshire, 
which, by continual preaching, had been better instructed 
than the rest — Halifax I mean — was ready to bring three or 
four thousand men into the field to serve against the said 
rebels. How can your Majesty have a more lively trial 
and experience of the contrary effects of much preaching 
and little or no preaching, the one working most unnatural 
disobedience and rebellion, the other a most faithful 
obedience ! " 

Notwithstanding this argument, however, Elizabeth was 
still unconvinced, and continued intent upon suppressing 
these prophesyings. The Puritans began to be regarded 
as enemies, not of the Church only, but also of the State. 
Preaching was, in fact, in those days what the press is in 
these, an object of terror to those who desired to rule by 
prerogative and with a strong hand ; and she, who held 
that one or two preachers were enough for a county, 
exerted her utmost authority to stop such dangerous 
influences. But her prohibitions roused the conscience 
of Grindal who, in 1575, had been raised to the See of 
Canterbury, and he ventured to address to the Queen an 

1 Norton's Rebellion, a.d. 1569. Defoe, "Tour through Great 
Britain," tells us that no Jess than 1 2,000 men went in arms from this 
single parish. 

14 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

honest and earnest remonstrance ; declining, moreover, to 
enforce the royal prohibition. The daughter of Henry 
VIII. fired up at such resistance. The archbishop was at 
once sequestered during six months from the exercise of 
his functions, and confined to his own house. Though he 
afterwards besought the Royal clemency, his submission 
was deemed so unsatisfactory that he remained in disgrace, 
and was not restored to his office till within a year of his 
death. The prophesyings were arbitrarily terminated. The 
prelate never recovered the Queen's favour. 

Grindal was succeeded at York by Edwin. Sandys, D.D., 
a.d. 1576. This clergyman, who had been successively 
Bishop of Worcester and London, a favourer of Lady Jane 
Grey, and one of the translators of the Bishops' Bible, had 
taken part in the earlier Puritan movements, and had been 
an exile for his religion. But he had become gradually 
estranged from his party as their demands for reformation 
became more distinct and definite, and his character was 
unconciliatory in a high degree. Yet he does not appear 
to have approved of all the proceedings against the 
Puritans, since he declared in his will that he believed the 
processes tended rather to destruction than to reformation. 
His treatment of his former friends was, however, so sharp 
and severe as to dishonour his religious memory. 

Sandys' first proceedings were taken against the Dean of 
Durham, whom he attempted to displace because he had 
not been episcopally ordained ; though, by the statute of 
13 Eliz., the ordination of foreign Reformed churches 
was at this period acknowledged. 

If, however, Elizabeth needed an instrument qualified by 
earnestness and ardour to become a Protestant inquisitor, 
and one to whom scruples of tenderness were little known, 
she found such an one in John Whitgift, a Yorkshireman 
by descent, who, after having been Bishop of Worcester, 

Development. 1 5 

was, on the death of Grindal, elevated to the see of 
Canterbury. Whitgift had, indeed, shown some sym- 
pathy with the earlier Puritan movements, but had latterly 
become estranged from that body ; and, disgusted by some 
of their more unscrupulous attacks, had passed on to 
unrelenting opposition. 1 

At the instigation of this cc active " prelate (as Strype 
calls him), the whole apparatus of the Court of High 
Commission was put into motion to crush the dangerous 
religionists. Some doctrines recently put forth by the 
younger members of that body had, indeed, greatly 
alarmed the court, and furnished a plausible argument 
for their suppression. They began now to argue that 
the whole system of Prelacy was at variance with the 
Word of God; that the minister ought to be only the 
choice of the people ; that cathedral property should be 
employed for secular purposes ; and, direr doctrine than 
all, that the civil magistrate ought not to be obeyed in 
spiritual matters. Presbyterian churches had begun to 
be formed in private. Cartwright had openly proclaimed 
at Oxford the unscripturalness of the Anglican hierarchy ; 
and, when driven abroad, had endeavoured by his writings 
to give additional effect to his former sentiments. In con- 
sequence, the thunder-cloud of persecution again rolled 
over the land, and the faces of those who had been here- 
tofore friends grew strange to each other in the blackness 
of the storm. Under pretence of restoring the discipline 
of the church, Whitgift and his associates endeavoured to 
annihilate all spiritual religion. Their success, however, 
was by no means equal to their zeal. The flame of true 
piety increased by means of the torrent of persecution 

1 He was descended from the family of the Whitgifts, of Whitgift, in 
the East Riding. He himself was born at Grimsby. Middleton's " Biogr. 
Evang." vol. ii., p. 325. 

1 6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

which was employed to quench it. The Queen's personal 
tastes would have drawn her and her subjects nearer to the 
old religion. She had replaced the crucifix in her chapel ; 
she was inclined to the use of images ; she favoured the 
doctrine of the real presence ; she loved an imposing 
solemnity in the celebration of worship ; she, with her 
own reluctance to married life, frowned down every 
clergyman who departed from celibacy, as many then did. 
But she was continually thwarted and frustrated. fC The 
Church of England, as by law constituted, gave no 
pleasure to the earnest of any way of thinking. To the 
ultra-Protestants it was no better than Romanism ; to the 
Catholics or partial Catholics it was in schism from the 
communion of Christendom ; while the great middle 
party, the common-sense of the country, of whom Eliza- 
beth was the representative, were uneasy and dissatisfied. 
They could see no defined principle in the new institution 
which had borne the test of time, and they were watching, 
with an anxiety which they did not care to conceal, both 
the extravagancies of the Protestant refugees from the 
Continent and the recovering energy of the Catholic 
powers abroad." 1 

Nothing, however is more delusive to its originators 
than an era of persecution once begun. As he who 
ascends a mountain thinks often that he sees before him 
the last pinnacle, though when he has gained it, it is but 
to behold another stretching up beyond; so, while it is 
the constant feeling of the persecutor that his object is 
almost gained— that to relax his firmness would now be 
ruin, and that a brief persistence will be the road to 
victory, he is pursuing all the time the course of an 
almost certain self-destruction. 

1 Froude, vol. ix , p. 172. 

Development. 1 7 

Soon after Whitgift's appointment to the Archbishopric, 
he issued a series of articles for the regulation of the 
church. 1. For the more stringent execution of existing 
laws against recusants. 1. For the putting down of 
preaching and reading, &c, in any family <c whereunto 
others do resort." 3. For the prohibition of any teaching 
by one who did not, four times a year, <c say service and 
minister sacraments according to the Book of Common 
Prayer." 4. For the wearing of vestments. 5. For the 
prevention of all preaching, except by a priest or deacon. 
6. For the requisition from all ministers of a subscription 
declaring the Queen cc to have the sovereignty and rule 
over all manner of persons born within her realms, and 
of what estate, ecclesiastical and temporal, soever they 
be," &c. Also, that "the Book of Common Prayer 
containeth nothing contrary to the Word of God ; " and 
that the Articles are <c agreeable to the Word of God." 
These points are a sufficient specimen of the whole. 1 

In the year 1586 this zealous Archbishop proposed to 
his clergy in Convocation a benevolence to the Queen, in 
addition to a subsidy already granted. This act was 
initiated by the Convocation of York, who gave 6s. in 
the pound out of ecclesiastical livings as a subsidy, and 
3s. in the pound as a benevolence, payable in three years. 
In acknowledging this contribution on the Queen's part, 
Archbishop Whitgift took occasion to warn the arch- 
deacons against " disorderly clerks," and exhorted them 
to take care cc that preachers preach to edifying, not 
matters of state." 

As the powers conferred on Whitgift and the Bishops 
extended over the whole kingdom, Yorkshire of course 
suffered its share of their severity. 

1 Strype's "Life of Whitgift," vol. i. pp. 229, 230. 


1 8 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

In the year 1586, Robert Moore, Rector of Guiseley, 
was cited before Sandys and the High Commissioners. 
On his first appearance the prosecution failed. In the 
next instance twenty charges were brought against him, 
none of which were substantiated except his unwillingness 
to use the Book of Common Prayer. For this offence he 
was threatened with imprisonment and ruin, but escaped 
by promising to conform to the ritual. On a third 
citation, an attempt was made to force him to recant his 
Protestant opinions. Though he refused to do this, he 
escaped by some means the severities of the tribunal, and 
lived to an advanced age. He is represented as a man 
of singular uprightness and purity, though described by 
Strype as <c very wilful and stubborn." 

In the next year (1587), John Wilson, 1 a licensed 
preacher and faithful minister at Skipton, was summoned 
before the court charged with cc disorders, contempt, and 
disobedience." After a vexatious delay, during which he 
was bound in heavy recognizances, he came before Sandys, 
at Bishopsthorpe, for trial. He was accused of having 
exercised the office of the ministry without warrant. He 
replied that he had been ordained deacon, and had preached 
by the Bishop's own authority. He was further charged 
with having refused the surplice, with omitting some of 
the prayers, especially at the burial of the dead, and with 
neglecting the cross in baptism. He was then imprisoned 
till he could be brought up for another hearing. On this 
occasion Sandys was violent and brow-beating, calling him 
cc stubborn," " an arrogant fool," cc an arrogant Puritan," 
and he declared that Wilson should not be liberated till 
he had publicly acknowledged his offences. Wilson was 
firm and brave, and resolutely refused any apology ; he 

1 Brook's " Puritans." vol. i. p. 351; from original MSS. 

Development. 1 9 

only undertook to preach no more within the Archbishops 
province. He therefore retired to London, where, instead 
of being more secure, he at once fell under the persecution 
of Whitgift and Aylmer (Bishop of London), and was 
finally suspended from the exercise of his ministry. 

It appears that another person was incarcerated at the 
same time, charged with holding cc night-assemblies," i. e. 
private meetings for singing, prayer, and hearing God's 
Word. Simultaneously Horrocks, Vicar of Kildwick, was 
cited for having allowed Wilson to preach in his church, 
and was imprisoned in York Castle till he should make a 
public recantation of his errors. 

In the same year, 1587, Giles Wigginton, 1 Vicar of 
Sedberg, fell under the lash of the ecclesiastical law. This 
clergyman had been educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, at a time when Whitgift was its master, and several 
passages had occurred which proved the dislike of the 
future prelate to Wigginton and his creed. Whitgift 
subsequently pursued Wigginton into Yorkshire and 
instigated the Archbishop of York to promote measures 
against him. Sandys accordingly reported Wigginton to 
the Bishop of Chester (in whose diocese Sedberg was) as 
one who laboured " not to build but to pull down, and, by 
what means he can, to overthrow the state ecclesiastical." 
Wigginton was deprived of his ministry, Colecloth, an 
immoral man, being substituted. But through the influ- 
ence of Sir Walter Mildmay and others, Wigginton was 
reinstated. He continued subject, however, to the per- 
secutions of Whitgift, who caused him to be imprisoned, 
and treated him, as the victim complained, more like a 
Turk, or a dog, than like a man and a minister of Jesus 
Christ. By such hardships he was brought to death's 

1 Brook, vol. i. p. 418 ; from original MSS. 

C 2 

20 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

door, and being unable, from illness, to answer to a 
citation from Lambeth, was again deprived and degraded, 
though powerful intercession was made in his favour. 
When, on his return to Sedberg, he was denied the pulpit, 
he preached in private to many followers. His popularity 
roused once more the opposition of Whitgift. Wigginton 
was apprehended at Boroughbridge, whence he was carried 
fifty miles, in the midst of a severe winter, to Lancaster 
Castle, to be imprisoned with condemned felons. He 
appealed to Sir Walter Mildmay ; but as he was at that 
time suspected of being one of the Authors of the cc Martin 
Mar-Prelate " tracts (though he denied it), the intercession 
of that nobleman proved in vain. Wigginton (who was 
in correspondence with some of the most violent of the 
younger Puritans, though probably not engaged in any 
conspiracy, as was alleged,) was compelled to linger out 
long years in prison, and was at last, after severe suffering, 
banished from his native land. A hundred and forty of 
his people were excommunicated for being his hearers. 

Such was the effect of Royal law intruding into the 
domains of the Lord Jesus Christ, and driving from 
His altars the ministers who were most zealous in His 

Some doggrel lines, which have survived from these 
times of persecution, appear to express what was. then a 
popular sentiment on the subject of such outrages. They 
are addressed to those noblemen and prelates who were 
their instigators : 

ff What is the cause why you suspend your painful brethren through the 

land ? 
Yea, some of them disgrace, displace, and leave their flocks to spoiling hand ! 
Is it because they will not preach, or would not labour as they ought ? 
Is it because their lives were bad, or their own gain and pleasure sought ? 
May God forbid that any such should, if detected of such sin ! 
What then's some cause you will pretend why you so rigorous have been ? 

Development. 1 1 

Forsooth they have not duly kept the orders in your prayer book, 
But left out crossing, or perhaps the ring in marriage, if you look; 
Or else it may be some refuse to call you gracious lords, indeed ; 
O these be monstrous sins, — sins that must be rooted out with speed ! 
But if a man might be so bold to ask your lordships in your ear, 
Why do you suffer swarms of such the names of ministers to bear, 
Who have no gifts to edify, — yea, men detect of wicked life — 
Drunkenness, whoremongers, usurers, whereof the county is full rife ? 
Yea, worse than these, — idolators, and some known conjurors by name, 
What answer could you make thereto, but blush for very shame ! " 1 

It is the misfortune of times of high excitement, that 
they urge susceptible minds beyond their wont, and that 
the charities of life are thus often grossly violated. It 
were well if an act of oblivion could be applied to many 
passages, even in the lives of good men, which have 
exposed their authors to the misconstruction of their 
enemies, and hindered the righteous cause they were 
designed to aid. The times of the Reformation furnished 
not a few such instances ; so also did the period which 
immediately succeeded. We have spoken of the tracts 
which bore the nom-de-guerre of cc Martin Mar-prelate." 
They were of the most exceptionable order of ecclesiastical 
controversy. They contained much truth, but they 
distilled much venom. Some of their titles may be given. 
" Diotrephes " — cc The lives and doings of English Popes." 
" Lambethisms " — u Have yee any work for a Cooper ? " 
cc More Work for a Cooper ;" in allusion to the Bishop of 
Winchester, whose name was Cooper ; " The Counter- 
poison," &c. Coarse, virulent, revengeful, these publica- 
tions did little to advance religion, but much to hinder it. 
Their appearance furnished to the ruling powers great 
matter of accusation against the religious party. But the. 
real authors were never discovered. 

1 MSS. in Dr. Williams's Library, 

22 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

Matthew Hutton, who in 1595 became Archbishop of 
York, was no violent enemy of the Puritans. For though 
he disclaimed being of that number, and spoke of himself 
as " misliking their phantastical zeal ;" yet, in a letter to 
Viscount Cranbourne, he made a wide distinction between 
them and the Romanists, and wished that the measures of 
repression adopted towards Protestants had been reserved 
for the Papists. 1 

We have mentioned the Religious Exercises which, at 
an early period, had been instituted at Halifax. In 1593, 
John Favour, D.C.L., was installed Vicar of that parish. 
Being himself a man of eminent piety, evangelical senti- 
ments and great energy, he devoted himself with zeal to 
advance the best interests of his extensive parish, and in 
order to this, promoted these prophesyings by all the 
means in his power. He is traditionally reported to have 
been cc a good Divine, a good Lawyer, and a good 
Physician," — a sentiment derived from his monumental 
inscription, yet extant : — " En Pastor, medicusque obiit ; 
jurisque peritus." He died March 10, 1623. 

The accession of James I., 1603, to the throne of 
England, seems to have revived these prophesyings, or, 
as they were now called, " Exercises." The death of 
Whitgift, in the same year, removed one of the great 
oppressors of the Puritans ; and though the Hampton 
Court Conference had been a very sinister omen, the 
Puritans of the North seem to have expected concessions 
from the Crown, and to have taken heart again. They 
derived, probably, not a little hope from the appointment 

1 Elizabeth commanded the Roman Catholics of York to be present 
at three sermons preached by this prelate. At the first, they behaved so 
obstreperously as to require to be forcibly silenced. At the third they 
stopped their ears. So much for authority in producing conviction. 
See Strype's "Whitgift," vol. i. p. 550. 

Development. 23 

of Tobias, or, as he was usually called, Toby, Matthews 
to the Archbishopric of York. He promoted the 
lectures which Grindal had begun. He was himself 
a most constant and laborious preacher, at a time when 
the preaching of prelates was extremely rare. It was he 
who, when Dean of Christ Church, had drawn up a 
petition to Elizabeth for the restoration of Grindal. 
Before his elevation to York, and whilst Bishop of 
Durham, he had usually preached from 60 to 80 sermons 
in the course of each year. When he became Archbishop 
he did likewise. Alexander Cooke, then Vicar of Leeds, 
said, addressing the Romanists, " Tobie Matthews, the 
Archbishop of York, preacheth more sermons in a year 
than you can prove hath been preached by all your Popes, 
from Pope Gregory the Great's days." 1 Between him 
and the Vicar of Halifax, Dr. Favour, there was a very 
intimate connection. Besides other appointments, Favour 
was his Chaplain ; and he dedicated to Matthews a work 
on Romanism, written, he tells us, under many difficulties, 
seeing he was engaged in preaching every Sunday, 
lecturing every day of the week, sitting on the bench 
as magistrate, and practising medicine. 1 Matthews was 

1 Middleton, " Biogr. Evang.," ii. 483. It may be worth while, how- 
ever, to compare the number given of Matthews' annual sermons with 
those of Oliver Heywood, taken from statistics furnished by himself. It 
appears that in one year (1686) he preached 184 times. Nor did this 
year greatly out-distance other years of his valuable life. In the course of 
thirty-five years he preached 4,208 sermons, being on an average 120 per 
year. The average would be higher, but that the estimate includes 
the last years of his life, when he could no longer preach so much as 

2 Watson's history relates the following : — " The Doctor, as an instance 
of the ignorance of the common people when the Bible was kept from 
them, tells us, at page 334, a story of a woman who, when she heard the 
Passion of Christ read in her own tongue, wept bitterly, and tenderly 
compassionated so great an outrage done to the Son of God; but, after 

24 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

much beloved by the Puritans of the North. When 
it was told him that one of them had prayed that the door 
of heaven might be shut against him, he laughed and said, 
cc No ; for those good men knew that if he were gone, 
the prophesyings would soon be put down." 1 

The Exercises in Halifax obtained great reputation. 
They were held on the last Wednesday in each month. 
Two sermons were preached on the same day. Preachers 
were often engaged from distant parts, and the congre- 
gations were very large. Favour supported two lecturers 
ut his own expense, Mr. Boys and Mr. Barlow, both 
of whom Heywood commends very highly. A little 
later, Henry Ramsden, then Vicar (1629), is spoken 
of by Wood as cc much resorted to for his edifying 
and puritanical sermons." Mr: Ault was afterwards 
lecturer. He removed to Bury, Lancashire. Joseph 
Lister mentions being present at an Exercise day, in 
Halifax, when a sermon was preached by Mr. Briscoe 
(probably a Congregationalist, afterwards ejected from 
Walmsley, Lancashire), when he says, " his words fell 
on me like a thunderbolt." 

These Exercises became popular in other towns than 
Halifax. Thoresby, the Leeds antiquarian, at a later 
period writes respecting them : — 

Sep. 4, 1703. "Perused a MS. relating to the town 
about a hundred years ago ; wherein pleased with the 
punishment of offenders during the time of Divine 
service ; order of Sessions (from the Justices at large, 

some pause and recollection of her spirits, she asked where this was done ? 
and when it was answered many thousand miles hence, at Jerusalem, and 
about fifteen hundred years ago ; ' then ' (says she) * it was so far off" and 
so long ago, by the grace of God it might prove a lie ;' and therein she 
comforted herself." — History of Halifax, p, 3 -re. 
1 " Magnalia," lib. III. 

Development. 25 

for the town was not then incorporated) for suppressing dis- 
orders on the Sabbath, and the encouragement of Exercises. 
Then were the churches so full that they were constrained 
to build new seats and lofts c because they had no room 
anywhere in the church to sit in/ are the express words 
of the famous Mr. Robert Cook, Vicar of Leeds. Oh, 
thrice happy days ! " l 

Sheffield was also a centre of Puritanism. During 
the reign of Elizabeth it had possessed a most faithful 
and diligent Pastor in Mr. Holland, then Vicar. His 
successor, Thomas Toller, held the living for thirty-seven 
years, and did much to promote the spread of Evangelical 
religion. Mention is also subsequently made of Thomas 
Birbeck, afterwards ejected from Ashworth, Stanley 
Gower, afterwards one of the Westminster Assembly, 
William Bagshaw, " the Apostle of the Peak," assistant 
to Fisher when Vicar, and resident in the family of 
Sir John Bright, and many others. cc These persons," 
says Hunter, cc diverted the hearts of the laity from 
the rites and customs of the English Church, and these " 
(afterwards) cc adhered in their turn to the ejected, and 
formed religious societies under them." 2 

Hull was not without its share in this spiritual pro- 
vision. John Canne was a zealous and learned Divine. 
He was, however, banished from the town, although he 
declares he never knew the cause. cc I went apart," says 
he, " as Elias did, into the wilderness, and as I lay under 
hedges and in holes, my soul in bitterness breathed forth 
many sad complaints before the Lord." He afterwards 
succeeded Mr. Ainsworth as Pastor of the Church in 
Holland. Rev. Andrew Marvel, father of the well-known 
patriot, was master of the Grammar School and Lecturer 

1 Thoresby's Diary, vol. i. p. 448. 2 Hunter's HalJamshire. 

16 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

at Trinity Church in 1624. His son describes him as " a 
Conformist, though not an eager one." He was drowned 
in crossing the Humber. * 

York was much favoured in the persons of Christopher 
Cartwright (Author of several valuable works, cc Tracts on 
the Decalogue," &c), Thomas Calvert (Vicar of Trinity 
in the King's Court), and Ayscough at Allhallows (where 
the celebrated John Shawe was Lecturer.) Burchell was 
minister of St. Martin's, Micklegate, and was much perse- 
cuted as a Puritan. The then dean was a man of careless 
gaiety, and his wife being a pious woman, Burchell preached 
often in his house, as the safest refuge from persecution. 

The laborious and evangelical Elkanah Wales, of 
Pudsey, drew great multitudes to his preaching. Indeed, 
he was supposed to be more useful to strangers than to even 
his own flock. Colyer of Bradford, Lister of Wakefield, 
Samuel Wales of Morley, Joshua Hill of Bramley, 
Edward Hill of " Hothersfield," Styles, Vicar of Ponte- 
fract, afterwards of Leeds, and others, are enumerated as 
energetic preachers. Puritanism was indeed well repre- 
sented in these northern parts, and it promoted not a 
little distaste to the rubric and ceremonies of the Church. 

Hitherto we have seen Yorkshire Puritanism as it 
existed in incidental and somewhat indefinite forms. It 
now assumed a more distinct character. 

The numerous evils and vexatious penalties inflicted 
on religion by the civil power had led men at length to 
question the principle itself in which such outrages 
originated, and the inquiry arose — an inquiry fraught with 
most momentous interests — whether the union of the 

1 He was in a boat with a wedding party when a sudden squall upset 
the craft. Marvel had just time to throw his gold-headed cane to some 
friends who were on the quay, saying, " Ho ! ho ! for Heaven," and 
requesting the cane to be given to his son. 

Development. 27 

civil and ecclesiastical functions were not in itself a 
pregnant error, and whether it were not the duty of good 
men to seek a separation of powers which could only 
be conjoined with such fatal consequences ? Long before 
this period, Robert Browne had published " A treatise 
of Reformation without tarrying for any, and the wicked- 
ness of those preachers who will not reform them and 
their charge, because they will tarry till the magistrate 
command and compel them/' Though the variable 
character and intolerant spirit of the author had made 
godly men averse from acknowledging such a leader, 
his principles sank into many thoughtful minds. The 
" Brownists " arose as a sect ; and the system soon became 
dignified by the names of better men than its first modern 
promulgator. These tenets were set forth by Thacker, 
Copping, Barrowe, Greenwood, Wright, Penry, and their 
" separatist " adherents. Some of them underwent per- 
petual banishment, some perished in prison, and some 
suffered death. Attention, however, was by such means 
awakened to these novel views. In them was found the 
true solution of the ecclesiastical position otherwise hope- 
lessly confused. These principles vindicated the dignity 
of the Lord Jesus Christ. They eminently fostered the 
now increasing spirit of English liberty. They rated the 
Christian man at his true value. And they promoted the 
social element which is inseparable from real Christianity. 1 

It is not our province to trace the development of 
Independency except in the North, or to record the 
manner in which Bancroft (Whitgift's successor) im- 
prisoned and banished Puritans and Brownists, or drove 
them into voluntary exile. We must confine ourselves 
to a more limited sphere. 

1 Sir W. Raleigh speaks in 1580 of 20,000 Brownists in England. 

28 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

Let us fix upon the period when John Robinson, the 
father of modern Congregationalism, left the Established 
Church, relinquishing a living near Yarmouth. At that 
time, 1602, a number of persons, sorely oppressed by 
the ecclesiastical courts, and looking upon the ceremonies 
of the Establishment as inconsistent with New Testament 
simplicity, began to form themselves into societies, which, 
in contradistinction from cc Parochial," were called " Con- 
gregational " churches. This name was in accordance 
with the XIX. Article of the Church of England, which 
declares : — cc The visible Church of Christ is a congre- 
gation of faithful men, in the which the pure Word 
of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ad- 
ministered according to Christ's ordinance in all those 
things that of necessity are requisite to the same." 
Robinson, though at first a Brownist, came to regard the 
sentiments of Browne as capable of considerable modifica- 
tion. He did not, like him, deny the Church of England 
to be a true church, though he denounced the imposition 
of her forms, her prelacy, and her unscriptural com- 
munion. But he argued that a church necessarily 
possessed power to choose its officers and to regulate 
its own affairs, and that it is "independent" of all 
authority, whether of classes, synods, convocations, or 
councils. cc We hold and affirm," he declared, cc that 
a company consisting but of two or three gathered by a 
covenant to walk in the ways of God is a church, and 
so hath the whole power of Christ. Two or three, 
thus gathered together, have the same right with two 
or three thousand ; neither the smallness of their numbers 
nor the meanness of their persons can prejudice their 
rights." Yet he admitted that any church might call in 
the aid of other churches to reconcile differences and to 
give advice, as a matter of free consent. 

Development. 29 

These principles are still avowed by Robinson's follow- 
ers. They glory in them. And, as expressive of them, 
they call themselves cc Congregationalists " to this day. 

As the North of England seemed to some of these 
persecuted men a safer place than the South, a church of 
this order was cc gathered " at Gainsborough, cc near the 
joining borders of Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and 
Yorkshire." The pastor of this church was John Smyth 
(a disciple of Francis Johnson, who had just been liberated 
from prison on condition of his emigration). Smyth had 
been imprisoned in the Marshalsea, but had been allowed 
to retire to the North. Robinson became a private 
member, " worthily reverenced for the grace of God that 
was in him." In 1606 most of the members of this 
church, with Smyth their pastor, emigrated to Holland. 
After their departure (about 1607), a similar church was 
formed at Scrooby, 1 a mile and a-half from Bawtry, on 
the very edge of Yorkshire. The Great North Road at 
that time ran through the village. The congregation 
worshipped in the Manor or Great House. This build- 
ing, surrounded by a moat, had been once a sporting 
palace of the Archbishops of York, but was now occu- 
pied by William Brewster, and was used by him in his 
office as postmaster, and probably as a general posting- 
house on the North Road. The mansion had been 
formerly leased out by Archbishop Sandys (a great 
nepotist) to one of his sons, 2 whose tenant William 

1 Hunter's " Founders of New Plymouth," passim. 

2 Sandys had fought hard for the manor of Scrooby as well as for that 
of Southwell, which persons of some influence had endeavoured to wrest 
from the archbishopric, the queen herself favouring them. He declared 
that the yielding them would " highly displease God, kill his conscience, 
and spoil the church of York," and that rather than yield he would resign. 
See Strype's "Whitgift," vol. i. p. 546. 

30 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

Brewster was. The neighbourhood abounded in ecclesi- 
astical establishments. Perhaps, as a consequence, many- 
were awakened to the errors of the system by which they 
were surrounded. Circumstances, apparently accidental, 
had brought several Puritan ministers into the vicinity, 
by whose teaching the doctrines of life and salvation 
obtained many converts. Bradford relates, "these poor 
people were so urged with apparitors and pursuivants and 
the Commission Courts, as truly their affliction was not 
small." Of this second church John Robinson was elected 
pastor. Baillie, the well-known Scotch Commissioner to 
the Westminster Assembly, says of him — he was "the 
most learned, polished, and modest spirit that ever that sect 
enjoyed." Clifton, the silenced Rector of Babworth, a 
village near by (married to a daughter of Mr. Cookridge, 
of Leeds), was teacher — cc a good and fatherly man," and 
a laborious and faithful minister, to whom many of his 
former congregation still clung. William Brewster was 
the elder of the church. One of the members of this 
little body was William Bradford, then a young man 
(afterwards Governor of New Plymouth). He was, as 
his name indicates, a Yorkshireman, born at Austerfield, 
where his baptismal register yet exists. 

The Scrooby congregation, like that at Gainsborough, 
looked forward to an asylum in Holland. The record 
of the Plymouth church states: — " This fall (1607) 
Messrs. Clifton and Robinson's church in the North of 
England, being extremely harassed, some cast into prison, 
some beset in their houses, some forced to leave their 
farms and families, they begin to fly over to Holland, 
with their reverend pastor, Mr. Clifton, for. purity of 
worship and liberty of conscience." 1 Their resolution 

1 Prince's " Chronological History of New England," p. 117. 

Development. 3 1 

was probably quickened by a fine of £20 levied upon 
three of their number for not answering a summons from 
the Ecclesiastical Court. They resolved to sell all their 
property (except some household goods and the looms 
which many of them were in the habit of using), and to 
seek subsistence elsewhere. As, however, their intentions 
were suspected, escape was difficult. The ports were 
watched very narrowly, and strict orders were given to 
intercept them. They therefore resolved to divide them- 
selves into two parties, for easier embarkation ; one party, 
with Brewster and Bradford, departing from Boston ; the 
other, under the direction of Robinson, making sail from 
the Humber. The Boston party was very unfortunate. 
They hired a ship, but the master did not keep his 
appointment. He arrived in the night instead of the 
day, and having already come to an understanding with 
the authorities, delivered the poor passengers, who had 
already embarked, into their hands. They were accord- 
ingly carried back in boats to the shore ; the men were 
treated with indignity, and the women with rudeness. 
Some of them were confined in prison for many months. 
On the other hand, the Humber party were not much 
more successful. A Dutch captain had agreed to carry 
them over to Holland. They planned to embark from 
a large common between Grimsby and Hull, where they 
would not be under the observation of any town. The 
women and children were to reach the spot by boat, and 
the men by land. The boat arrived before the Dutch 
vessel had appeared. As the females were suffering much 
from sickness (for the sea was rough), the boat was carried 
up into a small creek, and the passengers landed. When 
the ship arrived, as it did the next morning, the ebb tide 
had left the boat aground. The captain sent his boat, 
that no time might be lost, to take the men to his vessel. 

21 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

It went back for more. In the mean time, he, from the 
deck, saw a great number of horse and foot advancing 
to the body who were still on shore. Apprehensive of 
danger, he weighed anchor, and as the wind was favour- 
able, notwithstanding the remonstrances of his passengers, 
made his course for Zealand. 

The situation of the forsaken women was desolate in 
the extreme. They saw themselves cut off from their 
husbands — their hopes of escape being frustrated ; whilst 
their poor children were crying and shivering with cold. 
Armed men dragged them before the magistrates. But 
who could deal with such a defenceless crowd ? Their 
patient endurance so won upon the hearts of the by- 
standers as to gain for them no little sympathy, and to 
advance the cause in which they were sufferers. Their 
leader was Robinson himself, who had remained behind, 
and who cared for them with a father's affection. 

In the mean time the vessel, having put to sea, 
encountered a severe storm, which lasted for fourteen 
days. During half of this time the peril was imminent. 
In this danger, the tranquil and assured demeanour of the 
Puritans showed their unshaken trust in God, and infused 
courage into the hearts of the crew. They ultimately 
arrived at Holland in safety. (1608.) Some of those 
who had been left behind became disheartened by these 
misadventures, and resolved to remain in their native land. 
But the majority persevered in their purpose, and in 1608, 
succeeded in arriving at Amsterdam, whence they after- 
wards removed to Leyden. Twelve years afterwards the 
Mayflower transported most of these, then toi souls, to 
America. They landed at Cape Cod, which Raleigh had 
discovered in 1603. Well might. Robinson say when 
negociating with Sir E. Sandys for the transatlantic 
passage, f< It is not with us as with other men whom small 

Development, 33 

things can discourage, or small discontentments cause to 
wish ourselves home again." 1 The poor Christians were, 
as Cotton describes them, "consumed by deep poverty, 
loaded with reproaches, despised and afflicted by all." z 
Such were the men known as the Pilgrim Fathers, the 
founders of a mighty nation ! 

The injuries done to the consciences of the English 
Puritans were at this time increased by an edict which filled 
up the measure of James I.'s infatuation. On his return 
from Scotland, in i6f5, the king stayed for awhile at 
Houghton Tower, Lancashire. Whilst here, it was repre- 
sented to him that the adherence to Popery of many of 
the old families in that county was mainly due to his sub- 
jects having been debarred from the reasonable recreations 
to which they had been used after morning service on the 
Lord's Day and holidays. His Majesty listened with 
eagerness to these statements, and on his return to Green- 
wich, issued (16 1 8) an edict, drawn up by Bishop Morton, 
authorizing the observance of certain amusements on 
Sundays, — such as dancing, archery, May-games ; whilst 
others, as bull and bear baiting, &c, were interdicted. The 
measure was not at this time carried into full effect ; it 
remained in abeyance, like some explosive material, to 
become destructive at a future season. 

Many of the Clergy declined to publish cc The Book of 
Sports." Among these was Abbot, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, a mild and moderate man. After his death, he was 
succeeded by one (1633) whose name will ever remain 
famous in the annals of Puritan oppression. This was 
William Laud. 

At his instigation, Charles I. (who had now succeeded 
to the throne) republished cc The Book of Sports." It 

1 Prince's " Chronological History," p. 14.3. 

2 Cotton's "Reply to Williams," p. 119. 

34 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

was one of a series of measures by which the intolerant 
prelate designed to uproot Puritanism, and to set up in its 
stead a system partaking largely of the nature of Popery, 
though without the Pope himself at its head; a system 
redundant of pageantry and religious frippery ; substituting 
church forms for vital and spiritual religion ; well adapted 
to a time when wealth had produced luxury, and had 
paved the way for indifference to all vital truth. Such 
was the origin of <c Ritualism ;" a manifestation neither 
standing upon a New Testament foundation on the one 
hand, nor on the authority of Popes and Councils on 
the other ; mainly self-constituted and self-appointed ; full 
of Romanistic longings which it dares not gratify, but 
strongly appealing to the tastes and sensuousness of its 
human worshippers. The wheel of time goes round and 
brings in its revolution the old notches to modern view. 
Nonconformists have, in this nineteenth century, to fight 
again the battle of their forefathers in the seventeenth. 

When cc The Book of Sports " was reprinted, the King 
commanded its publication in all the parish churches. 
Many of the Puritans again refused to read it, exposing 
themselves to all consequences ; some read it and followed 
it by the fourth Commandment ; calling upon their congre- 
gations to judge between the two. And now the enormi- 
ties of the Star Chamber and the High Commission were 
revived. During ten years Laud enforced his system with 
unsparing severity. 

Toby Matthews was succeeded in his Archbishopric by 
Monteigne, and in 1632 by Neile, a fast friend of Laud. 
Little favour was to be expected by Puritans from his 
administration. The severe measures now adopted drove 
many of them from their native and beloved shores. 

Among these was Ezekiel Rogers, at one time chaplain 
to the pious Sir Francis Barrington, who had presented 

Development. 35 

him with the living of Rowley, E.R, A numerous 
congregation was collected by his ministry. After labour- 
ing for thirty years, Rogers was silenced for noncon- 
formity, but was allowed to nominate a successor. As, 
however, this successor declined to read from his place the 
censure passed on Rogers, he too was suspended. Rogers 
offered the shelter of his house to one of the martyrs of 
Laud's persecution, Rev. Thomas Shepard, of Earl's-coln, 
and procured him a position in the house of Sir Richard 
Darley, at Buttercrambe, nine miles from York. This 
appointment proved a source of great spiritual benefit to 
Sir Richard's family. Subsequently (1638), Rogers set 
sail from Hull for New England with many of his 
Puritan friends, and formed a settlement, which he called 
"Rowley," in memory of his former home. After under- 
going many successive bereavements and severe trials, he 
died, in the year 1660, at the age of sixty. 

Another emigrant was Matthew Mitchell, a native of 
Halifax. He took with him his son Jonathan, also born 
in Halifax (1624). Cotton Mather says, with some 
touch of the bathos, that though the precise day of the 
birth of this child is unknown, cc we need no horoscope to 
fix the day, since God the Father was in the horoscope, 
Christ in the mid-heaven, the Spirit in the sixth house, 
repentance, faith, and love, in the eighth, and in the 
twelfth an eternal happiness, where no Satan can dart any 
malignant rays." This emigration took place in the year 
1635. Jonathan Mitchell became eminent as a pastor at 
Cambridge, U.S. 

Mention may be also made of Peter Saxton, M.A., a 
native of Bramley, and rector of Edlington, celebrated as 
a Hebrew scholar, who, disliking the habits and discipline 
of the Established Church, left for New England in the 
year 1 640. The unsettled state of things there, however, 

d 2 

36 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

induced him to return. A violent storm on his passage 
homeward alarmed the crew, who came trembling to him. 
fearing instant death. Saxton was found in a state of 
transport on the deck, stretching out his hands to heaven, 
and saying, in the Yorkshire dialect, " Hey for heaven ! 
hey for heym ! " 1 This pious man became (in 1646) vicar 
of Leeds, where he remained till his death, 1651. (Palmer 
has erred in classing him among the ejected ministers of 

Of Richard Denton, once curate of Coley, Mather 
says: — <c He was a little man, yet he had a great soul.'* 
He was a Yorkshireman by birth, but, not being able to 
conform to the Book of Sports, he emigrated to New 
England, but returned to die in Essex. 

Joseph Lister, in his "Historical Narrative," thus refers 
to this period : — 

"About this time, that is, in the year 1639, I ^4-°y and 
1 64 1, many good ministers and Christians among the 
Puritans reflected upon the times with many sad and fore- 
boding thoughts, concluding that Popery was likely to be 
set up, and the light of the Gospel put out. Many ministers 
were silenced, and great numbers for three or four years 
past were posting away to New England, and many of 
these, both men and women, that I myself knew ; and sad 
apprehensions remained with those that stayed behind." z 

Whilst some of the Puritans were thus emigrating to 
escape the persecutions of Laud and his party, others were 
suffering the penalties of nonconformity at home. 

Among these was Henry Jessey, 1633, a native of 
West Rowton, in Cleveland, afterwards vicar of Aughton, 
near York. His predecessor, Alder, had been removed 
for nonconformity. But this did not deter Jessey from 

1 Whiraker's "Loidis," p. 34. 2 "Historical Narrative/' p. 5. 

Development. 37 

treading in his steps. He not only refused to conform to 
the ceremonies, but took down a crucifix which stood in 
his church. He was, therefore, ejected. Subsequently, 
he was invited to become pastor of the congregational 
church which had been formed by Jacob in London. He 
ultimately adopted Baptist sentiments. He is described as 
" a pattern of meekness, learning, and goodness." 

Joshua Hill, Lecturer in the parish of Leeds, under 
the vicarage of Alexander Cook (brother to Robert, 
mentioned in page 25) l (probably Incumbent of Bramley), 
declined to wear the surplice, and refused to conform to the 
enjoined ritual. He was accordingly summoned before 
the Archbishop (Monteigne), but death set him free 
before the summons was served. 

William Styles, M.A., was Vicar of Pontefract. He 
was prosecuted in the High Commission Court for 
omitting the cross in baptism, and escaped only through 
the powerful intercession employed by Alexander Cook 
with the Archbishop. He subsequently (1642) suc- 
ceeded Rev. A. Marvel in the vicarage of Hessel, near 
Hull, but was afterwards removed for not taking the 
engagement. 2 With the consent of Robinson, the ex- 
Vicar, he was preferred to the living of Leeds. 

Mention is made, at this time, of Lady Bowes, after- 
wards, by marriage, Lady D'Arcy, who, compassionating 
the sufferings of the Puritans, expended £1,000 per 
annum in supporting those who were deprived of their 
livings. She rescued many of them from prison, and 
afterwards sustained them in remote places, where they 
would be less exposed to ecclesiastical persecution, and 
where Evangelical labours were specially required. 

1 Both Robert and Alexander Cook were successive Vicars of Leeds. 

2 He was, however, allowed to remain till the winter was past. 
Whitaker's " Loidis," p. 35. 

38 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

We have referred to John Shawe, M.A., a man of note 
in Puritan history, as lecturer at All-hallows, York. 
After one sermon, he was summoned by the Archbishop 
(Neile), who at first began to deal roughly with him ; 
but after hearing that he was Chaplain to Philip, Earl 
of Pembroke, then Lord Chamberlain, Neile told him he 
had nothing against him, but that he had heard he was 
a rich man, and was brought in by Vaux, the Mayor 
of York, to head the Puritans against him. cf But (said 
he) I tell you, I will break Vaux and the whole Puritan 

Many other sufferers were natives of Yorkshire, 
though they did not hold benefices within the county. 
Thomas Taylor, D.D., born at Richmond, afterwards 
fellow and lecturer of Christ Church, Cambridge, was 
silenced and placed under the threat of degradation for 
declaring in a sermon that " in every age, some of those 
who ought to have been promoters of the Church's 
welfare have been its persecutors. " John Geree, M.A., 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, was under the censure 
of his bishop (Goodman) for the non-observance of 
certain ceremonies. Jeremiah Whitaker, M.A., a native 
of Wakefield, afterwards one of the Assembly of Divines, 
narrowly escaped severe consequences for refusing to read 
the Book of Sports in his church at Stretton. 

Another Yorkshireman was Henry Burton, whose 
sufferings attracted so much public attention as to pave 
the way for the downfall of Laud himself. Burton was 
a native of Birstall, which he calls cc Birdsall, an obscure 
town in Yorkshire, and the more obscure, as having never 
had a preaching minister, time out of mind, long before 
I was born, nor (for aught I know) to this very day 
(1643)." After an University education, he became tutor 
to Prince Henry, and when he died, to Prince Charles 

Development. 39 

(afterwards Charles I). He was, however, set aside 
in favour of Neile (afterwards Archbishop of York), not 
without giving warning to the King, in a letter, that 
that clergyman and Laud were much inclined to Popery. 
Hence he became the object of Laud's inveterate hostility. 
His own spirit was high and controversial ; and he used 
the pulpit, being Rector of St. Matthew's, Friday- street, 
London, freely against the errors of the times. In 1626, 
having published against Popery a book entitled cc The 
baiting of the Pope's bull," he was summoned before the 
Council, Neile, then Bishop of Durham, and Laud, then 
of London, being assessors. In 1628, for a similar 
offence, he was prosecuted in the High Commission Court, 
and his book interdicted. Afterwards, for the publi- 
cation of Ci Babel no Bethel," he was apprehended, com- 
mitted to the Fleet, and bail was refused, contrary to law. 
He was also removed from his benefice, and his work was 
suppressed, as was another, addressed to Cosins, Bishop 
of Durham, and a third, in refutation of errors broached 
by Monteigne, Archbishop of York. He was, however, 
at length released. He was subsequently summoned 
before Laud under the charge of having preached against 
" turning communion tables into altars, against bowing 
to them, against setting up crucifixes, against saying the 
second service at the altar, and against putting down 
afternoon sermons on the Lord's Day." These, and 
similar statements, were wound into a charge of sedition, 
and he was summoned before a special High Commission. 
In execution of the warrant, violence was used. " The 
sheriff" of London, with swords and halberds and with 
pickaxes, fell a breaking up my doors, which, being 
strong, held them till eleven of the clock." 1 Burton was 

1 "Narrative of Life of Burton," King's Pamphlets, Mus. Brit, p. 99. 

40 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

committed to the Fleet. His name became associated 
with those of Prynne and Bastwick, accused of similar 
offences, not against the law of the land, but against 
the unconstitutional proceedings of the prelates. At 
length the three were sentenced to deprivation and degra- 
dation ; to a fine upon each of ^5,000 ; to stand in 
the pillory and to have their ears cut off, and to suffer 
perpetual imprisonment. Burton was then sent to Lan- 
caster Castle. No fewer than 100,000 persons are said to 
have lined the road along which he was to pass, and great 
sums of money were thrown into the coach in which his 
wife went along. These marks of public sympathy 
awakened Laud's highest indignation. Burton was pro- 
hibited pen, ink, and paper ; and though allowed the 
Bible, was deprived of all other books except such as were 
" canonical." To shut him off more effectually from 
all sympathy, he was afterwards removed from Lancaster 
to Guernsey, where he was confined in a low dark room, 
and was denied all society. (He remained in confinement 
till 1640, when he and his fellows were brought home by 
Act of Parliament, and welcomed on their arrival in 
London by the most exuberant ebullitions of popular joy. 
£6,000 were granted to Burton by the House of 
Commons as a solatium for the bitter injustice which 
he had received. He subsequently formed an Inde- 
pendent Church, and was very prosperous.) 

Nothing tended more forcibly than the last cases we 
have cited to bring on the terrible conflict between Charles 
I. and his people. These instances were but the strongest 
among thousands in which tyranny had ruthlessly endea- 
voured to trample out the truth. At length the crisis 
came. The King had been compelled to summon a 
Parliament. As it proved refractory, it was hastily dis- 
missed. But the Convocation under Laud continued its 

Development. 41 

sittings, and imposed, with the madness of despotism, the 
Canons, and what is known as cc the et-cetera oath." The 
national burst of indignation which followed was terrible, 
and the distractions of the kingdom combining with his 
own necessities, forced the King to convene the Parliament 
afterwards well known as the Long Parliament. The thunder 
of a justly incensed people fell on the heads of Strafford 
and Laud. Prelacy was violently torn from its high 
places. In the madness of a strong re-action, men are apt 
to forget not only policy but justice. So it was now. 
The embankments were suddenly swept away, and the 
pent-up waters, released from control, thundered down in 
an overwhelming and desolating flood. 

In this crisis the King visited York, where he rallied 
round him a considerable body of the gentry of the 
kingdom. (1642.) Though in his address he promised 
not to employ as soldiers, any who were unfavourable to 
Protestantism, multitudes of Papists flocked to the Royal 
head-quarters, which became a scene of great confusion 
and disorder. The sword was speedily drawn. The 
contest was for the old despotism on the one hand, and 
liberty, civil and religious, on the other. It needs not to 
be said on which side the mass of Puritanism was sure to 
range itself. 

cc The narrative of Joseph Lister " powerfully relates 
the excitement of these terrible times, greatly increased by 
the recent Irish massacre, and the threat that the same 
measure of vengeance should be dealt out to the Protest- 
ants on this side of the water. 

" In the year 1 642, one Lord's day, I went to Pudsey 
to hear the reverend Mr. Wales preach ; and whilst Divine 
Service was performing, a man whose name was Sugden, 
came hastily up to the chapel door, and with a lamentable 
voice cried out, c Friends, we are all as good as dead men, 

42 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

for the Irish rebels are gotten to Rochdale, and will be in 
Halifax and Bradford shortly.' He added no more, but 
immediately set off towards Bradford, the place from 
whence he came, on purpose to alarm the country. 
Imagine, for my pen is not able to describe, the confusion 
and disorder of the whole congregation. Some ran out in 
the greatest consternation ; others began to talk with their 
friends ; the women in general wrung their hands and 
wept ; the children screamed aloud and clung to their 
parents ; horror and amazement sat upon every counte- 
nance, insomuch that the minister was prevented going on 
in his work for some time, till, by soft persuasions, and 
exhorting them to a steady trust and confidence in the 
Lord, at length they became a little composed, and he 
went on peaceably to the end of the service. At the 
conclusion thereof, I immediately went home to Bradford, 
with great anxiety of mind ; at my coming thither, I 
found the inhabitants gathered together in parties, advising 
and consulting together what method to pursue (for they 
had heard the rebels had got to Halifax) in this their 
deplorable state and situation. At length it was determined 
to send a party of horsemen to Halifax to inquire further 
into the truth of the matter, who, at their coming there, 
found it all an untruth, for the supposed rebels were only 
a few poor Protestants who had fled out of Ireland to 
prevent their falling a prey to the rage and malice of the 
unmerciful Papists, who were still pursuing the lives of 
those who had hitherto escaped their bloody purpose." 

The apprehensions awakened by the King's alliance with 
the Papists are indicated by two pamphlets published at 
this time by the Rev. Edward Bowles, then chaplain to 
the Duke of Manchester, entitled, " The Mysterie of 
Iniquity yet working in the Kingdoms of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, for the Destruction of Religion truly 

Development. 43 

Protestant." Lond. : 1643. cc Plaine English; or, a 
Discourse concerning the Accommodation, the Armie, 
the Association. Printed (unless men be the more care- 
full and God the more mercifull), the Last of Liberty, 
1643." The tone of these pamphlets is truly alarmist; 
surpassing any no-popery cry of modern date. 

In the June of this year the gathering of the celebrated 
Assembly of Divines appears to have awakened not a little 
interest among the northern Puritans. Though few seem 
to have been summoned from Yorkshire itself there were 
many in whom Yorkshire took a lively interest. 1 

After the surrender of York (1644), and the settlement 
of Lord Ferdinando Fairfax in that city, a standing com- 
mittee was appointed for the purpose of advising with him 
and ordering the arrangements of the county. It may be 
readily supposed that in the year in which Presbyterianism 
was established by Act of Parliament as the religion of the 
realm, the Presbyterians had not a little weight in such 
councils. The chaplain to that committee was Rev. John 
Shawe (already mentioned), a man of much eminence in 
his day, he having been chaplain to the Earl of Pembroke, 
who gave him the vicarage of Rotherham. He was also 
secretary to the Yorkshire committee of sequestrations — a 
corresponding branch of the Westminster Assembly, who 
met weekly in the chapter-house of the cathedral of York. 
(Afterwards, about the time of the Restoration, Shawe 
burned all the papers of these proceedings.) 

It would be too much to imagine that in the sequestra- 

1 Among the MSS. of Thoresby were, " The Characters of Mr. Jer. 
Whitaker, John Foxcroft, Robt. Johnson, Richd. Clayton, Ol. Bowles, 
Thos. Micklethwaite (father of Sir John, the celebrated physician), Hen. 
Wilkinson, sen. and jun., Joshua Hoyle, William Rathband, and Theodore 
Bathurst, Yorkshire Members of the Assembly of Divines, transmitted 
from Dr. Sampson's Papers." 

44 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

tions and alterations which took place at this time there 
were no cases of unfairness and injustice. The temper of 
the times was hot, men's religious opinions were as yet but 
imperfectly formed, and the minds, even of good men, 
were not free from prejudice and bigotry. Where there 
existed a strong attachment to prelatical observances, or 
where the opinions of the incumbents leaned very dis- 
tinctly to the Royal cause, it is not improbable that they 
were exposed to a severe judgment. One of the strongest 
Yorkshire case of this kind is that of Henry Robinson, 
B.D., the Vicar of Leeds. He was chaplain to the Earl 
of Southampton, the Lord Treasurer. Before the Parlia- 
mentary war he sympathised to a considerable degree with 
the Puritan party, but afterwards became attached to the 
King ; and when Leeds was taken in 1642-3 he was forced 
to fly (taking refuge in Methley Hall), and his living was 
sequestered. In making his escape he was nearly drowned, 
and was for some time actually supposed to have met that 
fate. He underwent many hardships, but was at length 
permitted to hold the living of Swillington. He resolved 
never to return to Leeds, and permittted William Styles 
to be instituted to his vicarage, probably without much 
power to hinder it. If injury were done to this good man, 
it naturally arose from his active partizanship. It was 
not, however, pushed to extremity. Many rash mistakes 
there doubtless were of a similar kind. Yet some weight 
is due to the testimony of Baxter, who says (Life, 72-74), 
cc I must needs say that in all the counties where I was 
acquainted, six to one at least (if not many more) that were 
sequestered by the committee were by the oaths of wit- 
nesses proved insufficient or scandalous, or both ; especially 
guilty of drunkenness and swearing ; and those that being 
able, godly preachers were cast out for the war alone, or 
for their opinions' sakes, were comparatively very few. 

Development, 45 

This I know will displease the party, but it is true." 
Such cases as Robinson's strongly illustrate the damage 
done to the Church when, as an instrument of state, it 
becomes subject to the influence of political changes. In 
that day men's minds were narrow. Even many of the 
best men desired no larger circle of liberty than the 
radius of their own convictions might require. The 
measure they meted was soon to be sternly applied to 
them in return. 1 

Nothing could be more interesting to religious men of this 
generation than a full account of ecclesiastical proceedings 
in Yorkshire during the period of the Commonwealth. 
But the materials are small, and the notices are mainly 

It is well known that Independency z constituted a most 
disturbing element in the discussions of the Westminster 
Assembly, though as yet (1643) lts principles had not 
reached a full maturity, and there was probably not a 
member of the Assembly prepared for the separation of 
Church and State. Congregationalism was, so far as 

1 It must be remembered, to the honour of the Presbyterian party, 
that one-fifth of the revenue of each incumbency was appropriated to the 
ejected : a circumstance not repeated in the ejection of 1662. That this 
sum was not regularly paid was due, not to hard-heartedness, but to the 
succeeding convulsions of the period. 

2 It was about this time that the term Independent came into general 
use. It had been originally applied, as Sydrach Simpson says (reply to 
Forbes), " to those who stood for presbyterial government." It was 
adopted by the party it now designates with some scruple, they having 
hitherto been termed " Congregationalists." Edwards says (" Anta- 
pologia ") : " The old Separatists could not endure to be called Brownists 
or Barrowists : so you will not endure the titles of Schism, Separation, 
Independency ; but you call it the ' Congregational government/ and 
' the church way,' and ' an entire, full, complete power,' but by no 
means ' Independent government ;' that will not be endured." From this 
time it became the designation, not merely of a religious, but also of a 
political party, embracing many varying shades of doctrinal opinion. 

Afi Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

religious liberty was concerned, greatly in advance of 
Presbyterianism, and warm were the debates between the 
two parties. The question whether Independency should be 
tolerated was the exciting point of many of these conten- 
tions. cc Foreseeing," says Baillie, cc they (the five dissenting 
brethren, Philip Nye, Thomas Goodwin, D.D., Sydrach 
Simpson, Jeremiah Burroughes, and William Bridge,) 
behoved ere long to come to some point, they put out 
in print an apologetical narration of their way, which long 
had lain ready beside them, wherein they petition the 
parliament in a most sly and cunning way, for a tolera- 
tion; and withal lend too bold wipes to all the reformed 
churches, as imperfect yet in their reformation, till their 
new model be embraced." What the Assembly of Divines 
never would have yielded, was wrung from the parliament 
by the battle of Marston Moor ; and an order was issued 
from the latter body fC to refer to the committee of both 
kingdoms the accommodation or toleration of the Inde- 
pendents." On which Baillie sulkily says — cc This is the 
fruit of their disservice, to obtain really an Act of Parlia- 
ment for their toleration, before we (the Presbyterians) 
have got anything for Presbytery either in assembly or 

The influence of the free thought evolved by the 
system of Independency was evidently beginning to make 
itself felt, at this period, throughout the kingdom. It 
took, however, many erratic and even pernicious shapes. 
The Church of England had been heretofore much 
more intent on uniformity than on instruction ; it had 
restrained much more than it had taught, and as soon 
as its strong arm was beaten down, there were many 
quarters in which an extravagant liberty did not fail to 
make its appearance. In curbing these sectaries, the 
influence of Congregationalism was extremely strong. 

Development, 47 

Whilst it checked their pruriences, it afforded a valuable 
model of church order and discipline. 

In the discussions which took place at this period, the 
name of Burton appears with considerable prominence. 
He published tracts dealing with the Presbyterian argu- 
ments of his two former companions in the pillory, Prynne 
and Bastwick. We take a passage from each : — 

cc And first you quarrel the title of Independency. 
Truly, brother, none of those whom you do thus entitle 
do at all glory in this name, and we would not that you 
should give us as a nickname . . nor yet that you 
should mean such an Independency as if we held not good 
correspondence with all sister churches by way of conso- 
ciation, consultation, communion, communication, mutual 
consolation, supportation, and (in a word) in all things, 
duties, offices as wherein Christ's kingdom is held up, the 
graces of the church exercised, and the liberties of each 
church preserved entire, which is the glory of Christ. "' 

In answer to Bastwick — " Brother, you do set these 
two terms, Dependent and Independent, at such odds, as 
if there were a great gulf between them . . you hold of 
Dependent only ; we hold not only of Independent, but 
Dependent also . . for as it depends absolutely upon 
Christ as the only head of this body ; so, as it is a member 
church of the catholic, and a sister church of all particular 
churches with which it makes one body and one spouse of 
Christ her head and husband ; it hath a mutual depend- 
ence on all true churches for communion, for consociation, 
for consultation, for comfort, for support ; though always 
saving and retaining to itself all those church privileges, 
which, by Christ's charter, are peculiar to every particular 
church and body of Jesus Christ . . But what if one 

1 "Vindication of those Churches commonly called Independent." 
King's Pamphlets, 181, p. 4.3. 

48 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

particular church will not, after all means used (which yet 
no rational man can imagine will ever come to pass), 
hearken to the unanimous judgment and counsel of other 
churches ? What is to be done ? Surely they may upon 
just cause withdraw communion from that church, which, 
in that case, is the highest censure the churches can 
proceed to." We are bound in honesty to follow the 
quotation to its close. It will show how imperfect at 
present were the notions yet entertained of church-power. 
"And if the party aggrieved complain to the civil magis- 
trate, the church being called is accountable to that 
power." 1 

It will be seen how reluctantly our forefathers (though 
they did not absolutely disclaim the title) admitted the 
term Independency. They allowed it so far as it recog- 
nised in each church a complete organisation ; they 
objected to it when it seemed to separate a particular 
church from the general communion of the faithful. The 
cc Apologetical Narrative " (see p. 45) says, — cc That 
proud and insolent title of Independency was affixed unto 
us as our claim, the very sound of which conveys to all 
men's apprehensions the challenge of an exemption of all 
churches from all subjection and dependence, or rather a 
trumpet of defiance against whatever power, spiritual or 
civil, which we do abhor and detest." 4 Our forefathers 
would undoubtedly have preferred the continuance of the 
term Congregational. And as it truly describes their 
principles, let not their posterity be in haste to abandon it. 

The Assembly of Divines and the Parliament appointed 
March 10, 1646, "a day of humiliation for blasphemies 
and heresies." By that time the growth of Independency 
and other sectarianism had become serious; the Presby- 

1 "Burton's Answer to Bastwick." King's Pamphlets, 226, p. 4. 

2 Apolog. Narr., p. 23. 

Development. 49 

terians loudly accused the Congregationalists of " not being 
ashamed to move for a toleration ! " ' It was seriously charged 
against them as a grave offence that an Independent minister, 
in a prayer offered at a church-meeting, gave thanks for 
the liberty of conscience granted in America, and added, — 
"Why not in England, Lord, as well as in America ?" z 
The author of " Gangraena," after recording this circum- 
stance, complains that Independency was spreading far and 
wide ; that it dared to send emissaries even so far as 
York ; that there were Congregational churches in Cf Hull, 
Beverley, York, Halifax," &c., ? and that a godly disci- 
pline was much required to reduce such extravagancies 
and effectively to settle the constitution of the Church. 
The fixing of this "day of humiliation ,, was, therefore, 
as Carlyle says, " a covert rebuke " to those who were 
becoming too strong for Presbyterianism to resist. 

A little later, in the year 1648, we find forty-one 
ministers in the West Riding met to consider Henry 
Burton's pamphlet, entitled, Vindici<e Veritatis, and utter- 
ing a serious protest against cc those church-desolating and 
soul-damning errors which of late have come in like a 
flood upon our county and kingdom, especially against 
a toleration of them." Whose was the first signature we 
know not. The second name on this list was that of 
Elkanah Wales. In this remonstrance occurs the follow- 
ing passage : — 

" As we cannot approve or allow of Independency or 
Erastianism, so we are resolved by the grace of God 
never to consent to the toleration of Arianism, Anti- 
Trinitarianism, Antinomianism, Anti-Scripturalism, Armi- 
nianism, Enthusiasm, Familyism, Libertinism, Socinianism, 
Scepticism, or any other heresies, sects, or erroneous 
opinions whatsoever, but to withstand the same by all 

1 " Gangraena," i. p. 12. 2 Ibid., p. 12. 3 Ibid., ii. 122. 


SO Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

lawful ways and means, within our places and callings, 
though to the loss of our liberties, estates, lives, and what- 
soever else may be dear to us." This document was 
subscribed cc on the day on which, by the assistance of 
the ministers, the West Riding was divided into classical 
presbyteries." Wales preached also a fast sermon cc on 
a day of solemn humiliation at Leedes' New Church, 
at the setting up of church government there, and at the 
ordination of Mr. Sale." * 

Precisely when the first Yorkshire Congregational 
church was formed we do not know. That at Scrooby 
has much claim to this distinction, as it was only a mile 
and a half from the edge of the county, and it included 
many Yorkshire inhabitants. Probably, the first Congre- 
gational church actually constituted within the county 
was one in Hull, certainly existing before 1643 ( see 
Dagger-lane, Hull). In that year, Rev. C. Marshall 
set up in his congregation at Woodchurch, near Morley, 
a society upon Independent principles. The records 
begin with the month of February. It seems to have 
been the first in the West Riding (see Woodchurch). 

Beverley or Sowerby might be the next. Our informa- 
tion respecting the last place is more complete than that 
which concerns the others. We have seen that Halifax and 
its neighbourhood had been pre-eminently distinguished 
by Gospel ordinances. Nathaniel Priestley speaks of the 
parish as cc the most eminent place that was to be found 
in all this county." Sowerby had enjoyed the services of 
Rev. John Broadley ( cc pastor dignissimus ") and Rev. 
Nathaniel Rathband, and it had many families of con- 
siderable influence among its inhabitants. Congrega- 
tionalism was established here in 1645 by Henry Root. 
This minister, who had travelled much in his younger 

1 Thoresby's MSS. "Life of Elkanah Wales," Mu?. Brit. 

Development. 5 1 

years, had been for a time settled at Gorton, which place 
he left to become assistant minister at Halifax parish 
church. He afterwards removed to Sowerby. (A con- 
troversy respecting Independency subsequently arose at 
Manchester. Samuel Eaton, just arrived from New 
England, had learned there the principles of Independency, 
and became active in disseminating them at Duckinfield, 
his then residence. Root published, in 1646, CC A Just 
Apologie for the Church at Duckinfield," 4to, which 
appears to have been intended to rebut some of the attacks 
made on Independency in Edwards' "Gangraena.") Root's 
cc gathered church " was formed whilst he was holding 
the (now Episcopal) incumbency at Sowerby. It repre- 
sented, not a building, but a spiritual society. We 
mention this to avoid the mistake to which the double 
meaning of the word cc church " often leads. 

The formation of this society was, however, extremely 
distasteful to the Presbyterians. They not only remon- 
strated against Root's views of church order and discipline, 
but when his society advanced to the election of deacons, 
they instigated some of the inhabitants to close the church 
doors on Sunday that the proceedings might not take 
place. And when, on the following Lord's Day, the 
pastor exhorted the people to stand by each other in 
defence of their rights, as Abraham did by Lot, and 
Moses by the Hebrew captives, they tortured his meaning 
into an argument for armed resistance. 1 

1 Adam Martindale says, in his autobiography : " This was that bustling 
year (1646?) in which the Presbyterial and Congregational governments 
were, like Jacob and Esau, struggling in the womb. The latter, not wait- 
ing for a civil sanction as the former did, were got into possession at 
Duckinfield. My predecessor (at Gorton) spent his afternoon's sermons 
constantly to promote it, and, meeting with remoras, too weighty to be 
removed, was then using all his endeavours to get it up at Birch (as near to 
us as Duckinfield), which, in time, he effected." He says that " the rigid 

E 2 

52 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

It appears, from Heywood, that an attempt was made 
by one of that good man's predecessors to form a similar 
Congregational church at Coley. It was, however, un- 
acceptable to the people, and proved a failure. 

An extant letter quoted in Edwards' 1 cc Gangrasna " 
gives us some light as to the views taken by several of 
the Yorkshire pastors of the important questions now 
at issue. It makes mention of a meeting of ministers 
convened in York for the purpose of sending up an 
address to the Convocation at Westminster. 2 The object 

Presbyterians, as they were called, avowed their intention to extirpate 
Congregationalism." " Mr. Heyrick, Warden of Manchester, was then 
up at London, and, after his coming down, I heard him on a fast day, in 
a great congregation at Manchester, declare himself before all the ministers 
of the classes then just setting up, so perfect a Latitudinarian as to affirm 
that the Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Independents might all practise 
according to their own judgments, yet each by Divine right. How his 
brethren liked this I know not, but am sure he so said. And Mr. Harri- 
son did but little less than contradict him, following him upon the text, 
Zech. iv. 9, making it his business to expose the Independents for not 
laying a good foundation. Mr. Angier was altogether in London when I 
went into those parts ; some thought he was not very thoroughly satisfied 
what course to pursue when he went up. However that was, he came 
down satisfied to join with his brethren in setting up the Presbyterial 
government, but for all that was very moderate towards all that he judged 
godly of the Congregational way, and spoke with very great reverence of 
Mr. Eaton, and Mr. Taylor, and his neighbours at Duckinfield, praising 
them for pious men, good scholars, and excellent preachers." Adam 
Martindale's MSS. Brit. Mus., Birch MSS., 4239. 

1 Edwards received orders in the Established Church, though he was 
in heart a Puritan. He distinguished himself much about this period by 
his better diatribes against Independency, urged with all the zeal and fury 
of the most hitolerant persecutor. When Independency rose to the 
ascendant, he fled to Holland, where he died in 1 647, set 48. Baillie, v. ii. 
p. 130. 

2 The following morceau will show the animus which at this time 
existed towards Independents : — 

" The last Will and Test, of Sir James Independent. 

"Noverint universi, 
"I, James Independent, my native city Babel, of the tribe of Corah, 

Developments 53 

of this proposed address was to assure the assembly of the 
readiness of the northerners to co-operate with them in the 
setting up of a Presbyterian establishment, and to denounce 
all Erastian principles. It seems that one of the prime 
York ministers (qu., W. Rathband?) objected to this 
address, and desired farther light upon the subject, greatly 
to the disgust of the more zealous Presbyterians. The 
meeting was accordingly adjourned for a fortnight, then 
to meet at Pontefract, with what result we know not. 

We must now regard Independency as having obtained 
a firm footing in the county of York. 

The civil war, it will be remembered, was peculiarly a 
contest for religious liberty, and the leaders of the army, 
whether Presbyterian or Congregational, availed themselves 
of every opportunity to institute religious observances, 
often in the most untrammelled form. 

After the taking of York (a.d. 1644), Lord Fairfax, 

of the lineage of Cain, being at this time of perfect memorie, do make 
this my last will, &c. 

" Imprimis — I give and bequeath my soul to him that has the faires t 
clayme, either God or the Devill : for truth to say, in my health and well- 
being of body, I served them both equally, though I think the Devill the 
greater sharer. 

" My body I give to the earth, which I ordaine to be wrapped or 
shrouded in twelve sheets of paper, sewed together, taken out of the 
books heretofore written by my dear sonnes, to wit, The Arraignment of 
Persecution, Bloudie Tenent, and Comfort for Believers. My coffin to be. 
framed by my dear son and long-breathed preacher, Tves, the box-seller, 
whose christian name I shall not nominate, for that I conceive he never 
had any. Then, my obsequies to solemnize with all lustre, thus : my 
bodie to be borne, from Guildhall to Paule's, by six of my dear sonnes, 
the expounders of God's word, to wit, Wiet, the cobbler ; Sammon, the 
shoemaker; Tue, the girdler ; Lambe, the soap-boiler; Hawes, the 
broker; and Hobson, the taylor. Mr. Burton, Mr. Knowles, and Mr. 
Simpson I ordaine as chief mourners, to follow the hearse. Mr. Goodwih 
and Mr. Saltmarsb before the corpse, and then the whole rabble of my 
deare children to follow after howling like wolves, chattering like pies, 
and houting like owles," &c. King's Pamphlets, Mus. Brit., 324. 

54 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

who was constituted governor of the city/ appointed four 
ministers " with honourable stipends " to preach by turns 
in the cathedral. These were Edward Bowles (son of 
Oliver Bowles, of Sutton, Bedford, a member of the 
Westminster Assembly), an eminent minister and a dis- 
tinguished preacher ; Thomas Calvert, episcopally ordained 
(who preached also at Christ Church) ; Peter Williams, 
who had been tutor to Sir John Brooke, and who "resided 
in York, where his father was Mayor ; " and William 
Rat hb and, who, on his removal, was succeeded by Richard 
Perrot, cc a most learned, ingenious man, and an incom- 
parable preacher." z Lord Fairfax and his son, Sir Thomas, 
were warm favourers of evangelical religion. The latter 
appears to have been a truly pious man, and a lover of all 
godly ministers. 3 His wife and children were in sym- 
pathy with this feeling. At his death, his funeralj sermon 
was preached by Rev. R. Stretton. 

Another military name distinguished at this period was 
that of Sir John Bright, Bart., of Carbrook. He was 
the son of Stephen Bright, distinguished in the reign of 
Charles I. as a person of cc extraordinary merit." (S. Bright 
died just before the breaking out of the civil wars.) Sir 
J. Bright was extremely active in the cause of the Parlia- 
ment. He was Commissioner of Sequestrations, Colonel 
of Foot, Governor for some time of Sheffield Castle, one 
of the representatives of the West Riding, Governor of 
York and Hull, and High Sheriff of the county. The 

1 Whatever Iconoclasticism may be laid to the charge of the Noncon- 
formists (not so much, however, as is generally supposed, for Puritanism 
had done its share), it must always be remembered, to the honour of Lord 
Fairfax, that he preserved York cathedral from desolation, and restored to 
it some of its treasures. 

2 Calamy, 3 : 459. 

3 Among the MSS. of Thoresby were "Lord Fairfax on the Shortness of 
Life, his Version of the Canticles, and of the Song of Moses, done into metre." 

Development. 5 5 

Northowram Register, speaking of his death in 1688, 
describes him as " a mighty man of wealth." Through 
the marriage of his grand-daughter to Charles Wilson 
Wentworth, Esq., second and last Marquess of Rocking- 
ham, most of his estates passed subsequently into the 
family of Earl Fitzwilliam. Sir J. Bright was a Presby- 
terian, and appears to have had a hand in the Restoration. 
But he did not approve of the severe measures adopted 
towards the Nonconformists, and his family house at Car- 
brook (still partially standing) was a secure asylum for 
ejected ministers. Sir J. Bright, after suffering much 
anguish, died at Badsworth, Sept. 13, 1688. 1 His chap- 
lain was Rev. Jeremiah Wheat, ejected in Derbyshire. 

Major- General Lambert does not appear to have been 
distinguished by the profession of personal religion. But 
he maintained as his chaplain Thomas Smallwood, who 
was afterwards ejected from Idle, and who is described as 
<f a moderate Congregationalism" His daughter-in-law 
was, at a later period, a warm friend to the Presbyterians, 
and the congregation at Winterburn originated in her 

Sir Edward Rodes, of Great Houghton, was a Parlia- 
mentary soldier who accompanied Cromwell to Scotland, 
and was a member of his Privy Council, and afterwards 
M.P. for Perthshire. He was also, during part of the 
Commonwealth, High Sheriff of the county of York. 
A chapel was erected close to his hall in 1650 for the per- 
formance of Divine service. It is still standing. 

Frequent mention is made by Heywood of Captain 
John Hodgson. His entrance on military life took place 
in the following manner : — He was in the church at 
Coley on one Sunday (Mr. Latham being the preacher), 
when news was brought of a Royalist attack made upon the 

1 Hunter's " Hallamshire," pp. 250, 256. 

$6 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

adjoining town of Bradford, and of the inhabitants, who 
had taken refuge in the church, being in great danger. 
The preacher spoke so movingly respecting the incident, 
that Hodgson and some others at once made their way to 
Bradford with what weapons they could find (principally 
scythes fastened to poles), and caused a diversion of the 
attack. This led to Hodgson's engagement in Sir 
Thomas Fairfax's army, where he was employed in several 
actions. He afterwards returned to Coley, where he acted 
as magistrate. He was a Congregationalist of very sincere 
piety, and greatly promoted the cause of religion in subse- 
quent times. 

To these names may be added Captain Freeman, of 
whom nothing is known but that he was the first to set 
up Independency at Pateley Bridge. 

The ordinance of Parliament, passed Sept. 27, 1650, 
for the relief of peaceable persons in matters of religion, 
struck a fatal blow at the pretensions of Presbyterianism 
to be the national religion of England. After this time, 
not only the powers of the State, but the rule of the army 
and the strongest influences of religious party became 
concentrated in the Independents. No part of the king- 
dom more strongly felt this change than Lancashire, which, 
mainly through the influence of Heyrick, had been legally 
constituted a Presbyterian province, and possessed nine 
regularly-formed classes. The same system was begun, 
but never thoroughly established, in Yorkshire. 

During the Protectorate, Independency was upon its 
high places. The administration of Cromwell in relation 
to other sects was not, however, severe. In the constitu- 
tion set forth in his Commonwealth, it was declared that 
cc to the public profession held forth none shall be com- 
pelled by penalties or otherwise ; but that endeavours be 
used to win them by sound doctrine and the example of a 

Development. 57 

good conversation." Marsden, though an Episcopalian, 
well remarks that Cromwell was the first cc to enrol the 
principle" of Toleration "with the fundamental laws of 
England." 1 Even though the laws forbad the worship of 
the Prelacists, Cromwell was inclined to wink at their 
meetings so long as they conducted themselves inoffen- 
sively towards his government. 2 On .the occasion of a 
meeting of Presbyterians in Leeds, twenty in number, 
that great man, then before Pontefract, charged Sir 
Edward Rodes, High Sheriff, that whilst he allowed them 
to worship, if inoffensive, he should take care that dis- 
affected persons should not plot against his government." 3 
We do not know the history of the Yorkshire ministry 
under the management of Cromwell's "triers." It was 
probably the case in this county as elsewhere — that whilst 
congregations were saved from the administration of un- 
godly and incompetent men, the proceedings were some- 

1 Marsden's "Later Puritans," p. 369. 

2 The following anecdote related by Howe, who received it from an 
ear-witness, will illustrate this point : — " Mr. Gunning, an Episcopalian 
clergyman, kept constant meetings at Exeter House, and was attended by 
a great multitude of clergy and gentry. Cromwell sent for him. He 
came in a terrible panic. The Protector told him of the great number 
of persons who followed him, and asked him if he were a minister of 
Jesus Christ, and how he made it out? He said he was made priest by 
such a bishop, and he by another, back to Cranmer, and he up to 
Augustine, and he up to Peter the Apostle. * Can you show records of 
all this?' 'No; it is impossible that records can last so long.' 'Then 
it is uncertain, or your credulity. I'll tell you how you may make proof 
of it in a clearer and surer way. Do you be qualified as St. Paul requires 
in Timothy and Titus ; let the good people call you to the work ; begin 
it by fasting and prayer, and the approbation of judicious ministers ; — then 
you may call yourself a minister of Jesus Christ. As for your meetings, 
it is against my principle to persecute any for their religion, but if they 
be affronting the Government, under which they have protection, I must 
and will look to it.' " Thoresby's MSS., Mus. Brit. 

3 lb. 

58 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

what arbitrary, and perhaps too partial in certain directions. 
But, allowing for many defects of human infirmity, the 
system maintained its ground with no little advantage. 
Its operation was, however, extremely brief; and the law 
of reaction has no exception, even in religion. Puritanism 
was in many respects severe and mistaken. Being also 
greatly in advance of the times, it demanded from human 
nature that which it was not yet prepared to give ; and by 
how much it endeavoured to elevate itself by authority, 
by so much it provoked a certain but calamitous recoil. 
No sooner was Cromwell dead (1658) than the storm 
began to gather. It soon swept through the land with a 
fury beyond parallel. 

It is not easy to define what were the precise expecta- 
tions of the Presbyterian party from the restoration of 
Charles II. To some of them he would doubtless appear 
in the light of cc a covenanting king," and they would 
eagerly listen to any hypocritical tale of his piety and 
virtues. The great majority, however, seem to have 
been cajoled into the belief that the occurrences of recent 
times would suggest a wide system of comprehension, 
large enough to include the Presbyterian body, but ex- 
cluding Independency and the lesser sectaries. After 
Cromwell's decease, the land became full of intrigues, in 
which the Presbyterians bore their share. The rising of 
Sir George Booth, in Chester (1659), (p ut down by the 
energy of Lambert), was greatly aided by their conni- 
vance. This movement placed the Presbyterians and 
Independents, who had sometimes desired a closer union, 
in antagonism to each other, both on the field and else- 

The Restoration, it is well known, was mainly accom- 
plished by Presbyterian help and policy. Without the aid 
of Edward Bowles, who had great influence, Monk could 

Development, 5 9 

not have entered York, nor could the union have been 
formed between him and Fairfax. Everywhere Presby- 
terian sympathy was in favour of the King, and it was full 
and fervent. Many ministers of that body were extrava- 
gant in their joy. Heyrick, Warden of Manchester, 
preached on the day of the coronation from 1 Kings, xi. 
12. His sentiment was — cc Kingly government is the best 
government for order, peace, and strength." Nathaniel 
Heywood, brother of Oliver, preached from 1 Sam., xix. 
30 — "And Mephibosheth said unto the king, Yea, let 
him take all, forasmuch as my lord the king is come again 
in peace to his own house;" an application of Scripture 
for which, when the preacher lost all by the consequences 
of the Restoration, he was unmercifully twitted by his 
Royalist enemies. Oliver Heywood, in his Diary, speaks 
thankfully of the interposition of Providence in the King's 
return as a measure which overturned the usurpers, cc who 
commanded a toleration of all but truly tender con- 

For a short time the Puritans were allowed to hope on. 
But in the extraordinary and culpable avoidance of all 
conditions limiting the action of the restored monarch, the 
prelatical party saw that matters would speedily recur 
to the condition in which they had been cc before the 
flood ; " that no changes made by the King's enemies would 
be recognised ; and that prelacy would become, as a 
matter of course, the legal and settled form of worship. 
The Puritans were, therefore, with much diplomatic skill, 
allowed for the present to retain their ministry in cases 
where, through death or otherwise, the former incumbent 
did not present his claim. 1 But each successive day 

1 This rule was not without exceptions. There was a Mr. John 
Gunter, to whom the Protector gave the rich living of Bedale. On the 
Restoration it was taken from him and given to Dr. Samwaier. 

60 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

brought up new evidences of the hollowness of the peace 
on which the Presbyterians relied, and showed that the 
Royalists (burning with indignation at the remembrance 
of their sixteen years* deprivation, and revelling again 
in the licence which Puritanism had suppressed) were bent 
on memorable revenge. The second Savoy Conference, 
like that at Hampton Court, was but a mockery. It 
was soon apparent that measures were in contemplation 
to enforce the old uniformity. 1 Judges were ordered 
to indict offenders against its provisions. A new election 
had taken place, and a Parliament most hostile to the 
Puritans had been returned (1661). A bill brought in 
to tolerate differences of opinion in matters of religion 

1 The following extract, from Adam Martindale's MS. biography, 
will give a correct notion of the treatment to which Nonconformists were 
liable even before 1662. Martindale was cited for not reading the Com- 
mon Prayer. He pleaded that no book had been tendered. He was, 
however, cast. " I was kept close prisoner at first, at the r Feathers/ by 
the Castle-gate, York, where the charge was considerable ; what I paid for 
my chamber I now remember not, but my diet was 8d. a meal, besides all 
extraordinary and marshall's fees. Two hungry fellows there were that both 
claimed the chief marshall's place, so that not knowing to whether I might 
safely pay it had a grievous life with them both, till at length I paid it in 
to the deputy governor lieutenant, and asked him to give it when it was 
due. There was also a deputy-marshall that waited on me continually, 
and expected to be maintained by me, and so would those higher in great 
measure had I been such a fool. However, they put me to (great) 
expense. After a time I got his leave upon bond to live at a friend's 
house in the citie, and Marshall Radford (though I was not rich) would 
have £5 of me and threatened to take my body into his custody if 
I did not forthwith pay them, which for my own peace I did. Ac 
length, through mediation of my lady (Yarm), I got leave to go home 
upon a £1,000 bond (which had before been denied me, though I had a 
child that, in the opinion of my family, lay a-dying) ; and upon my 
return at the time appointed from time to time, my old bond was 
delivered and a new one sealed by me, for which bond the dark of the 
chapel in Bridge-street made me pay smartly." 

Martindale was at length released through Richard Baxter's intercession 
with Chancellor Hyde, who then (1660) wanted to make Baxter a bishop. 

Development. 6 1 

was thrown out on the second reading. Every disposition 
was shown to regard the Puritans as disaffected persons, 
and to subject them to pains and penalties of no ordinary- 
severity. Taking advantage of a real or pretended insur- 
rection of certain Fifth monarchy men in 1661, a procla- 
mation forbad conventicles in private houses. This was 
a blow to the frequent meetings then held for fasting 
and prayer. One of the instances of the triumphant 
returns of the old clergy occurred at Halifax, where it 
is related, that whilst Eli Bentley, who was then minister, 
was preaching in the parish church, Dr. Marsh, the 
ejected Vicar, walked up the aisle with the Book of 
Common Prayer under his arm, displaced the preacher, 
and went through the old service. 1 Dr. Hooke, his 
successor, forbad all baptisms throughout his large district, 
except at the parish church. Heywood states that on one 
Sunday, as he was about to commence his service (doubt- 
less in the Presbyterian form), a Book of Common 
Prayer was formally laid on the cushion of his pulpit. 
Heywood quietly removed it to the lower desk. A 
month afterwards, he received a citation to the Consistory 
Court of York to answer certain complaints for not 
reading the Liturgy. It was then supposed that a firm 
front on the part of the Presbyterians would at once 
dissipate such objections. Heywood went to York to 
answer the summons. Instead of a trial, however, he was 
put off by an adjournment of the case. (Such was the 
policy of the moment ; to wear out the religious party 
by vexations and expensive delays and processes.) A 

1 Watson's "Halifax," p. 352. Marsh had suffered greatly for his 
attachment to the Royal cause. He had with difficulty escaped from 
Fairfax's army in 1642, His wife had died through injury and fright, 
and his infant child just born had been saved under circumstances of great 

6 2 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

second citation followed, to which he made no answer ; 
and a third, which was attended by farther procrastination. 
In the end, Heywood was suspended from the exercise 
of his ministry. This suspension took effect June 29, 

At Hull, John Shawe was inhibited by the King from 
preaching longer at the Holy Trinity Church, though 
no reason was assigned, even at an interview with the 
King himself. As he still held, however, the Mastership 
of the Charterhouse, he continued to preach to the poor 
in that place. His services were so much esteemed, that 
the inhabitants of Hull crowded to hear him, leaving 
the churches almost deserted. 

Calamy makes mention of the committal of Jeremiah 
Marsden 1 to York Castle in 1661, probably for Non- 
conformity, though the particulars are not given. 

Gamaliel Marsden, his brother, was removed at the 
Restoration from his fellowship in Trinity College, 
Dublin. He landed at Liverpool with but ^5 in his 
pocket, and, finding friends at Coley, his native place, 
obtained the curacy of St. Ann's, in the parish of 
Halifax. Thence he was again ejected in 1662. 

Frankland, of whom we shall make frequent mention, 
was settled in Bishop's Auckland, Durham. Before the 
Bartholomew Act he was asked by Bowyer, an attorney, 
in the presence of his congregation, whether he would 
conform. He replied that it would be soon enough to 
answer that question when the terms of conformity should 
be determined by the King and Parliament. He was told 

1 The father of Jeremiah Marsden (Ralph Marsden) was one of Hey- 
wood's predecessors at Coley — "a godly, orthodox, and zealous minister." 
Some " sharp expressions," Heywood supposes, rendered him unacceptable 
to the people, and he was removed. He had four sons ministers, t( able 
men ;" Samuel, Jeremiah, Gamaliel, and Josiah. 

Development, 6 2 

that if he refused to answer, he would be deprived. He 
was accordingly locked out of the church. He could 
obtain no redress ; and though he appealed to the Quarter 
Sessions and an indictment was found, his adversaries 
contrived, by vexatious delays and trifling pleas, to 
prevent the execution of justice. 

These are only specimens of many acts illustrative 
of the revengeful intentions which preceded the Act of 

Never was the spirit of reaction more strongly mani- 
fested than by this Parliament. The Covenant was 
publicly burned. A series of measures followed, among 
which was The Corporation Act. This law declared 
that the taking of arms against the King was traitorous, 
and that all who qualified themselves for office should 
subscribe a declaration to this effect. The Book of 
Common Prayer, having been now revised and rendered 
still more exclusive and unpalatable by Convocation, 
was adopted by Parliament, after which, the House 
passed, by a small majority, the well-known Act of 

This rigorous measure prescribed an uniform religious 
service in all the churches of the land, and ordained 
that every minister holding any ecclesiastical benefice 
should, before the next feast of St. Bartholomew, 1662^ 
declare his unfeigned assent and consent to everything 
contained in and prescribed by the Book of Common 
Prayer, or be deprived ; that all such persons should 
abjure the taking arms against the King ; should promise 
to conform to the Liturgy of the Church of England ; 
and declare that they regarded the Solemn League and 
Covenant as an unlawful oath. In addition, it was 
ordained that no schoolmaster should exercise his functions 
without a Bishop's licence ; that all who held any benefice 

64 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

should receive episcopal ordination, whilst those not 
possessing it were declared deprived ; that no lectures 
or preachings should be held without the use of the 
Common Prayer ; and that a person not episcopally 
ordained who should administer the Lord's Supper should 
be liable to a line of j£ioo. 

This measure was devised by the Lord Chancellor 
Hyde (afterwards Lord Clarendon), whose hope was to 
crush Puritanism by measures of the extremest despotism. 
It was cheerfully and eagerly seconded by Sheldon, Bishop 
of London. 

The influence of this Act was most disastrous in York- 
shire, 1 where Puritan principles had become so widely 
extended. It indeed terminated all dispute as to what 
ceremonies were to be tolerated, but it cut the Gordian 
knot with the sharpest sword. Conformity or penury 
was now the alternative presented to a host of ministers. 
Upright men could not hesitate for a moment in the 
choice. The full sorrows of their decision have never 
been fully written ; they will remain unrecorded until the 
recompense of the Great Day ! 

The actual number of the men whom this cruel 

1 The district of Craven must be excepted from this remark. It 
might shelter some ecclesiastical martyrs, but does not appear to have 
furnished any. 

" One circumstance in the ecclesiastical history of Craven deserves to 
be remembered. There never was a period when the consciences of 
ecclesiastics were more harrassed by impositions of various kinds than in 
the civil wars of the last century ; yet such was the flexibility of principle 
displayed by the incumbents of this deanery (Craven) under all their 
trials, that not a name in the whole number appears in the catalogue of 
sufferers exhibited on the two opposite sides by Calamy and Walker. 
The surplice or the gown, the Liturgy or Directory, Episcopal, Presby- 
terian, or Congregational Government; a king, a Commonwealth, or a 
usurper ; all these changes, and all the contradictory engagements which 
they imposed, were deemed trifling inconveniences in comparison of the 
loss of a benefice." Whitaker's " Craven," p. 7. 

Development. 6 5 

measure compelled to resign their benefices, and the 
open exercise of their ministry, has never been exactly- 
ascertained. The number of 2,000 has been generally 
accepted, and is a probable approximation. Calamy 
gives, for Yorkshire, a list of 123 (76 of whom were 
in the West Riding), and of sixteen only who conformed. 
Those whom two centuries have rendered familiar 
with the constitution of the Church of England, or 
who are influenced by a spirit of party or a desire for 
social superiority, may discern nothing in this large 
rejection but an act of righteous retaliation, and may 
contend that the Church of England was entitled to exact 
her own conditions from the men who ministered at her 
altars. But this matter involves a much higher issue. 
The Presbyterian or the Independent of a former day 
who saw nothing farther than the exclusive predominance 
of his own system, and would have removed by force 
all who differed from his creed, might be hampered in 
complaining that the lex talionis which he exercised on the 
one hand was followed by a corresponding retribution 
on the other. But a much higher inquiry remains, 
namely, whether Episcopalianism, or Presbyterianism, or 
Independency, or any human authority, had a right so 
to shut up the kingdom of heaven as to reject from 
its communion and ministry men who differed from it 
only in an unsubstantial ceremonial. It may be easy 
to say that every member of a church is bound to obey 
the requisitions which that church sets forth. This was 
not in the present case always possible. 1 But if we 

* The following extract is from Adam Martindale: — "I now come 
unto the fatal Act of Uniformity that threw so many hundreds of us out 
of our places. Many will tell us it was our own fault. But I affirm that 
had I been as full a conformist, in my judgment, as any in this kingdom, 
I could not have kept my place for one condition, being this, that I must 


66 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

admit for a moment that such an argument is sound, 
the inquiry still rises — Was it indeed the church by whom 
this rigid uniformity was exacted ? And it would be 
impossible to show that any definition of the term church 
(which is not the most self-convicting conventionality) could 
be made to include men who, under the pretence of 
maintaining the forms of religion, were now trampling 
into infamy its noblest ministers. It was the state, repre- 
sented by Clarendon and Lauderdale, and urging for- 
ward a Sovereign, who because he had no personal virtue 
had no moral courage, though he might have some 
lingering inclination, to resist their influence. When 
Presbyterianism was intolerant there was a strong religious 
conviction prompting its severities, mistaken as they were. 
Though the range of their vision was narrow, these good 
men took their resolutions on their knees. Even in the 
days of the first Charles, Laud and his coadjutors were 
men of devoutness amidst all their persecution. But 
those who guided the movements of 1662 were mostly 
men to whom personal religion was a stranger — to whom 
party was everything, and Christ was nothing. 

But in what position did the prelacy of England 
exhibit itself by this Act before the churches of Christ- 
some Lord's Day before Aug. 24, 1662, openly, solemnly, and publicly 
read the morning and evening prayer, as appointed by the new book, and 
declare my unfeigned assent and consent to all things contained in it and 
prescribed by it; and this book coming not into our parish till Friday 
Aug. 22 in the evening, my place was remedilessly lost (as to any power 
of my own) upon Aug. 1 7, which was the Lord's Day allowed for doing 
this work. From which it is evident that if I had gone to the bishops 
and subscribed to everything required, and if I had the stomach of an 
ostrich to have digested the great book, without chewing, when it was 
tendered me on the 24th day of Aug., yet for all that I had been at the 
mercy of the bishop and patron, and what they would have been is easy 
to be collected from the bitter order that the one procured and the other 
granted five days after." Thoresby MSS., Mus. Brit. 

Development. 67 

endom ? It proclaimed, by the deprivation of so many 
eminent ministers of their orders and the endeavour to 
extinguish the bright light of their influence, not only 
that ceremonials were, in their view, of more importance 
than the truth itself, but that Evangelical doctrine was 
no precious boon ; and by insisting on its own ordination 
and usages as essential, it cut itself off from communion 
with Continental churches, from which it remains severed 
till this very day. If Englishmen be liable to the charge 
of insular manners and prejudices — an evil in itself — to 
exhibit the picture of an insular Christianity, hailing 
no neighbouring body of Protestant Christians as brethren 
must be a matter of still more disastrous consequence. 
Time and enlarged views have recently and happily 
modified some of the more stringent requisitions of the 
Act of Uniformity. But the separation of the Church 
of England from other Evangelical bodies still remains. 
And whilst we hear of the importance of seeking an 
union with the deeply corrupt churches of Rome and 
of Greece, few care to advocate an alliance (infinitely 
more valuable) with those who are in much nearer con- 
nection with the Great Spiritual Head. With what reason 
can a church which has reduced itself to so dreary a 
solitude complain of the sin of schism ? 

" The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." 
That is doubtless, on the whole, a truth ; though it must 
not be taken as always an infallible one. Spain martyred 
until her true church was lost, and she has never yet 
recovered from the blow. France persecuted till she 
became drained of the life-blood of her morality and her 
religion ; and in these respects she is, to this day, desolate. 
And the Church of England sacrificed what she has not, 
even after two centuries, entirely regained. The effect 
of her policy was to change a fertile garden into a desert. 

f 2 

68 Congregationalism in Torkshire. 

It is only to read the sermons of her best divines for 
a long period after this event to perceive how frozen, 
sterile, and vapid she had become. Never since then 
has Evangelical religion nestled in her as a congenial 
and welcome home. Though she has had saints and 
ministers of the brightest and purest pattern, they have 
sighed in secret over the straitness of their bondage and 
the uncongeniality of their associates. Not even their 
excellence and laboriousness have formed an embankment 
strong enough to keep out the worldliness and formalism 
which her system has engendered. Theirs is a de- 
sponding, if not a heartless, struggle. Who can venture 
to predict that it will end at last in spiritual liberty ? 

cc After all," says Dr. Whitaker, the antiquarian clergy- 
man, certainly no friend to Nonconformity (Loidis and 
Elmete), " the consequences of this exclusion to the 
interests of religion were tremendous ; for not only did 
it lay the foundation of all the sects which at this moment 
divide and distract the English nation, but the present and 
ultimate effects of it were visible and scandalous." 

For a considerable period after this disruption, though 
some exceptions greatly redeem the history of the 
Established Church, we must look to the ranks of the 
Nonconformists for the spiritual power of the English 



A.D. l662 1688. 

The ejectment had done its work. The malice of the 
Royalists had triumphed. The consequences were, to the 
victims, no trifle. The powers of man are often terrible ; 
the Restoration party were now avenging themselves for 
long years of restraint, and, as they would deem it, 
oppression. The gay reveller, sporting in every kind 
of licence, hated, with mortal detestation, the stern Puritan 
who set before him cc righteousness, temperance, and 
judgment to come." Though in most cases he could not 
actually convict his reprover of hypocrisy, he could at 
least lay it to his charge. It was his delight to humble 
the Puritan by all means. Failing to torture the victim's 
conscience, he was glad to desolate his estate. It was 
sport to witness that severe but easily-cajoled precisian 
entangled by the web of a sinful world, and vainly 
struggling in the toils of craft and trickery ; it was 
a luxury to the persecutor to stifle the voice which 
denounced his vices and thundered out his doom. If the 

70 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire, 

poor be-fooled saint had hoped better things from the 
Restoration he had laboured to effect ; if, with pious 
credulity, he had believed in the promises made at Breda 
by the profligate King, so much the worse for his 
delusions ! The holy simpleton little knew the man in 
whom he had confided ! The time had arrived when the 
reign of godliness must end ! The dominion of the 
saints was happily over! The Puritan had enjoyed his 
hour of triumph, and was now requited. cc His bishopric 
let another take ! " 

Such were the views with which the Act of Uniformity 
was regarded by [its aiders and abettors ! What was the 
position of the sufferers themselves ? 

The disruption of the Scottish Church in the year 1843 
affords the nearest parallel. That was a noble deed. 
It proved that the religion of the nineteenth century 
is worthy of being ranked with the religion of the first. 
It had, in some respects, the advantage of the course 
taken in 1662. It was voluntary upon the part of the 
sufferers. No particular act, meant so to operate, 
necessitated it. It was thus a louder protest against a 
state religion and a worldly church. But, viewed in the 
light of a sacrifice, it was not to be compared with the 
Puritan ejectment. It was largely supported by outward 
sympathy. It involved no public degradation. If it 
sacrificed much, it did not sacrifice all. There was, at its 
back, a banded body, able, and strong in their resolution 
to sustain the men who had so nobly advocated the rights 
of conscience and the authority of God. 

The ejected of 1662 had few such supports. They 
were defenceless. They were put at once beyond the pale 
of law. The Act of Uniformity not only deprived them 
of sustenance but of their very ministry. By it they 
were branded, hunted as wild beasts, and denied the 

The Outcasts. 71 

protection of ordinary subjects. They became Non- 
conformists at their extremest peril. They had been 
deluded and betrayed. They were without hope, except 
in the compensations of a life to come. Well may we 
venerate the memory of men who, for conscience sake, 
exposed themselves to such fearful perils ! 

It cannot surprise us that some of the Presbyterian 
ministers who had been instrumental in bringing back 
the King soon repented of their facility. Among these 
was Edward Bowles, of York. He had corresponded 
with Monk ; had held conferences with that dark 
dissimulator ; had ridden in his processions ; had gone 
with overtures to the abandoned King. But, before 
1662, he had repented of his choice, and had expressed 
to some of his friends the conviction that he had been 
guilty of an egregious error. 1 This conclusion is 
supposed to have shortened his life. 4 He died in 1662, 
shortly before the Act of Uniformity took effect, a 
humbled, repentant man. How would his regrets have 
been deepened had he survived to witness the entire 
result ! He was buried on the eve of St. Bartholomew. 

It was now the question of the ejected ministers, 
Ought they to obey the injunctions of the law and to 
keep silence ? In that case, what was to become of their 
flocks ? And what of the world lying in wickedness ? 

« See Thoresby's MSS. Mus. Brit. 

2 The vicarage of Leeds being vacant by Styles' death, great efforts 
were used to obtain the induction of Bowles (who is said to have once 
refused the Deanery of York) to the vacant benefice. But this attempt 
of a majority of the inhabitants failed, and the living was given to Dr. 
Lake, who was a thorough Royalist, and served for four years in the Royal 
army, though he had been a Puritan minister at Halifax. His opponents 
barred the church doors against him, and it was necessary to employ a 
party of soldiers to effect his entrance. Lake became afterwards Bishop of 
Chichester, and was one of the seven bishops who resisted the measures 
of James II. 

72 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

We know what answer these holy men gave to such 
inquiries. The prevalent sentiment was quaintly ex- 
pressed by Philip Henry : — cc When we cannot do what 
we would, we must do what we can ; God will accept our 
poor service. When we cannot keep open shop, we must 
drive a secret trade. There is a mean, if we could keep 
it, between fool-hardiness and faint-heartedness." 

No more striking illustration could be given of the 
motives by which the ejected were influenced than is 
afforded by the case of Oliver Heywood. As he lived 
within the county of York, it is apposite to our purpose. 
His was, doubtless, an unusually illustrious name. But 
though he speaks with a more distinguished voice, he only 
utters the sentiments by which most of his brethren were 
actuated. The Act of Uniformity scarcely deprived 
him ; he had been deprived before it took effect. But 
it effectually prevented his return. When the blow fell, it 
fell not on him alone, but upon his father-in-law Angier, 
of Denton, and on his brother Nathaniel, 1 then at 
Ormskirk. It came, too, at a time when the fortunes 
of his family were wrecked and his father imprisoned. 
Yet all these sufferings were faint compared with the 
anguish he felt, as a true Pastor, in being wrenched from 
his people. That was a crucifixion indeed ! Feeling that 
he had a call from God, he resolved, after a short period 
of hesitation, to preach on. He had been suspended, 
excommunicated ; but it was not in man's power to 
recall the command he had received from heaven. His 
house was beset, in his absence, by soldiers who came 

1 When Nathaniel was about quitting his living, a poor man came to 
him, saying, " Ah, Mr. Heywood, we would gladly have you preach still 
in the church." "Yes," said he, "I would as gladly preach as you can 
desire it, if I could preach with a safe conscience." The man replied, 
" Oh, sir, many a man now-a-days makes a great gash in his conscience, 
cannot you make a little nick in yours 1 " — Calamy. 

The Outcasts, 73 

to seize him. He was forbidden, because of his excom- 
munication, even to appear in his former church ; yet 
he was fined, with wicked cruelty, for neglecting public 
worship. He was waylaid and insulted; yet he continued 
to preach in his own house, where, notwithstanding the 
danger, his former flock eagerly assembled to hear him. 
Though the times of meeting were constantly changed, 
there was a system of signalling by which his congregation 
could be at any time drawn together. When it was 
no longer safe for him to remain at home, he became 
the itinerant minister of the whole surrounding district. 
Garrets, kitchens, barns, outhouses became, for his 
purposes, temporary sanctuaries. 1 The Word, listened 
to under such disadvantages, came with unequalled fresh- 
ness and power. The truth of God was promoted by the 
means employed to arrest its progress. 

The effects of this Act upon the ejected ministers were 
very various. A few, like Mr. Waterhouse, of Bradford, 
and Mr. Kirby, of Wakefield, remained quietly in their 
places, attending usually the churches in which they had 
heretofore preached ; and occasionally, when they could 
do so safely, addressing an evening sermon to a circle 
of their own friends. Others, at greater risk, set up 
the worship of God in their own houses and elsewhere, 
refusing to relinquish the character of ministers of 
Jesus Christ. Calamy mentions several of this class : — 
William Hawden (ej. Broadsworth), who removed to 
Wakefield; Robert Armitage (ej. Holbeck), who had 
been formerly a chaplain in the Parliamentary army, and 
of whom it was said by Calamy, " It could never be 
discerned whether he was Presbyterian, Congregational, 

1 The anecdotes of the times relate many dangers and narrow escapes 
from the crowding of people into houses unfit to contain them. See also 
" Noncon. Memorial," iii. 384. 

74 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

or Episcopal ; " Christopher Richardson (ej. Kirkheaton) ; 
Matthew Bloom (ej. Sheffield) ; John Noble (ej. Smee- 
ton), who in his latter days preached much at Ponte- 
fract ; Joseph Dawson (ej. Thornton), who afterwards 
went to Morley ; Christopher Marshall (ej. Woodkirk), 

The bolder men were severe sufferers in the cause 
of the New Nonconformity. Luke Clayton (ej. Rother- 
ham) is said to have been the first minister imprisoned 
in York under the Act of 1662 ; Thomas Hardcastle 
(ej. Bramham) underwent several imprisonments at York, 
Leeds, and Chester ; Henry Swift (ej. Peniston) and 
Wood (ej. Sandal Magna) were also in York Castle 
for three months ; Joseph Farrett (ej. Pontefract) under- 
went "severe straits;" Elkanah Wales (ej. Pudsey) was 
hotly pursued as disaffected to the Government ; Timothy 
Root (ej. Sowerby-bridge) endured great hardships, 
though he afterwards conformed. The sufferings of 
others will be recorded in these pages. 

Many found security in virtue of having been installed 
as chaplains in the families of the rich and noble. The 
names of Dyneley, Bramhope ; Rawdon of Rawdon ; 
Sir E. Rodes, G. Houghton ; Rich, Bull-house ; Westley, 
Ravenfield ; Mrs. Hutton, Poppleton, sister to Lord 
Fairfax ; Sir T. NorclifFe ; Sir Thomas Jackson ; 
Assheton, Kildwick ; Lady Watson, York ; Sir John 
and Lady Hewley, Bell-house, do. ; Richardson, Lassell- 
hall, Kirkburton ; Sir John Wentworth ; Smallwood, 
Flanshaw-hall ; Lady Lambert, Arnold's-biggin and Calton ; 
Cotton, Hague-hall ; Cotes, Wath ; Colonel Holland ; 
Hatfield, Laughton-en-le-Morthen ; Taylor, Walling- 
wells ; Gill, Carrhouse ; Stamforth, Firbeck ; Knight, 
Langold ; Spencer, Attercliffe ; Sir J. Bright, Carbrook; 
Wadsworth, Swathe-hall, are a few of the names which 

The Outcasts. 75 

testify to the sympathy excited among the wealthy by 
the sorrows of the exiled ministers. 

Some betook themselves to other occupations. This 
was the case with W. Pell, M.A., ejected from G. Stain- 
ton, Durham. He practised medicine in the North of 

The year 1663 witnessed a transaction which greatly 
aggravated the sufferings to which the Nonconformists in 
the North were exposed. It was the reign of plots ; and 
the eagerness with which they were invented, or fostered, 
under Clarendon's administration, and the alarm they 
produced, show the unsettled and suspicious character 
of the times. The movement to which we now refer was 
the cc Farnley Wood Plot," so called from a wood in the 
neighbourhood of Morley. It was by no means the first 
emeute which had been fathered on the sectaries. There was 
doubtless a substratum of truth in the charge now made ; 
for when, in uneasy times, are there not those whose eager 
and sanguine tempers prompt them to precipitate action ? 
The recent events of 1662 were calculated to work up 
excitable tempers into an access of frantic zeal. 

The facts of the case, as far as they are known, were 
these : — 

The removal of so many valued ministers had caused no 
little consternation among their flocks. A secret conspi- 
racy was formed, principally in the North, having three 
objects, — the reinstatement of these pastors, the restora- 
tion of Parliament, and the remission of taxes, dec. Some 
accomplices early betrayed the matter to the Government, 
who, to entrap and secure the offenders, promoted the 
further development of the plot. Thomas Oates, who 
had been a captain in the Parliamentary army, though now 
a schoolmaster at Morley (in which vocation he seems to 
have been assisted by his son, Ralph Oates), was probably 

J 6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

inveigled into the affair, and most of the leading Dissenters 
in the neighbourhood were privy to it. Greatheed, of 
Gildersome, one of Lambert's soldiers, who had been a 
major in republican times, seems to have been actively 
employed in fomenting the insurrection, although he 
proved a traitor to the cause. The rising was intended 
to be a very general one ; but the intelligence which 
Government had of the whole movement led to its pre- 
mature and disastrous explosion. 

On the ioth of October, 1663, a few persons met in a 
retired part of Farnley Wood, near Leeds — where a trench 
already existed, or was now first formed— with designs 
against the Government. ' They were headed by Captain 
Thomas Oates, aided by Ralph Oates, a clergyman, his 
son, and amounted in all to about twenty persons. Dis- 
appointed that so few were gathered of those whom they 
had expected, they were advised by Oates to return to 
their homes. But before they could escape many of them 
were seized as traitors.* 

It was convenient to represent this as part of a widely- 
organized combination, and several were accused who had 
probably little hand in the movement. Mrs. Hutchinson 
states that this conspiracy was promoted by Sir Thomas 
Gower, sheriff of Yorkshire, employed for that purpose by 
the Duke of Buckingham, and that this man went about 
exciting disaffection among those whom the Restoration 
had disappointed and deprived — especially simple and weak 
persons in the neighbourhood of Morley and Gildersome. 
Among other names mentioned, that of Colonel Hutchinson 
himself was one. He was arrested on suspicion, but was 
afterwards set at liberty. It would appear that a number 
of persons had been inveigled into giving a certain measure 

1 Drake's " Eboracum." 2 Whitaker's " Loidis." 

The Outcasts. 77 

of countenance to the scheme in its first stages, and it is 
not unlikely that among these were some ministers who 
felt the hardship of their present position. 

Ralph Oates, the captain's son, a man of no reputation, 
after being seized, turned King's evidence, and declared the 
existence of a widely-spread conspiracy. He averred that 
there had been many meetings before this in Farnley 
Wood ; that Major Greatheed had been present at one of 
these gatherings in the North of Yorkshire, and had pro- 
posed arrangements for supplying the insurgents with 
arms, and that it was intended to take the house of Sir 
John Armitage, a hot-headed persecutor of the Puritans. 
He implicated Captain Hodgson, and several ministers 
of the vicinity ; among the rest, Dr. Richardson, late 
Dean of York ; Jeremiah Marsden ; Fisher, of Sheffield ; 
and Thomas Jollie, of Lancashire. 1 Even Lord Wharton 
did not escape accusation. 

According to Bishop Parker, — cc Those in whom they 
placed their chief confidence and hopes failed them most. 
Smithson, formerly lieutenant-colonel to Lilburn, and 
Greatheed, — the one appointed general of the North, the 
other of the West Riding ; but these voluntarily discovered 
the whole matter at York, by which discovery they lost 
all opportunity of meeting together, so that when Oates 
had hid a few of his men at night in the wood, they had 
scarce separated at break of day before most of them were 
carried off from their march into prison." 

A special commission was sent down to York in the 
course of the following winter to try the apprehended 
men. Drake tells us : " Thomas Oates, Samuel Ellis, 
John Nettleton, sen., John Nettleton, jun., Robert Scott, 
William Tolson, John Forster, Robert Olroyd, John 

1 Whitaker's "Loidisand Eimete," J 08. 

7 8 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

Asquith, Peregrine Corney, John Snowden, John Smith, 
William Ash, John Errington, Robert Atkins, William 
Colton, George Denham, Henry Watson, Richard Wilson, 
Ralph Rymer, 1 and Charles Carre, were condemned and 
executed; most of them at York, and three at Leeds. 
Several of these hot-headed zealots behaved very insolently 
upon their trials. Corney had the assurance to tell the 
judge that in such a cause he valued his life no more than 
he did his handkerchief. Two of these enthusiastic 
wretches were quartered, and their quarters set up on the 
several gates of the city. Four of their heads were set 
upon Micklegate Bar, three on Bootham Bar, one at 
Walmgate Bar, and three over the Castle gates. These 
were the last persons, except some popish priests, whom I 
can find executed for high treason in our city." 

Among the ministers charged with this insurrection was 
Stephen Charnock, though no evidence of the fact appears. 
Dr. Richardson, the ejected Dean of Ripon, emigrated to 
Holland ; Jeremiah Marsden suffered much on account of 
the suspicions entertained respecting him. During eight 
years he was the subject of incessant pursuit. He was 
compelled to remove his quarters twenty-two times. At 
last he changed his name to Ralphson, Ralph having been 
the name of his father. Driven from place to place, he at 
length died in Newgate, leaving a MS., entitled, Contem- 
platio Vita Miserabilis. 

James Fisher, the ejected minister of Sheffield, also 
suffered much from a similar accusation. He was brought 
before the Sessions at Rotherham, at Doncaster, at Wake- 
field, and at Pontefract, as well as twice at York. But 
all accounts tend to show his innocence. On one occasion 
two suborned accusers suddenly disappeared, and Fisher 

1 This Rymer was the father of Thomas Rymer who collected the 
" Fcedera." 

7 'he Outcasts. 79 

was pronounced acquitted in open court. On another occa- 
sion, when a wife-murderer, confined in York Castle, was 
offered pardon and a sum of money, provided he would so 
swear as to convict Fisher of treason, he absolutely refused, 
preferring to be hanged for murder. And so evident were 
the motives which prompted these accusations, that at a 
subsequent period, when Fisher had been sentenced to con- 
finement for life, the Duke of Buckingham ordered his 

Joshua Horton, of Sowerby, a man of no small in- 
fluence in the parish of Halifax, was suspected, as was old 
Elkanah Wales. Henry Root, Dr. Maud, and others in 
the parish of Halifax, were, with Captain Hodgson, 
arrested and carried to York, where, after an imprisonment 
of some duration, they were released without trial. 
Hodgson says there were at least fourscore prisoners, 
among whom were Parliament men, colonels, majors, 
lieutenant-colonels, and captains. 

Jonathan Priestley, a man distinguished as a Noncon- 
formist at Halifax, expresses, in a letter to Thoresby, 
what was probably a true epitome of the whole matter : — 
<c So far as I ever understood, it was a pure piece of malice 
and revenge, to draw in some not very well-meaning people 
that had a favour for Oliver's government, wherein good 
people and ministers were generally favoured. I never 
yet heard of any overt act (as the law calls it, and without 
which I never knew treason) in the Farnley Wood Plot. 1 

We have seen that the Uniformity Act had proved 
insufficient to prevent the meetings of congregations in 
secret. To obviate these private gatherings, the Parlia- 
ment passed in 1664 "The Conventicle Act." This 
measure provided, that on information given before a 

1 Thoresby's ei Correspondence," ii. 331. 

80 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

justice of any religious meeting numbering five persons 
beyond the household, each person should be committed 
to gaol for three months., or pay a fine of £$ ; for the 
second offence the penalty was doubled ; and a third 
offence, on conviction by a jury, exposed the offender 
to transportation for seven years, or a fine of £100 ; and 
if the person so transported should return, he cc should 
be judged a felon, and suffer death without benefit of 
clergy." The hardships inflicted by this Act were enor- 
mous, for the justices of the peace received power to enter 
houses, if necessary, by force. 

The Conventicle Act, passed whilst the Great Plague of 
London was raging, was speedily followed by the Oxford 
or Five-mile Act. The avowed intention of this measure 
was to prevent the dissemination of schism and rebellion 
in the centres of population, and it enacted that Noncon- 
formist Ministers should not cc come or be within five 
miles of any city or town, corporate or borough, sending 
burgesses to Parliament," in which they had acted as 
ministers, except on a journey, unless they would take 
oath that they held it to be "unlawful, on any pretence 
whatever," to take arms against the King, and that they 
would not cc at any time endeavour any alteration of the 
government, either in Church or State." The Act besides 
prohibited all education by ministers or the members of 
their families, and the penalties it prescribed were exces- 
sive, being £40 for each offence, of which the informers 
should receive a third. 

The operation of these severe enactments and the 
manner in which they were enforced will ever remain a 
damning blot upon the pages of British legislature. The 
roll of magistrates was now increased by the appointment 
of men distinguished for their animosity to Nonconformists, 
and every justice of the peace was expected to become a 

The Outcasts. 81 

persecutor. Bailiffs scoured the country in search of 
suspected men, and prohibited assemblies. Informers 
abounded. Letters were intercepted to gain materials 
of evidence. Families were broken up. No Noncon- 
formist felt himself safe in his own house. Servant men 
and maids were liable to imprisonment if they did not 
inform against their masters. Soldiers were freely employed 
in executing the orders of the justices ; and plunder and 
disorder of every kind were the natural consequences. 
Holy men who had lived in quietude and domestic 
comfort found themselves wanderers on unfrequented 
ways ; they trembled at the sight of a stranger lest he 
should be armed with legal powers against them. If 
brought before the tribunals, the Nonconformists were 
assailed by the coarsest vituperative language, and the 
apparatus of punishment was often strained most illegally. 
Gaols were crowded — not with men of hardened vice, 
whose incarceration would be the safety of the community — 
but with the best benefactors of society ; and where oaths 
and curses had been once the rule, the prisons now 
resounded with the songs of Pauls and Silases, whose 
prayers went up to heaven for the salvation of the 
kingdom, or the forgiveness of their persecutors. But 
the severity of the Act neutralized its force ; and the pity 
which was felt for men thus pursued for their very virtues, 
opened many doors which had been hitherto closed against 

In the meantime the Church of England was suffering a 
state of syncope. The necessity of supplying with 
ministers so many vacant pulpits had forced into them 
multitudes of men of low position and imperfect education, 
and sometimes of very questionable morality. In the 
diary of Pepys, that writer expresses his belief " that the 
present clergy will never heartily go down with the 

82 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

generality of the commons of England." The disaffection 
spread into the following age. In 1736, Swift wrote 
"concerning that universal hatred which prevails against 
the clergy." It needs not to be told how the presence of 
this feeling is shown in the comedies and novels of the 
period. Eachard, in his Cf Causes of the Contempt of the 
Clergy/' follows to the same effect, speaking of cc ten or 
twelve pound men/' who Cf had just skill enough to read 
the lessons with twice conning over." And a writer in 
the " Tatler," No. 225 (referred to by Macaulay) says : cc I 
have often blushed to see a gentleman whom I have known 
to have much more wit and learning than myself, and who 
was bred up with me at the University, treated in such 
an ignominious manner by reason of that character which 
ought to bring him to honour." In Coley, after the 
removal of Heywood, out of ten curates in twenty years, 
scarcely one of them gave satisfaction to the parishioners. 

We need not accept all the statements which party 
feeling and prejudice have put forth upon this subject. 
Enough will remain, after due abatement, to show the 
depletion to which the removal of so many evangelical 
clergymen had reduced the Established Church. 

Nor was it wonderful if the loss of the shepherds had 
awakened in the minds of their former flocks a deep 
resentment against the violence which had removed them, 
and was now cc harrying " them through the land. The 
cadences of the old gospel were yet ringing in their ears ; 
they hated the informers and the men who had suborned 
them. They were too glad, when opportunity offered, to 
listen again to the voices which had once touched their 
hearts, and which had acquired a new power from the high- 
minded integrity which suffering brought to light. 

It was under these circumstances that many of the 
Nonconformist congregations, whose names are now 

The Outcasts, 83 

familiar to us, were founded. A considerable number of 
these, especially in the West Riding, owe their origin to 
the indefatigable exertions of Oliver Heywood. The 
obstacles thrown in his way by ungodly rulers constituted 
to him a new call to the exercise of his ministry ; and his 
labours, interdicted at home, became diffused over a much 
wider area. The word so preached came with power. 
When no other minister would brave the dangers, Hey- 
wood's lion heart prompted him onward. He suffered 
much ; he was occasionally in the straits of famine ; he 
was sometimes apprehended, and was more than once 
imprisoned. His goods were seized, though there was 
none who would buy them. But he was unexpectedly 
befriended. The very officers who were sent to arrest 
him usually gave him notice of their intended coming. 
Amidst all difficulties his work went on, and God owned 
it. Citations and excommunications were vain. Acts of 
Parliament could not destroy his success. He was 
Divinely shielded, and Divinely supplied. More than 
once he dared to occupy his former pulpit (then, as we 
have seen, imperfectly supplied with preachers) ; and what 
Baxter, and Bunyan, and Heywood did upon a greater 
scale, several of the proscribed ministers did upon a smaller. 
England became a saved and not a destroyed people. 

The appointment of the Duke of Buckingham to 
the Lord Lieutenancy of the County of York had 
operated on the whole favourably for the Noncon- 
formists. Though nothing could be more worthless than 
the personal character of this nobleman, his versatility, 
which was <c everything by turns and nothing long," 1 
inclined him at this juncture towards the persecuted. 
Married to a daughter of Sir Thomas Fairfax, and having 

1 See Dryden's " Absalom and Ahithophel." 

G 1 

84 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

a Nonconformist for his chaplain, he could be no stranger 
to the virtues of that body ; but his prevalent reason 
probably was, that he desired to remove Lord Clarendon, 
and to take his place. Many incidents are related of his 
interposition by word or deed in favour of the men on 
whom the Government of the day bore so hard. It was 
even reported that, after his duel with the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, Villiers, like Rochester, had become a penitent. If 
it were so, it was but the transient hue of the rainbow. 

The course taken by the ministers and the Parliament, 
especially the Commons, had been in many respects far 
from agreeable to the King, who, naturally facile, and 
a Roman Catholic at heart, was desirous of introducing 
measures favourable to the Popish religion. The fall of 
Clarendon and the rise of the Duke of Buckingham 
prepared the way for a remission of the persecuting spirit. 
The Parliament, always hostile to Nonconformists, was 
prorogued in 1671, and the King, advised by the "Cabal," 
and having now the prospect of pecuniary aid from France, 
issued in the following year a declaration on his sole 
authority as Head of the Church. It ordained the 
suspension of all penal laws bearing on dissenting persons, 
and it permitted the use of meeting-places to ministers 
who should be licensed, on condition that they abstained 
from preaching against the Government of the Church of 
England. This Declaration of Indulgence was issued 
March 15, 1672. Though many of the Independents 
questioned the right of the King to exercise such a dis- 
pensing power, though the Presbyterians were jealous of 
a measure which legalized the sectaries, and though both 
parties were apprehensive that Popery would soon be tole- 
rated, the present relief was too great to be refused, and 
the remarks of Heywood probably express the sentiments 
of a majority of the nation : — cc There is cause of grief 

The Outcasts. 85 

that Papists and Atheists enjoy so much liberty ; but we 
have opportunity of resistance ; we have liberty to do 
good as they have to do hurt." cc It cannot be doubted," 
says Hunter in his cc Old Dissent/' "that the Presbyte- 
rians at this time made a great sacrifice of principle, and 
allowed themselves to be forced into the position which 
the Independents had occupied on principle and from choice. 
And hence it is that Bishop Stillingfleet represents the 
acceptance of the indulgence offered at this time as the 
true beginning of English Protestant Dissent." 1 

In acknowledging this indulgence, some of the York- 
shire ministers (evidently Presbyterian) resolved, with 
some pusillanimity, at a meeting held at York, that though 
they accepted the liberty, they would regard themselves, 
not as acting in opposition to the Established Church, 
but rather as attempting to promote its spiritual objects ; 
that they would not preach during canonical hours ; that 
they would promote the payment to the church of 
all wonted dues ; that they would endeavour to keep 
clear of all needless controversy ; that while they would 
not refuse to preach in Congregational meeting-houses, 
they would make common cause with the clergy against 
Popery ; and that, if permission should be hereafter 
given to them to preach in the Established Churches, 
they would assist the Conformists by all means in their 
power. Language like this appears crouching and spiritless 
to Dissenters of more modern times ; but the desire for an 
establishment was not yet eradicated from the minds of 
these Nonconformists, and the resolutions exemplify the 
deep humiliation felt by conscientious men after the trials 
they had undergone. 

Advantage was taken of the favourable juncture, and 

1 Hunter's Heywood, p. 227. 

86 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

congregations, which had hitherto existed only in secret, 
began to be regularly organized. Though the dispensing 
power of the King was justly questioned, and the duration 
of liberty was felt to be very doubtful, a few ecclesiastical 
edifices were now erected. Among the earliest of these 
was Mill-hill Chapel, Leeds, for a Presbyterian congrega- 
tion, and Call-lane for an Independent one. Northowram, 
Heckmondwike, Warley, Hull, Rotherham, Wakefield, 
Sheffield, &c, trace back some of their earliest movements 
to this important period. 

Many ministers whom the Act of Uniformity had 
ejected had now finished their course. Among these were 
Farret of Pontefract, Fisher of Sheffield, Elkanah Wales, 
formerly of Pudsey, Parret of York, Hawksworth of 
Hunslet, Small wood of Batley, and others. 1 The ques- 
tion naturally arose among the survivors, how was the 
succession of ministers to be maintained ? The answer to 
this inquiry was the establishment of a private Noncon- 
formist seminary. 

We have seen that among the number of ejected 
ministers was Richard Frankland (a native of Giggles- 
wick, where the tombstones of his family are still to be 
seen). He was educated at Christ's Church, Cambridge, 
and was a man of considerable learning. When Cromwell 
erected an university at Durham, he had been fixed on as 

1 One of these deaths, that of Edward Hill, formerly of Huddersfield, 
ejected from Crofton, near Wakefield, was very affecting. He had 
attained a prolonged age, and was confined to his room. In the same 
chamber was his wife, who had been bedridden for two years, and 
was near her end. Hill left his bed with difficulty to take leave of her, 
and as he kissed her for the last time, he said, " Ah, my dear wife, thou 
hast followed me for forty years ; tarry a little and let me go before thee." 
He was with some difficulty carried back to his couch, and immediately 
expired — his wife dying within two hours. They were buried in Halifax 
in the same grave. 

The Outcasts. 87 

one of its professors. On the Restoration he lost that 
appointment, and the Act of Uniformity took from him 
his living at Bishop's- Auckland. Cosins, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, whose palace was in the vicinity, pressed him to 
conform, offering him preferment. When this invitation 
proved useless, the Bishop asked him if he would accept 
ordination at his hands, privately administered. Still 
Frankland refused. 

After Bartholomew Day he lived on his own property 
at Rathmel, near Settle. He there began a private 
academy for the education of young Dissenters. The 
situation was extremely retired, being far away from any 
large town, and as beautiful as retired, for the country is 
extremely open, and the mountains of Ingleborough and 
Pennigent bound the horizon. When the indulgence of 
1672 was issued, Frankland became acknowledged by the 
northern Nonconformists as the educator of their future 
ministry. He was not long allowed, however, to remain 
in quietude. As one of the provisions of the " Five Mile 
Act" prohibited instruction by the ejected ministers, 
Frankland was continually harassed by its penalties. He 
was compelled to remove frequently from place to place. 
In 1674 he went to Natland, near Kendal, where he was 
invited to take the pastorate. Thence he emigrated to 
Hartburrow, Lane, and thence, in 1683, to Calton, where 
the son of General Lambert, whose wife was favourable 
to Nonconformity, resided, and in 1686 to Attercliffe. 
During these movements, and though often exposed to 
serious consequences, Frankland maintained his academy. 
Though not a popular preacher, his good sense, his piety, 
his humility, and his zeal in the maintenance of truth, 
gained him great respect and regard. His seminary was 
frequently visited by Heywood, who took much interest 
in the progress of the students, among whom were his two 

88 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

sons, and did not fail to give them good advice. From 
this institution came most of those ministers distinguished 
in the next generation for piety and usefulness. 

Another change took place in the position of the Non- 
conformists. Charles II. had been compelled by his 
necessities again to summon his Parliament. On their 
first meeting, 1672-3, they questioned the authority by 
which his indulgence had been granted. The pressure put 
upon the King by the High-Church party was extremely 
strong, arising from the suspicion that it was the Royal 
intention to reintroduce Popery. The Test and Corpora- 
tion Acts (which provided that all officers, civil and 
military, and all members of corporations, should take the 
oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and receive the sacra- 
ment according to the forms of the Church of England) 
were passed. In Halifax, the Vicar, Dr. Hooke, who was 
greatly irritated by the erection within his parish of 
a meeting-house at Sowerby, in which movement Mr. 
Joshua Horton had been a principal actor, demanded that 
the governors of the Grammar School should qualify 
under the Act ; and when Horton, who was one of them, 
refused, Hooke proceeded to acts of direct hostility against 
the Nonconformists, Two of them were excommunicated 
for refusing to take the churchwarden's oath, and only 
escaped severer penalties by the payment of a fine. 

In the year 1675, the indulgence was withdrawn, and 
matters returned to their former state of persecution, 
suspicion, and bewilderment. The Nonconformist assem- 
blies were interrupted. Hey wood dismissed his congrega- 
tion at Northowram, though he soon resumed his active 
labours. Agitation and terror again ran though the land. 

About this period, Yorkshire was revisited by a clergy- 
man whose name soon after became prominent in the 
ecclesiastical movements of his age. This was John 

The Outcasts, 89 

Tillotson. His father was a clothier, residing in Haugh- 
end, Sowerby, and was for some time attached to the 
Congregational body in that place; his mother suffered 
from mental aberration. Whilst at Cambridge, Tillotson 
had been a pupil of David Clarkson, with whose opinions 
he then sympathised ; and in his early days he had preached 
and published one of the cc Monthly Exercises." But he 
subsequently complied with the conditions of the Act of 
1662. It has been often asked — Was he Episcopally 
ordained ? And unquestionably, though the report once 
current as to his baptism has been proved fallacious, that 
which has respect to his ordination has not received a 
satisfactory reply. Tillotson soon attained to eminence as 
a preacher. His pure style and his usually sound and 
moderate opinions contributed to this popularity, and 
these advantages were combined with a benignant disposi- 
tion which kept him still in association with many of his 
former friends. He rose by successive steps to be preacher 
at Lincoln's-inn, and lecturer at St. Lawrence, Jewry, 
where his Tuesday Sermons drew large audiences. In 
1672 he became Dean of Canterbury. It was at this 
stage of his preferment that he visited Sowerby, his native 
place. Heywood says : cc Dr. Tillotson came to Sowerby 
May 21, 1675, to visit his aged father, Robert Tillotson, 
who is eighty-two ; allows his father, who traded all away, 
^40 a year to live upon. Preached at Sowerby twice on 
Lord's Day, May 23, being Whit-Sunday, on 1 John 
iii. 10, plainly and honestly, though some expressions 
were accounted dark and doubtful. May 30, he preached 
at Halifax." Tillotson, with a few failings, was a man of 
a high order both of talent and religious virtue. His 
name, associated with the memories of Burnet, Tennison, 
Stillingfleet, and Sharp, will ever shine amidst the brightest 
luminaries of the Established Church. He never forgot 

90 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

his former Nonconformist friends, and was intent through- 
out his life on affording them redress, and in modifying 
the acerbities and Romanistic tendencies of the body to 
which he belonged. 

We have seen that the provision for maintaining the 
ministry had been a matter of anxious concern to the 
Nonconformists, whose ranks death was now constantly 
thinning. Hitherto, though an ordination had been held in 
Manchester, they had usually abstained from inducting 
ministers. But the time was now come when a decisive 
step must be taken. At the suggestion of Frankland, 
who was naturally desirous of the recognition of his 
young pupils, a day was fixed on which three ministers 
should be appointed for Yorkshire. Their names were 
— John Isott, John Darnton (ej. Bedlington, Northum- 
berland, before he had been ordained), and Richard 
Thorp, of Hopton. The place appointed was a preach- 
ing-house known as " Richard Mitchell's," near Winter- 
burn, in Craven. Rev. Thomas Jollie (ej. Altham), 
a Congregationalist, was invited, together with Rev. 
Anthony Sleigh (ej. from a place in Cambridgeshire), but 
neither of them appeared. Perhaps they shrank from 
committing themselves to such an innovation, or appre- 
hended danger from their enemies. Three ministers only 
were present to conduct the service, Frankland, Dawson, 
and Heywood. The proceedings were arranged accord- 
ing to the Presbyterian formula, and many of Frankland's 
pupils were present. This formed the precedent for many 
similar services. The separation of the Nonconformists 
from the Church of England was now complete. 

The issuing of the King's indulgence, though afterwards 
recalled, had tended not a little to quicken the embers of 
Nonconformity into a bright and glowing flame. This did 
not escape the persecuting party ; and about the year 1682 

tfhe Outcasts. 91 

they employed, with renewed energy, all the apparatus of 
cruelty. From that time till the close of Charles II. 's 
disastrous reign, the history of Nonconformity is a recital 
of continuous vexations, troubles, and dangers. Heywood 
records the following facts in his carefully-kept diary : — 

"On August 30, '82, at mine own house, we kept a 
solemn day of thanksgiving to God for the public liberty 
we have enjoyed in my house without interruption above 
ten years, notwithstanding many, warrants issued out against 
us, as well as others. Yet we have been secured, through 
the moderation of our officers, as instrumental, when all the 
societies round about us have been sadly broken and scat- 
tered. Mr. Smith at Kipping, Mr. Dawson at Closes 
(Cleckheaton), Mr. Jos. Holdsworth at Heckmondwike, 
meet, not in the day, but in the night, for these several 
months. So at Leeds, Morley, TopclifFe, Alverthorpe, 
Mr. Whitehurst's at Lidiat, all have been in some way 
hindered in the places they used to meet in, and the times 
they met on. And in Craven they have been fined. At 
Sheffield they were all taken off; some troubled at Sessions, 
watched. At Jo. Armitage's they met in the night. At 
Robert Binns' hitherto obstructed ; scarce any place in the 
county free. Mr. Ward of York hunted, fined ^40 ; 
scattered ; scarce any place in the county free, except 
Hull. And yet we in this poor Northowram have been 
quiet, never informed against, disturbed, molested ; only 
two or three days we began a little sooner than at other 
times, and that was but when we knew what time the 
officers would come." 1 

1 Thoresby's Museum contained the following MSS. We copy the 
title with his remarks upon it : — " 'Alphabetical List of the Names of the 
Dissenters in the Parish of Leeds, drawn by Alderman Headley, with the 
Convictions, Fines, &c, 1683/ These papers are given by Mr. Bryan 
Dixon, whose name is amongst those devoted to ruin, yet afterwards 
singled out as the only person he durst confide in at his death," 

92 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

The preceding extract makes mention of Smith of 
Kipping. From an extant MS. volume of this minister's 
sermons (lately in the possession of the Rev. R. Pool, and 
transcribed by Mr. Scales in his extracts), we present the 
following : — 

"Aug. 30, '84 — Gen. xvii. 2. — Kipping, 10 at night — 
Bailiffs unweariedly diligent with warrants against us. 
Sept. 5, Kipping, 9 at night. . . . Brother B.'s, 9 at 
night. Kipping, 7 at night. ... 24 May, 1685, 
at Brother Berry's, at 3 in the afternoon. Argile is come 
into Scotland. Park, meet at London. Park, in Scotland 
makes it banishment or death to those that conform not, 
yet says they establish the protestant religion. 
1 month, 2 day, 1683-4, Kipping at 4 in the morning. 
1 month, 9 day, 1683-4, Kipping, 7 at night, Col. i. 1. 
1 month, 1683-4, Kipping, break of day. Judges at Assizes 
now give Justices a charge to present us at 20 pound a 
month and is. a month's absence. . . . March, or 

1 month, 30 day, '84, Kipping, break of day. 6 day of 

2 month, 1684, Kipping, 9 at night, Lord's day, now 
mad in persecuting. . . . 1 June, 1684, Shuckden at 
9 forenoon. Mr. Whitaker is taken Lord's day before. 
8 June, Kipping, 10 at night. 69 names presented at 
Leeds, many fined ; some in 6 times £20 for abs. 

29 June, 1684, 9 at night. Now warrants out again, 
worse and worse still. Ormond now is sent into Ireland 
to call a parliament there. 13 July, 1684, Kipping, 9 at 
night. Jeffrey, Chief Justice, comes to the Assize with 
special instruction and commission from the King to 
prosecute all Protestant Dissenters besides Quakers, giving 
him, it is said, his ring off his finger, and tells him he 
personates him ; sends new charter to York, and he dis- 
places and places aldermen, &c. 20 July, '84, Kip- 
ping, at 2 in the morning, Col. i. 4. At the Assizes 

'The Outcasts. g3 

Mr. Ward and Mr. Taylor and twelve more are com- 
mitted ; called rogues, traitors, whiggs by the Chief 
Justice. Charter is surrendered. He tells them the 
King's pleasure is to root out all phanatics through the 
land. . . . Aug. 17, '84. That morning Mr. 
Heywood is taken at 5 o'clock. Mr. Smith is intended 
to be taken this week at James Hasted's, but Mr. 
Holdsworth is there. Col. i. 5. Aug. 24, '34. Kip- 
ping, 10 at night. Col. i. 5. Then Mr. Heywood 
is bound to Assizes. William Nay lor, and four with 
him, in prayer with a sick man, are taken, and a con- 
venticle made of it. Aug. 30, '84. Now, bailiffs are 
unceasingly diligent to apprehend ministers and people. 
2 month, 4 day, '86, Kipping at sunrise. 
2 Kings vii. 3, 4." 

In transcribing the above extracts, Mr. Scales justly 
observes : cc Amidst all the perils and dangers to which 
their worship was exposed, it is gratifying to observe how, 
in the midst of all, this faithful pastor called their 
attention to the glorious and essential truths of Scripture, 
and made these the themes of instruction and edification." 

Heywood himself refers to his position at the end 
of 1684 as being more difficult than at any period 
of his life before. He was bound to good behaviour 
in recognizances of £100, and was keenly watched in 
the hope that this bond would be forfeited. He speaks 
of his troubles being greatly increased by the fear of his 
apprehension constantly present to the mind of his wife. 
At length his enemies triumphed. He was found guilty 
of having a riotous assembly in his house ; and failing 
to enter into sureties for cc good behaviour " (which 
meant desisting from preaching), was sent to York, and 
ordered to pay a fine of ^50. At York he found 
Whitaker, of Leeds, whose company was consoling to 

94 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

him, and Hey wood was soon joined by his wife. He and 
his associates pursued here a most devout and systematic 
course of occupation. They fortified their minds for 
future trials by much prayer and study of the Bible and 
Foxe's fC Martyrs." Whilst in prison they were visited 
by Lady Hewley and Mr. Frankland. Both ministers, 
being unable to speak to their people, wrote sermons, 
which were afterwards read to their assembled flocks. 
Owing, probably, to the intercession of his wife, Heywood 
was not long incarcerated. No sooner was he at liberty 
than he resumed with eagerness his beloved work, and 
whilst yet in the city he had spoken at more than 
one meeting in the vicinity. Before he left York, he re- 
ceived intelligence of an event of the highest importance. 
Charles II. had died ; died surrounded by vile companions 
and courtesans ; died without a word of repentance coming 
forth from his godless lips ; leaving to the world the memory 
of a name expressive of lust, baseness, and treachery ; 
of a reign in which God was greatly dishonoured and His 
servants deeply insulted and outraged ; and of an example 
which warns off profligates, perjurers, and persecutors. 

All lovers of the Protestant religion regarded the 
accession of James II., 1685, with the utmost alarm. 
The new King lost no time in making known his brother's 
dying reconciliation with the Church of Rome, and in 
avowing himself of that communion. The severities 
against the Nonconformists were renewed. The High 
Church party prompted an address to the King requesting 
him to enforce the penal laws against Dissenters ; thus 
reviving a persecution which had begun a little to abate. 
As one of the first consequences, Richard Baxter, who 
immediately after the King's accession had been committed 
to the King's Bench by a warrant of Lord Chief Justice 
Jeffreys, was brought to trial, and exposed to the most 

The Outcasts. 95 

outrageous indignities at the hands of that godless and 
brutal man. cc All the meeting-houses of Protestant 
Dissenters," says Neal, cc were shut up ; the old trade 
of informing revived and flourished ; the spiritual courts 
were crowded with business ; private conventicles were 
disturbed in all parts of the city and country. Dissenting 
ministers could neither travel the road, nor appear in 
public but in disguise, nay, they were afraid to be seen 
in the houses of their friends, pursuivants from the 
spiritual courts being always abroad upon the watch." ' 

The state of affairs in England was now advancing 
rapidly towards another crisis. The rebellion of the Duke 
of Monmouth in England, and that of the Earl of Argyle 
in Scotland, manifested the state of public feeling in both 
countries. The Nonconformists were suspected, however, 
of having their share in these insurrections, and thus a pre- 
text was afforded for new severities. But now the gaols of 
England were full ; those of York and Hull were crowded 
with merchants and tradesmen who had been known to 
hold liberal opinions. They were thus happily preserved 
from complicity in the transactions themselves. 

In 1687 the scene changed. The hostility of the 

k clergy to the Romanists drove the King to the contrary 
side/ On the 4th April, he issued a Declaration for the 
1 Neal. Vol. v. p. 5. 
2 In the Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, Bart, the last Governor of 
York (published 1735), he says that the Duke of York (afterwards 
James II.) was thought to be a friend to Presbyterians ; for not long 
before 1670, a Nonconformist minister being prosecuted for preaching 
in a Conventicle, it was reported that His Highness the Duke of Bucking- 
ham (then principal minister of state) had written in his favour to the 
justices, " but the Duke of York, as I was one day attending on him in St. 
James's Park, called me to him and declared that he had not concerned 
himself at all with it, though he was such a friend of that sort of people, 
that he could wish the law had not been put in execution," — or words to 
that effect. 

96 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

suspension of all penal laws against Nonconformists ; and 
as he had formerly endeavoured to gain over the Church 
party against Dissenters, he now attempted to gain the 
Nonconformists against the Prelatists. The King required 
the Declaration to be read in Churches. The clergy refused. 
In the meantime the Dissenters, at least the more sagacious 
of them, were in no little perplexity. They gained, indeed, 
a momentary respite ; but if they admitted the right of 
the Sovereign to set aside laws without the consent of 
Parliament, they clearly foresaw that the power would in 
the issue be employed for their own destruction. Whilst, 
therefore, many addresses, as from York, Sheffield, Hull, 
and other places, went up to the throne expressive of 
the gratitude of Dissenters that the prisons were now 
opened, and that religious worship was free, Baxter, Howe, 
Stretton, and their religious followers stood aloof from 
such demonstrations. 

We need not say how the Prelatists, sympathizing with 
their clergy, turned restive ; nor how the seven bishops, 
among whom was Dr. Lake, once Vicar of Leeds, and 
Sancroft, formerly a pupil of jollie, AtterclirTe, remon- 
strated, were committed to the Tower on a charge of libel, 
and were tried and acquitted. 

Those who looked no farther than to the present relief, 
rejoiced in the liberty they had attained. cc This may be 
called," says Heywood in his diary, cc annus mirabilis, the 
wonderful year ; and from this time it may be said, What 
hath God wrought, principally in the liberty of the Gospel 
in these three nations ? All persons expected a greater 
restraint than formerly, and there was great cause to expect 
a sudden desolation or violent persecution from the popish 
party, that had long waited for, and now at last obtained, 
a prince of their own religion. But behold the contrary ! 
. . . . Godly Dissenters have gained ground, and grown 

The Outcasts. 


more numerous than ever, and meetings are set up where 
never were any before, even in popish places, as I have 
been informed this week, so that Papists and Quakers 
complain nobody is a gainer by this liberty but Presby- 
terians ; blessed be God ! " 

Heywood availed himself of this occasion to erect a 
meeting-house for the benefit of the congregation, who 
had hitherto worshipped on his own premises (1688). 

Among the benefactors of this period may be honour- 
ably distinguished the Lady Mary Armine. She was a 
grand-daughter of the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, and a 
friend of Richard Baxter. As patroness of Rodwell, once 
forming part of Nostell Priory, she founded Almshouses 
at Monk Bretton, and left a rent-charge of ^40 for 99 
years, to be employed in relieving poor Nonconformist 
ministers in the counties of Derby, Huntingdon, and York. 
Of this charity, Rev. Richard Stretton, formerly of Leeds, 
at this time minister of Haberdashers' Hall, London, 
was the administrator, and Thoresby the Yorkshire 

Stretton's pious zeal went farther. The removal by 
death of the most influential supporters of Nonconformity 
had left the Dissenters of Yorkshire without the means of 
sustaining their academies. Stretton, in this crisis, besought 
the aid of some of the wealthy merchants of London, and 
distributed their subscriptions, made for the purpose of 
sustaining young men during their preparatory education. 
(He continued these efforts till extreme old age, and died 
much respected and lamented in 17 12. Matthew Plenry 
preached his funeral sermon from the appropriate text, 
2 Cor. viii. 6, Cf Thanks be to God who put the same 
earnest care into the heart of Titus for you.") 

We have already obtained incidental glances at the 
modes of acting in these troublous times. Let us, in 


98 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

concluding this chapter, take a passing review of the actors 
themselves. Time has worn off from modern Dissenters 
some of the features which distinguished their fathers ; 
but the partially obliterated lines are well worthy of being 

The Old Nonconformists did not, like the Quakers, 
affect any peculiar attire. Some of them, as Dr. Owen, 
were even ridiculed for the contrary. Yet, in most cases, 
simplicity of dress was regarded as becoming their religious 
profession, and the poverty of most of them rendered 
finery impossible. The gloomy manners and prim lan- 
guage assigned to them by dramatists and writers of 
fiction were cc a weak invention of the enemy ; " yet the 
scenes through which they had passed could not fail to 
leave corresponding indentations of care and sorrow on the 
sufferers. Many of the early ministers were scholars and 
persons of liberal, because University, education ; some 
were born gentlemen, and a few were men of rank and 
influence. The majority had associated with the gentry 
of the land; even after their ejection they moved in good 
society stilly for of such a character were the families from 
whom they received hospitality and protection. 

Their religion was no formal envelope ; it was the 
intensest conviction. Conversion — a word to them of the 
deepest meaning — gave its hue to the whole course of their 
lives. To be a Christian was, in their eyes, to stand face 
to face with the invisible world, with everlasting destinies ; 
it was to see God. To them the Bible was in the strictest 
sense a Divine oracle. They had not, indeed, learned to 
distinguish the Old Testament from the New ; and the 
institutions of Judaism gave a direction to their whole 
Christianity. They not only believed the supernatural to 
be an essential element of religion — in which they were 
right ; but they looked for its intervention on every slight 

The Outcasts. 


occasion — in which they were clearly wrong. Ghosts, 
omens, witchcraft, danced continually before their eyes ; 
and they were apt to credit every tale of wonder — without 
too nicely examining its authority — as a message from 
heaven. But they lived by prayer ; and they well knew 
that prayer was not in vain. They cultivated the closest 
habits of introspection. To record their thoughts and 
actions was with many of them the work of each day, 
although in after times it sank down into a mere habitude, 
and seems to us, who look on with other eyes, not worth 
the trouble it must have cost. The Sabbath was observed 
according to the strictest rule of interpretation ; whilst 
carelessness in its maintenance was the mark of the enemy 
and the persecutor. To them it was a jewel of priceless 
value, neither to be desecrated nor neglected. The master 
of each family was the High Priest of his household. 
Like Job, he continually offered burnt offerings and 
sacrifices according to the number of them all. The 
parents laid their hands upon their children's heads and 
blessed them. The Scriptures were read, and often 
expounded, in order. Lord Rochester charged his infi- 
delity upon the long sermons of Dr. Manton, which his 
aunt compelled him to read in his childhood. In some 
small respects this complaint might be true ; for the good 
are not always wise. But very different results followed, in 
general, the old Nonconformist training, and the children 
who had seen their fathers suffer for conscience' sake, were 
usually ready to suffer in their turn also. 

The preaching of the Nonconformist ministers was not 
without its peculiarities. Its forte was amplitude, not 
concinnity. Their topics were usually placed on a revolv- 
ing wheel, till every phase of the subject had been 
exhibited and exhausted. No illustration was disdained, 
whether drawn from books or from living reality ; there 

LofC. H 2 

ioo Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

might be found sentences from learned authors, and often 
epigrams of the preacher's own. The value of the ser- 
mon was greatly intensified by the scarceness of existing 
books, and by the comparative rarity of the subject, for 
much preaching had not then made men familiar with 
Bible truths, and the Scriptures were mainly new to 
English readers. The times, too, were exciting ; it was 
the duty of every minister to turn them to account ; and 
the sufferings of the preacher greatly deepened the effect 
of his message, for there could be no doubt of the earnest- 
ness of the man who had shown himself ready to face all 
dangers rather than to forsake his God. If the speaker 
preached in peril, the hearer heard in peril too ; and such 
conditions are not the elements of sleepy congregations. 
In addition to the ordinary services, frequent meetings 
were held under the head of thanksgiving or fast-days, 
commemorative of occasions of joy or sorrow. 1 The word 
cc fast-day" must not, however, be understood too literally. 
It had the same general meaning which still obtains in 
Scotland. It is amusing to observe in the Heckmondwike 
Church record the following entry: — "Nov. 14, 1678. 
Laid out for meat on the fast-day ^00 01 s. oid." (u id.), 
and it reminds us of South's sarcasm against Owen, that 
he began his fast after dinner. But in process of time 
cc fast-day " came to mean no more than a day of religious 
solemnity. Such a period always preceded the celebration 
of the Communion. 

It has been usual to regard the practice of reading 

1 We shudder at the length to which the occasional services of former 
days were extended; seven hours, with a quarter of an hour's interval, 
were not uncommon. But to have ridden, perhaps to have walked, many 
miles in quest of spiritual food, was not likely to render men impatient of 
the turning of the hour-glass, which stood in the pulpit and measured the 
time. To children, however, the infliction must have been one of inde- 
scribable torture. That it was so Lister's Memoirs bear witness. 

The Outcasts. 101 

sermons as of comparatively modern origin. This is 
clearly a mistake, though doubtless the habitude was 
formerly less frequent than now. The Scotch complained 
of Nye in 1 643 that he read much out of his paper-book, 
and it is in evidence that Sharp, of Mill-hill, " that incom- 
parable preacher," as Thoresby calls him, read his sermons. 
Where sermons were not thus delivered, ample notes were 
employed, even by Heywood himself. In some of the 
histories of Morley the expression " preaching minister " 
is interpreted as if in contrast to one who read his sermons. 
In reality it was meant to be in opposition to one who 
merely read homilies, and perhaps could scarcely accomplish 

The order of Nonconformist service was not very 
different from that with which modern Dissenters are 
familiar ; but there was no instrumental music. Such an 
accompaniment would have been deemed profane, and it 
was not employed subsequently without great disquietude, 
as in Horton-lane, Bradford. Indeed, singing in general 
was held by our forefathers in no special favour, under the 
impression that many, in a mixed congregation, must utter 
sentiments they did not feel. Some bodies dispensed with 
it altogether. It must, however, be acknowledged that the 
psalmody was not very inviting. The Scottish psalms, 
though written by an Englishman, were soon disused, and 
beyond the productions of Patrick and a few hymns of 
Baxter, there was little to kindle devotion till Watts and 
Doddridge changed the scene. 

The veneration with which, in their best days, the Non- 
conformist pastors were held by their flocks was almost 
unbounded. The influence of their purity was heightened 
by the fact that the smell of fire had passed on them. 
They were consulted, not only in what were termed cases 
of conscience, but in the ordinary affairs of life, and their 

102 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

prayers, both public and private, were regarded as invalu- 
able. It was deemed an honour to have their acquaintance, 
to protect them in their adversities, to learn from them how 
to act and how to suffer. 

Congregationalists and Presbyterians did not greatly 
differ from each other to the outward eye. But they were 
wide asunder in their special principles. Whilst Presby- 
terianism clung to State authority, Independency regarded 
the Church mainly as a simply voluntary society, every 
member of which was equal. Such churches were usually 
formed by the intended members standing in a circle, 
hand clasping hand, whilst in the presence of witnesses 
from other churches, they solemnly pledged themselves to 
a covenant previously drawn up, and afterwards signed. 
Subsequently, each member admitted solemnly added his 
name. As no one church possessed control over other 
churches, but only over its own members, before a pastor 
was chosen he was admitted by vote into the body which 
afterwards summoned him to the special service. cc There 
is also a distinguishing feature of Independent Church 
discipline that their minister is so far from being persona 
ecclesite, as Blackstone denominates an incumbent, and in- 
vested with sacerdotal authority, that there was usually 
another person— not a minister, but a layman — whom they 
called a ruling elder, whose office somewhat resembled that 
of Censor among the Romans, or the Ephori among the 
Lacedemonians, who had power to call the minister or any 
other member to account in a summary way if the con- 
duct of either of them appeared wrong, and if they did 
not submit to his reproof, to present them to the Church 
for censure, degradation, and excommunication." 1 

Very few of the edifices which accommodated the 
first Nonconformists are now standing. They were 

1 Protestant Dissenters' Mag., vol. vi., 1 799= 

J he Outcasts. 103 

placed for the most part in retired situations, where the 
worshippers would be least exposed to interruption, and 
they were little distinguished by exterior or interior 
adornment. The square pews, with their linings of green 
serge, the hat rails inserted in the outer panels of the 
galleries, the uncouth accommodation, the shutters which 
protected the quarreled windows from injury, were peculiar 
features, and are now obsolete. As Sunday-schools had 
not yet arisen, the instruction of the young formed a 
prominent feature of the Sabbath exercises, and the 
Assembly's shorter catechism was carefully learned, and 
sedulously explained by the Pastor of the flock. A few 
minor observances may be promiscuously added. Collec- 
tions were often made on the briefs issued by authority 
to the parish churches, and not infrequently, a deprived 
and suffering minister having been asked to preach, 
contributions were solicited on his behalf, which he some- 
times stood in the aisle to receive. The Lord's Supper 
was often, perhaps usually, administered in claret wine 
and with the finest bread procurable. In addition to 
Scriptural names, which were common, others were meant 
to be peculiarly expressive. cc Accepted Lister " stood 
as a memorial of his mother's sense of Divine favour ; 
" God's-gift Kirby " marked the thankfulness of the 
father ; cc Deliverance Larkham " indicated a special 

Remarks on similar peculiarities might be much ex- 
tended. Our space warns us to forbear. If canonization 
were Scriptural, some of these eminent men emphatically 
deserved it. But even to Oliver Heywood, and in 
such a town as Halifax, not a monument has been 
accorded. These saints have higher distinctions. Their 
witness is in heaven, and their record is on high. They 
have left to posterity an imperishable example, more- 

104 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

over, of pious holiness, of heroic endurance, of untiring 
labour, of distinguished usefulness, the remembrance of 
which will light up many a languid eye, and which will 
reproduce themselves in future generations of the Church 
of God. 




We are now to witness Nonconformity, though by no 
means freed from difficulties, assuming the form of a 
regular and settled institution. 

" The Act of Toleration," which commemorated the 
Revolution and the reign of William and Mary, was 
passed in 1689. The very title of that measure represents 
to modern ears the assertion of a right to persecute, 
not insisted on ; terrible powers lying dormant ; a beast 
of prey in a forbearing and gentle mood. At the time, 
however, such thoughts did not rise in the minds of 
our forefathers. Religious equality was then imperfectly 
estimated, even by the best ; and the spirits of the 
Nonconformists had been so broken by successive on- 
slaughts that the cessation of terror was in itself a boon 
when it could be enjoyed with a safe conscience. Yet this 
measure of Toleration was a compromise which satisfied 
no party ; the Prelatists were offended by what it gave ; 
the moderate party (including the King) were disgusted 
with what it withheld. It by no means repealed all the 

106 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

penal laws by which religion was outraged ; it left those 
against the Romanists in full force. It did not remove 
punishment on non-worshippers at parish churches. 
Heresy was ' yet a crime. Subscription to the doctrinal 
articles was still demanded, and the Corporation and 
Test Acts remained in full force. Dissenters were not 
even now permitted to instruct the young. 

But, notwithstanding these and other exceptions, the 
influence of the Act was salutary ; it was a soothing 
application to a lacerated wound. It permitted much 
liberty ; it reduced informers to their own insignificant 
dimensions ; it let in fresh air to the crowded prisons ; 
it authorized the worship of God. Congregations pre- 
viously formed now began to show themselves. Buildings 
for their use arose in all directions. 

The King's hopes and efforts had been strongly in 
favour of a comprehension, and of the removal of the 
Sacramental test. He failed in both. The old Church 
party was still strong ; and the hatred of Popery, which 
had mainly prompted the Revolution, having been now 
gratified, concessions in favour of Dissenters were wrung 
from them with much difficulty. Nor did comprehension 
find favour in the eyes of the far-seeing Dissenters. 
They knew that such a measure would only include a 
certain number, and that those beyond that circle would be 
more distant than ever from the liberty they desired. 

Hitherto we have classed Presbyterians and other bodies 
together under the general name of Nonconformists. Let 
us see what was their position on the passing of the Act of 
Toleration. (In this estimate we avail ourselves of the 
Cole MS. in the British Museum, and of the observations 
of Hunter upon the statistics there furnished.) 

An Order of Council issued January, 1688, brings the 
following returns : — 

Recognition. 107 

In the province of Canterbury — Conformists, 2,123,362; 
Nonconformists, 95,151; Papists, 11,878. 

In the province of York — Conformists, 353,892 ; 
Nonconformists, 15,525; Papists, 1,987. 

Nonconformists thus appear to be only i-24th of the 
whole population, though it is easy to imagine that the 
time had not yet come when they could declare themselves 
openly, and that the real number might thus be somewhat 
greater than it seemed. 

These congregations were very unequally distributed. 
As is always the case in times of persecution, they were 
more numerous in the hill-countries than in the valleys 
below. Leeds presented only two congregations, one 
Presbyterian and one Independent ; Hunslet, Holbeck, 
Bramley had disappeared. Halifax asserts a special supe- 
riority. That town, Northowram, Sowerby, Elland, 
Mixenden, Warley, Eastwood, LightclifTe, remained 
memorials of the labours of Oliver Heywood and Matthew 
Smith. Sheffield presented a flourishing aspect, having 
Rotherham for a near neighbour; Stannington and Ful- 
wood being their chief county congregations. Wakefield, 
Morley, Thornton, Pontefract, Doncaster, Elland, Bingley, 
Idle, Pudsey, Bradford, Greenhowhill, Heckmondwike, 
Flcckton, Cleckheaton, Topcliffe, Hopton, and Lidget, all 
had their assemblies. There were congregations at York, 
Clifford, and Knaresborough, in all which Lady Hewley 
was known as a benefactress. The Lamberts cared for 
Horton and Winterburn ; Lord Wharton for Swaledale ; 
the Rodeses for Long Houghton ; the Dineleys for Bram- 
hope, and there were small congregations at Newton and 
Rathmel. In the North Riding were Ay ton, Whitby, 
Scarborough, Malton, Selby, Appleton. In the East 
Riding, Hull, and its neighbour Cottingham, Beverley, 
S. Cave, Bridlington, and Swanland. 

to8 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

It is a memorable and painful fact that, after the great 
impulse which Puritanism had given in Yorkshire to the 
doctrines of the Reformation, so few Nonconforming con- 
gregations should be found representing those truths. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that in some of the 
churches of the Establishment Evangelical preaching was 
still continued. 

Till now, though they frequently mingled together in 
Divine worship, and sometimes, as in Sheffield and 
Northowram, were united in one communion, the Presby- 
terian and Congregationalists had constituted, in the main, 
distinct bodies. They did not, indeed, greatly differ in 
forms of worship, and they could at any time have readily 
exchanged services. Independents adhered substantially 
to the Assembly's catechism, and the Congregational prin- 
ciple of purity of communion began to be imitated bv 
a few Presbyterians. But there were many points of 
difference. In general, the Presbyterian sacrament was 
open to all comers, and those who had attempted to 
impart greater strictness to its observance had found the 
enforcement to be well-nigh impossible. The temporal 
kingdom was still a Presbyterian dream, though sorely 
shaken by the events of recent times. The cup had 
been dashed down from their father's lips, yet the children 
had not lost all relish for the enticing draught. Their 
hope was still in cc comprehension," though its embrace 
would have assuredly strangled them altogether. But the 
Presbyterians regarded Independency as the treacherous 
foe which had robbed them of their promised inheritance. 

On the other hand, the Congregationalists, with all their 
regard for the Presbyterians as Christians, regarded their 
movements with extreme disfavour as the origin of many 
of the evils which Nonconformity had suffered. Had 
not Presbyterians treated them with jealousy and bitter- 

Recognition. 109 

ness ? Had they not intrigued for, and at last brought in 
the hated Stuarts ? Did they not still acknowledge the 
State alliance which had made them victims ? The views 
taken by the Independents were not altogether clear ; but 
the waters, though not perfectly transparent, were in 
a rapid course of defecat : on. 

Yet both parties, once fellow-sufferers, and now included 
in a general amnesty, judged the time to be one in which 
they might well think of agreement. Movements for this 
purpose began in London, 1691, and the recommendations 
of eighty metropolitans were sent from thence through 
the entire kingdom. 

Already the Presbyterians of Cheshire, Nottingham- 
shire, and part of Lancashire, had pledged themselves to 
this agreement. It was now attempted in Yorkshire. A 
joint letter from the two ministers of Leeds, Sharp the 
Presbyterian, and Whitaker the Independent, invited Hey- 
wood, whose church united both parties, to summon a 
deliberative assembly for the purpose of promoting their 
union. Difficulties arose in the outset respecting the 
place of meeting. Heywood proposed Leeds, the Leeds 
ministers preferred Morley ; at length Heywood fixed on 
Wakefield, and named Sept. 2 as the time. This was the 
period at which a monthly lecture was usually held, at the 
house of Mr. Kirby. Similar difficulties arose respect- 
ing a preacher, and in the end the sermon was under- 
taken by Heywood himself. Twenty-four ministers and 
students assembled, to the no small wonderment of the 
inhabitants of Wakefield. The Pastors were afraid of 
their own gathering, and, lest treasonable designs should 
be suspected, took different routes to the house where 
they dined. Heywood has preserved a list of the ministers 
thus assembled : — 

Rev. Richard Frankland, Rathmel. 

tio Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

Rev. Edward Prime, Sheffield. 

Rev. Thomas Johnson, living at Painthorpe. 

Rev. William Hawden, living in Wakefield. 

Rev. Oliver Hey wood, Northowram. 

Rev. Joseph Dawson, Morley. 

Rev. David Noble, Heckmondwike. 

Rev. — -. Wharam, Great Houghton. 

Rev. Nath. Baxter, Sheffield. 

Rev. Richard Thorp, Hopton. 

Rev. Thomas Sharp, Leeds. 

Rev. Thomas Whitaker, Leeds. 

Rev. Thomas Elston, TopclifTe. 

Rev. Matthew Smith, Mixenden. 

Rev. John Holdsworth, Alverthorpe. 

Rev. James Wright, Attercliffe. 

Rev. John Heywood, Ravenfield. 

Rev, Eliezer Heywood, Wallingwells. 

Rev. John Lister, Elland. 

Rev. John Ray, Closes, (Cleckheaton). 
together with four candidates for the ministry, Nathaniel 
Priestley of Warley, Jonathan Wright of Idle, Sagar of 
Alverthorpe, Gill of Pontefract, 

No minister was present from York, perhaps, as 
Hunter conjectures, because it was not in the Riding. 
He adds, Cf there are a few names which might have been 
expected to appear in this list and do not, the most 
remarkable of which is that of Timothy Jollie, of 
Sheffield, for whose absence I am unable to account." 
Besides these ministers, many other persons were present. 

The meeting commenced with prayer offered by Frank- 
land. Heywood then read over, one by one, the heads 
of the proposed agreement. Except some remarks made 
by Frankland and Sharp, no one seems to have raised 
any question. Thoresby, who was present, refers to the 

Recognition. 1 1 1 

meeting as peculiarly unanimous and agreeable. The 
coalescing parties were to be known as " The United 
Brethren." After this gathering, meetings of the two 
bodies continued to be held in the West Riding for more 
than a century. 

The general project, however, failed, and failed disas- 
trously. The attempts at union ended in a memorable 
discord. The movement proved the means of bringing 
out an old sore which had been healed over, but was 
not forgotten. The republication about this time (1690) 
of the works of Dr. Crisp, which the Westminster 
Assembly had ordered to be burnt, revived a former 
controversy between what was called fc Antinomianism " 
on the one hand, and " Legality " on the other. Dr. 
D. Williams undertook to confute Crisp's principles with 
the approval of many eminent ministers, among whom 
Bates and Howe were prominent. Dr. Chauncey and 
others embraced the opposite side, and in the end broke 
off from the projected union. Two parties were thus 
formed ; one of them being charged with Arminianism 
and Socinianism, the other with Antinomianism. One 
effect of this heated controversy was the separation of 
Presbyterians and Independents into distinct bodies — the 
latter in general taking the Calvinistic, the former the 
Arminian side of the great question of Justification by 
the death of Christ. The division was nowhere more 
marked than in Yorkshire, where the Presbyterian 
churches, with very few exceptions, departed gradually 
from the faith held by their fathers, and in a few years 
lapsed into Arianism, and through that into Unitarianism. 
This county furnished, about this period, many Non- 
conformist benefactors to the cause of humanity, and 
of Scriptural and theological education. 

One of these was Thomas Hollis, Esq., originally a 

112 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

whitesmith of Rotherham, afterwards a hardware merchant 
in the Minories, London. In the time of the civil wars 
he left Yorkshire for London, and died 171 8, aged 84. 
He founded a hospital at Sheffield for the support of 
sixteen poor cutlers' widows. 1 Though a Baptist by- 
persuasion, he felt under great obligation to the Inde- 
pendents, having been converted under the ministry of 
the Rev. James Fisher. He was a considerable con- 
tributor to the chapel erected for the Rev. Robert Durant. 
His charities were augmented by his eldest son, a well- 
known London merchant, who, with his brother, founded 
a professorship of mathematics in Harvard College, U.S., 
and made other benefactions amounting to ^5,000. 
(Though the opinions of the donors differed from those 
of the curators of the Institution, who were Unitarians, 
no exclusive religious condition was attached to the 

Another benefactor was Philip, Lord Wharton (whose 
mother was a daughter of the Earl of Monmouth), a 
Presbyterian, who, about 1642, being then Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Lancashire, gave great aid to the Puritan party, 
with whom he was closely identified. He was a lay 
member of the Westminster Assembly. Subsequently he 

1 His son, Thomas Hollis, added other endowments to his bequest, and 
left monies to the ministers of Upper Chapel and Nether Chapel, Full- 
wood, Rotherham, Doncaster, and the schoolmasters at the last two places. 

Hollis, who was a very libera] politician, had for an intimate friend 
Rev. Richard Baron, a Baptist minister of Sheffield — a republican, and an 
ardent lover of liberty. Mr. B. discovered (1755) z ^ e second edition of 
Milton's " Iconoclastes " (published 1650), which contained addi ions to 
the previous one. This he brought out in quarto in 1756. The original 
edition of Milton is very scarce, and Baron accounts for this in his preface, 
from the information of Mr. John Swale, a bookseller, of Leeds, who told 
him that a number of priests in that neighbourhood met annually, in 
memory of Charles I., and showed their zeal by burning all the copies of 
Milton's prose works they could find. 

Recognition. 113 

became, in the House of Lords and elsewhere, a champion 
of the cause of Nonconformity. He was a warm friend 
of Howe, whom he took, 1685, f° r ^ e companion of his 
travels. Heywood dedicated to him a sermon entitled 
" The Best Entail," with a preface which partakes a 
little of the fulsome, though it was doubtless the natural 
expression of a grateful heart for many pecuniary benefits. 
Lord Wharton erected near Smarber-hall a chapel for the 
benefit of his miners, and endowed it with land in 
Westmoreland (See Low-row). 1 

During his life (at least in the latter years of it) 
Lord Wharton began the distribution of Bibles and 
Catechisms to the poor. Thoresby mentions the com- 
mencement of this charity in the year 1790. He says, 
" Some of a warm spirit were displeased at the conditions 
required of the poor children " (who received the books), 
" not only to repeat seven Psalms memoriter> but the 
Assembly's Catechism, which wanted the stamp of public 
authority, and was above their capacities. But this did 
not hinder their repeating the Church Catechism in public ; 
nor was it above their capacities when more adult ; and 
it comprehends an excellent summary of the Christian 
religion. Upon these conditions, fourscore Bibles were 
sent to Leeds, and the like number to York, &c. — a most 
excellent spiritual charity, whereby many poor families, 
not otherwise provided, become acquainted with the Holy 
Scriptures, which are able to make them wise unto salva- 
tion. My Lord was pleased to continue this number to 

1 Mr. Scales says that he had seen a volume entitled " Totum Ho minis j 
or, The Whole Duty of a Christian ; consisting in Faith and a Good 
Life." Abridged in certain Sermons, &c. By the late Reverend and 
Worthy Mr. Samuel Wales, Minister of the Gospel in Morley, Yorkshire. 
With a Prefatory Epistle from the Lord Wharton and Sir T. Wharton to 
their children, 1681. This copy bore the name " Anna Warton," pro- 
bably Sir T.'s daughter. 


ii4 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

the time of his death, and condescended to acquaint me that 
they should be for my time, too, and perhaps for ever." * 

Lord Wharton died Feb. 4, 1694 (aged 83). By will 
he left an estate (now bearing the name of the Bible 
estate), the proceeds of which were devoted to supplying 
the various localities in which he had possessed property 
with Bibles, Catechisms, and Alleine's books as rewards. 
The directions were that 1050 Bibles should be thus 
annually given out. His lordship's instruction, left in 
writing, orders that the right number of Catechisms should 
be yearly provided, cc now entitled, The Grounds and Prin- 
ciples of the Christian Religion, with proofs thereof, out 
of the Scriptures." This, as afterwards appears, was 
the Catechism of Thomas Lye, A.M., who was one of 
the Non-cons, ejected from Allhallows, Lombard-street, 
London, and afterwards Pastor of a Dissenting Church in 
London and Clapham. A work of Joseph Alleine's, " A 
sure Guide to Heaven," better known as cc A Call to the 

1 Lord Wharton is said (Prot. Diss. Mag., vi., 35) " to have been, in 
early life, one of the handsomest men and greatest beaux of his time. He 
had, in his younger days, very fine legs, and took great delight to show 
them in dancing. In his old age, when those legs were shrunk almost to 
the bone, he would point to them and say, ' These are the handsome legs 
I was so proud of in my youth ; see what is the beauty of man that he 
should take pride in it.' " A writer in the same periodical, who calls 
himself " An aged minister" (p. 114, 115), says : "For many years a 
large quantity of Bibles and other religious books have been sent annually 
to certain congregations of Protestant Dissenters in Yorkshire, to be dis- 
tributed among the children and poor, at the discretion of the respective 
ministers, and subject to certain regulations of his lordship, &c. I have 
frequently received Bibles from my neighbouring brethren, particularly 
from the late venerable Mr. Whitaker, of Leeds, and have distributed them 
among my young people. But, about the time of the late controversy 
respecting the Test Act, this charitable bequest was taken from the Dis- 
senters and sent to the ministers of the Establishment who happened to 
reside in those towns that are mentioned by Lord Wharton, and they have 
received it ever since." 

Recognition. i 1 5 

Unconverted/' is also instructed to be given for rewards 
to those children who have made the greatest proficiency. 
The Will, or Copy of Instructions, also orders that on the 
day of the delivery of Bibles cc there shall be sermons at 
the following places, viz., York and Leeds by turns ; 
Bradford and Wakefield by turns ; Richmond yearly ; 
Northallerton, Bedale, Thirsk, and Boroughbridge by turns; 
Helaugh, Tadcaster, Wetherby, and Knaresborough by 
turns ; Swaledale yearly ; Kirkby Stephen, Rossendale, 
and Shap by turns ; Aylesbury, Chipping Wycomb, and 
Gt. Marlow by turns ; allowing ten shillings for the 
preaching of each sermon. The purport, design, and 
scope of each sermon shall be to discover and prove to 
the people the truth, usefulness, sufficiency and excellency 
of the Holy Scriptures, and the people's right to have 
them fully in their own language, and also their duty to 
read, study, and search the Scriptures, and take them for 
their own unerring rule of faith, worship, and manners ; 
and that there be conceived prayers by the minister who 
shall preach such sermons, before and after every such 
sermon, among other things proper on the said occasion. 
No mention to be made of the donor in the sermon or 
prayers." 1 

The subsequent history of this charity exhibits a remark- 
able, though by no means unusual, instance of perverted 
trust. It does not appear that Lye's Catechism was always 
given ; for in the writer's possession is the Assembly's 
shorter Catechism 2 bearing the mark c< The Gift of Philip, 
late Lord Wharton, deceased, distributed by his Lordship's 
trustees, 1720." The deviation might be justified by the 
fact that this was the Catechism which his Lordship him- 
self distributed during his life. But notwithstanding the 

1 See Appendix. 
2 One of the volumes left by the late Rev. T\ Scales. 

I 2 

1 1 6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

condition as to cc conceived prayers " the funds are now 
almost wholly administered by clergymen of the Church 
of England. The enlarged value of the property has 
increased the number of Bibles, but we are told that at the 
beginning of the present century cc the late John Robin- 
son, Esq., of Sion Hill, Essex. M.P. for Harwich, lately 
procured the Book of Common Prayer to be given with 
the Bible to children." 1 About that period it seems that 
the Bibles issued to the various places mentioned in the 
deed, which had been from the first regularly sent to 
Dissenting ministers, were given instead to ministers of the 
Establishment, and are now accompanied by the Church 
Catechism. It may be well inquired by what authority 
this alienation has taken place, or on what upright prin- 
ciples its continuance can be justified. Probably the only 
exception to this perversion is in the case of those Bibles 
specially left to Swale-dale, where vigorous remonstrance 
has secured a right appropriation of the trust. 2 

But the greatest Yorkshire benefactress to the cause of 
Nonconformity was Lady Hewley. She was the wife of 
Sir John Hewley, a lawyer, and a citizen of York, which 
borough he represented in Parliament in 1676, 1677, and 
1678. (His family had come to York with Archbishop 
Sandys.) Sir John died at his residence, Bell Hall, 
Aug. 24, 1697, and was buried in St. Saviour's Church. 
Dame Sarah Hewley was the daughter and heiress of 
Robert Wolrich, Esq., well known in the legal profession. 
Lady Hewley was devoutly attached to the ministry of 

1 Monthly Mag., June, 1803. 

2 The late Rev. D. Simpson, once minister of Smarber-hall Chapel, 
left by his will £50 to a school, then kept by his assistant and successor, 
Rev. J. Allason, the interest to be paid for the education of children whose 
parents regularly attend Divine worship in the Low-row Dissenting 
Chapel. The school is now closed. To what purpose is the accruing 
interest applied ? 

Recognition, 117 


Rev. Ralph Ward, and became, after his death, a member 
of the Presbyterian Congregation, at St. Saviour's Gate. 
Dr. Colton was her pastor ; and a more than common 
regard subsisted between Lady Hewley and himself. 
Lady Hewley's private chaplain was Rev. Timothy 
Hodgson, son of Captain Hodgson, of Coley Hall, who 
was a Congregationalist and an intimate friend of Oliver 
Hey wood. Lady Hewley was distinguished during life 
for her liberal charities, and she had no near relations. 
She was probably influenced in her bequest by the failure 
of Lady Armine's fund (see p. 97), of which Mr. Stretton, 
whom she chose as one of her trustees, had been the 
administrator. In 1704, Lady Hewley executed deeds 
conveying Hay Park, near Knaresborough, with other lands 
and tenements of considerable value to seven trustees, and 
seven sub-trustees, to be applied — 1. To poor and godly 
preachers, for the time being, of Christ's holy Gospel. 
2. To their widows. 3. To the encouragement of the 
preaching of Christ's holy Gospel in poor places. 4. For 
the education of young men designed for the ministry. 
5. For the relief of godly persons in distress. 6. For the 
support of an Almshouse, to be inhabited by nine poor 
women, and one poor man ; the women being required to 
repeat the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and 
Mr. Bowles's Catechism. 

That the sentiments of Lady Hewley were distinctly 
Trinitarian is beyond all doubt. In the sermon which 
Dr. Colton preached at her death cc there is the strongest 
evidence of the double fact of Dr. Colton himself being a 
Trinitarian, and of Lady Hewley, with whose sentiments 
he was intimate, entertaining also the same opinions. 1 The 
Lady herself entrusts <f her soul into the hands of her dear 

1 Lord Lyndhurst's Judgment, 1836. 

1 1 8 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

Redeemer," " to be washed in His blood ;" complains of 

Cf her base and treacherous heart ;" speaks of her works as 

needing to be " sprinkled with the blood of Christ ;" and 

says that cf none has more need of a Saviour to justify and 

to save her," — language that clearly shows the complexion 

of her religious sentiments. And the catechism which she 

enjoins to be used speaks of man as being tc conceived 

in sin, and by nature a child of wrath " in danger of 

" perishing everlastingly ;" and refers to Christ as having 

c< laid down his life for our redemption." Her bequests 

were clearly meant to benefit those who held similar 

religious sentiments. None else could have been met 

by the designation cc preachers of Christ's holy Gospel." 

She certainly never intended that her charities should be 

applied to ministers and institutions maintaining doctrines 

opposite to those she indicated, and the state of the law at 

the time forbad, however unjustly, the application of Trust 

Funds to any who did not hold the doctrinal sentiments of 

the 39 Articles. Dr. Colton, speaking of her bequests, 

says: cc Her final resolution of doing the same was the result 

of her long and deliberate consideration, being moved 

chiefly thereto by her own charitable mind and disposition." 

He says, moreover — fc Lady Hewley frequently expressed 

her satisfaction in the said settlements, and also in the 

character of her Trustees, for persons of honour and 

integrity ; and that she doubted not but that they would 

faithfully perform the trust which she had reposed in them." 

Many were the conferences she held with her friends on 

the subject of her testamentary arrangements, and she 

assigned her property to her Trustees before her decease. 

These Trustees were R. Stretton, Dr. Colton, Nathaniel 

Gould, Thomas Marriott, John Bridges, Thomas Nisbett, 

and James Windlow. It appears that soon after Lady 

Hewley's death, difficulty was anticipated in the execution 

Recognition. 119 

of these trusts. In an unpublished letter to Stretton (June, 
171 1 ), Thoresby says ; <c I am sorry for what Dr. Colton 
told me of — the design to frustrate the late pious Lady 
Hewley's charitable bequests ; which I hope they will be 
disappointed in, ,, We shall have occasion to refer again to 
this benefaction. 

We have already mentioned Frankland's Academy. The 
Toleration Act, as we have seen, did not legalise the 
education of the Sectaries. But a special ground of harass- 
ment at this time arose out of the engagement entered into 
by all who had taken degrees at Oxford and Cambridge, 
that they would not teach cc as in an University " elsewhere. 
That oath, said the Prelatists, interdicted all private estab- 
lishments for the education of ministers. The Noncon- 
formists, on the other hand, contended that as it was aimed 
at the establishment of a rival University, such as Stamford, 
(which was definitely referred to in another part of the 
oath,) it had no reference to Dissenting Academies. It was 
convenient, however, to fix upon the Nonconformists the 
charge of perjury, and great stress was laid by their 
opponents on the literal construction. 

In [686, Frankland, constantly harassed, removed his 
Academy to Attercliffe. But he did not remain long 
in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, and the death of 
his eldest son is assigned as the reason for his removal. 
He returned to his estate at Rathmel, 1 where he remained 
till his death, in Oct., 1698. From first to last, about 
300 students received their education from him. Among 
the best known of these were Whitaker, Leeds ; John and 
Eliezer Hey wood, sons of Oliver ; Nathaniel Heywood, 

1 In 1697 he writes to Heywood that the proceedings against him in 
the spiritual court had been virtually quashed, by the interposition, he 
supposes, of Archbishop Sharp. He was then very ill and in much 

120 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

son of Oliver's brother ; Abraham Dawson, Hull ; 
Nathaniel Priestley, Halifax ; Dr. Evans, London, 
author of "Sermons on Christian Temper;" David 
Some, Market Harborough ; William Tong, Salter's 
Hall, London ; Jeremiah Gill, Hull ; Thomas Dick- 
enson, Northowram ; William Pendlebury, Leeds ; and 
Timothy Jollie, Sheffield. Some of these were Presby- 
terians, and some Congregationalists. Frankiand's trou- 
bles continued from the first institution of his Academy 
till his death ; and the persecutions to which he was 
subjected were worthy of the darkest days of the Church. 
He died at the age of 68, and was buried at Giggleswick. 
His wife survived him, and died 1706. 

The interference with these institutions was not caused 
alone by the rabid Prelatists. More moderate men 
joined in the effort to suppress them. When the clergy 
of Craven petitioned Archbishop Sharp to put down 
Frankiand's Academy,, even the mild Tillotson gave him 
advice not to proceed against him as a Dissenter, but 
to take the ground of the University oath. Calamy 
records a speech made by Sharp in the House of Lords, 
in which he declared his apprehensions of mischief to the 
Church unless the penalties were enforced, and recom- 
mended that the judges should be consulted as to the best 
means of doing so. In reply, Lord Wharton said that 
there were other schools which might be proceeded 
against, especially those of the non-jurors, stating that 
he knew a noble Lord who had two sons educated in 
one of these establishments. This was pointed at Sharp 
himself, who explained that his sons' tutor was a sober, 
virtuous man, but that when he refused the oath of 
abjuration the pupils were at once removed from his care. 

We learn from a letter addressed to Thoresby that 
Frankland had two conferences with Archbishop Sharp on 

Recognition. 121 

the subject of the Craven petition. One was at Skipton, 
from which the clergy were excluded. Sharp took at first 
a high tone, and told Frankland that he would not allow 
his proceedings. But the Nonconformist was firm, 1 and 
replied that if the Archbishop had recourse to severity 
it ought not to be used against such men as himself, 
but against those of the clergy who were a scandal to 
their order, and that prelates ought to promote agreement 
among good men, and not to insist on mere matters 
of ritual. The Archbishop appears to have been struck 
by the force of these remonstrances. A second interview 
took place, by Sharp's own request, at Bishopsthorpe. 
Frankland in vain endeavoured on this occasion to intro- 
duce the points of difference. The Archbishop behaved, 
however, with extreme courtesy, and even kindness. 
After they had smoked a pipe together, the prelate desired 
the prayers of the good tutor. Sharp was doubtless an 
excellent man, warped indeed by his position, but on the 
whole intent on justice and charity. 

Before Frankland's death, Timothy Jollie, who by this 
time had perhaps become a Congregationalist, began to 
receive pupils for the ministry (in the house once belonging 
to the Spencers). They gave him aid in his Pastoral 
labours. For a short interval Mr. Chorlton carried on the 
work. But Jollie resumed it after Frankland's decease ; 
and pursued at the Hall at AtterclifTe the course he had 
learned from his tutor. Some of his pupils became very 

1 Frankland was not only good and amiable, but bold and undaunted. 
At an earlier period he desired, and through the Earl of Manchester 
obtained, a brief interview with Charles II., who stepped aside from 
his attendants to listen to him. In a few emphatic and prepared words, 
the minister warned the King of the danger which his public and private 
course would bring upon his family and the kingdom. Charles turned 
pale, thanked his reprover courteously for his advice, and promised an 
amendment, which never arrived. 

122 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

eminent : Saunderson, the blind Professor of Astronomy 
at Cambridge ; Bowes, the Irish Chancellor ; Seeker, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury; Dr. Grosvenor; Dr. Samuel Wright; 
Thomas Bradbury ; Dr. Evans ; and Price, Assistant to 
Dr. Watts. Though the orders of Jollie's house were very 
strict, the gentleness of his disposition made the yoke 
easy. If learning was not his chief characteristic, 1 the 
want of it was compensated by the direct way in which he 
inculcated the great objects of the ministry. 

In 1694 took place the first public ordination among 
Yorkshire Dissenters. It was held in Horton, Bradford. 
The candidates were Joseph Lister (Topclifre), Nathaniel 
Priestley (Halifax), and Accepted Lister (Thornton). 
Frankland, Heywood, Thorp, two sons of Dawson, 
Ray, and others, were present. After an examination 
in Sharp's house, the service was held in the Chapel 
(Little Horton), although Thorp desired it to be more 
private. It was a Presbyterian solemnity, as were most at 
that time. When Independents joined on such occasions, 
it was usually under protest ; for they claimed that 
ministers should be ordained in the presence of their 
flocks. To both parties in those days the institution of 
a minister was an extremely solemn service, the meaning 
of which was by no means to be frittered away by unin- 
structive socialities and vapid platitudes. At that time, 
however, the Toleration Act had not yet perfectly 
re-assured men's minds, and ordination services were 
performed with fear and trembling. 2 

Many of the materials illustrating this period are derived 

1 Mr. Jollie's teaching of the classics was incomplete, and his notion 
was that the mathematics tended to scepticism. 

2 See Calamy's Life and Times, vol. i., p. 340. In this matter of 
ordination both John Howe and Matthew Henry thought that " the betler 
part of valour was discretion," and acted with extreme caution. 

Recognition. 1 23 

from the copious papers of Oliver Heywood, as they are 
arranged and illustrated in his biography by the late Rev. 
Joseph Hunter. Heywood was now finishing his course. 
To no servant of God is the cause of Evangelical dissent 
in Yorkshire so largely indebted. Though not a man 
of genius, his piety, his courage, his earnestness and 
laboriousness have caused his name to be indelibly en- 
graved in the history of Nonconformity, especially in the 
West Riding, and his course furnishes the most remarkable 
illustration of the manner in which the seed scattered by 
English Presbyterians ripened into modern Congrega- 
tionalism. A very considerable number of the churches 
which now belong to Independency have arisen, more or 
less directly, from the exertions of this most Apostolical 
man. Even when age and infirmity had much diminished 
his physical powers, he continued to labour on, and the 
estimation in which he was held was very wide and 
general ; and in his old age he received several invitations 
from other congregations, and among others, from St. 
Helen's in London, which had lost by death the services of 
Dr. Annesley. But Heywood steadily refused them all. 
When he could no longer walk, he was borne, like another 
Apostle John, into the public assembly, and still preached 
with energy and fervour. At length, on May 4, 1702, he 
yielded up his spirit to that God whom he had untiringly 
served amidst such a fight of afflictions. His death 
quenched the greatest Evangelical light of the northern 
districts. Baxter did great things for Kidderminster and 
London. Bunyan did much for the districts around Bed- 
ford. But still more was done by Heywood in the wide 
space over which his influence extended. 

Many of the Presbyterian churches had now greatly 
declined from the doctrinal opinions set forth by the 
Assembly's Catechism. Their first divergence was appa- 

124 Congregationalism in Tor k shire, 

rent in the maintenance of that form of Calvinism termed 
Baxterianism. This of itself would be scarcely deemed by 
modern Evangelical Dissenters an error ; seeing that such 
sentiments are now generally held to be Scriptural. But, 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Arian 
notions of Whiston, soon followed by the more dangerous 
speculations of Clarke on the Trinity, were eagerly 
received by a large number of the Dissenting ministers of 
the day ; whilst the interests of vital piety withered under 
the chilling shadow. cc It is a mercy," writes one of the 
old Presbyterians in 17 10, "there are any of the rising 
generation of preachers and professors that are hopeful and 
serious ; that any of the posterity of the servants of God 
do own his cause, and seek and serve, own and choose their 
father's God. But, alas ! how few is the number ! What 
woeful degeneracy in many societies and families." 1 

Nor was it only among Dissenters that such conse- 
quences were apparent. The contagion spread to the 
Establishment, to which Clarke belonged, and negligence 
and indifference became the rule. The universities were 
noted for their defection. Archbishop Seeker, bred a 
Dissenter, saw the danger, and as one means of remedy, 
took pains to enjoin the wearing of clerical vestments, 
which were now nearly disused. 

Under the reign of Queen Anne (1702) the hostility of 
the Church party to Dissenters, which had been advancing 
during the latter days of William III., underwent a 
marked increase. The reigning Sovereign was, it will be 
remembered, a grand-daughter of Clarendon, and was not, 
therefore, likely to regard Nonconformists with favour. 
The publication at Oxford of Clarendon's cc History of the 
Great Rebellion " immensely stimulated the animosity of 

1 Christian Teacher, No. xxv. and xxvii. 

Recognition. 125 

the Establishment, and gave the impulse to the mad crusade 
of Dr. Sacheverell. When, as the result of the impeach- 
ment of this hair-brained divine, the mob rose in his favour 
with the excited cry of cc High Church," and demolished 
several Dissenting Chapels in London, the example was 
imitated in many of the provinces, Pontefract especially 
suffered from the violence of the times. 

Among other objects of Sacheverell's invective, Dissent- 
ing Academies were peculiarly conspicuous. They were 
described as institutions from which were cc spawned all 
descriptions of heterodox, lewd, and atheistical books," 
and the cry was for their suppression. The father of 
John Wesley joined with ardour in this bigoted demand. 

In these agitating times, one name stood conspicuous 
among the most powerful defenders of the cause of Dis- 
sent. That name was Daniel Defoe. It belonged to one 
who united sharp sagacity with versatile and vigorous 
talent, and who was never more in his element than when 
he grappled with and strangled his foe. A master of the 
English tongue, witty, pugnacious, eager, torturing in his 
powers of satire and sarcasm, he yet lacked the substantial 
elements which make men leaders ; and he was like an 
elephant in battle, which is not only powerful against 
enemies, but also apt to occasion consternation among 
friends. Dunton speaks of him as cf a man of good parts, 
and very clear sense," and as cc ingenious and brisk " in 
conversation ; but describes him as wanting prudence, and 
makes, regarding some of his writings, the equivocal 
apology cc 'Tis hard to leave off when not only the itch 
and inclination, but the necessity of writing, lies so heavy 
on a man ;'" and Calamy refers to him on the question of 
occasional conformity as "a certain warm person who 

1 Dunton's Life and Errors, p. 240. 

126 . Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

thought himself well qualified for the management of any 
argument, though not always apt to consider consequences." 2, 
Defoe, however, was like Cassandra, a true prophet, 
but his misfortune was that none believed his oracles. 
His tract, cc The Shortest Way with Dissenters," was a 
stroke under which persecutors reeled. It is a master- 
piece of concealed irony. Yet it was some time before 
either Churchmen or Dissenters apprehended its real 
design. When that was discovered, the indignation of the 
former was unbounded. The book was ordered to be 
burned by the common hangman, and the author was 
sentenced to the pillory, fine and imprisonment. Defoe's 
sentence was, however, his triumph ; the compassionate 
mob turned his punishment into an apotheosis. In the 
latter part of his life Defoe, to avoid his enemies, resided 
for some time at Halifax. He is said to have written in 
that town his most celebrated work, cc Robinson Crusoe ; " 
a tale as far removed from the acerbity and antagonism in 
which his life had been spent, as it is well possible to con- 
ceive. In Halifax, also, he is said to have composed his 
treatise, " De Jure Divino." He is reported to have been 
on terms of acquaintance with Dr. Nettleton, the physician, 
and with Rev. N. Priestley, of Northgate-end Chapel. 

Towards the close of Anne's reign, 1729, Bolingbroke 
and Atterbury originated the measure known by the name 
of the cc Schism Bill." The enactment was designed to 
put down Dissenting Academies under severe penalties. 
Every person teaching a school was to be imprisoned 
for three months unless he conformed and received the 
Sacrament. Even then he was liable to a penalty if he 
afterwards entered a conventicle. No other Catechism 
was to be used but that of the Church of England. 

2 Calamy's Hist. Account, vol. i., p. 464. 



It was intended that this Bill should be followed by 
another, which should prohibit Dissenters from voting 
at elections. The then Lord Wharton strongly, but 
vainly, opposed the Schism Bill. The Royal assent had 
been already given to it, but the Queen died before it 
became law (Aug. 1, 17 14). It was never enforced, 
and was subsequently repealed, 



17 14 CIRC. I75O. 

Among the papers deposited in the library of Dr. 
Williams, Queen-square, London, is a list of Dissenting 
congregations, drawn up by Dr. Evans about 17 15. 
Dr. Evans was co-pastor with, and afterwards successor of 
Dr. W. in the Presbyterian chapel at New Broad-street, 
Bishopsgate, and had been a pupil of Frankland, and 
afterwards of Jollie. He had designed to write a history 
of Nonconformity, for which task he had made large 
preparations. His death prevented the accomplishment 
of the intention, which was afterwards ably carried out by 
Rev. Daniel Neal. 

The list referred to appears to have been prepared not 
only for religious, but for civil purposes. In each congre- 
gation it gives not only the number of hearers, but of 
electors also. The following Yorkshire congregations are 
marked as Independent : — Pontefract (Rev. Sand- 
ford), Leeds, Call-lane (Rev. W. Moult), Rotherham 
(Rev. W. Wilson), Sheffield, Nether Chapel (Rev. J. 

Defection and Revival, 1 29 

de la Rose), Stannington (Rev. Smith), Heckmond- 

wike (Rev. J. Kirkby), Tingley, or TopclifFe (Rev. J. 
Riley), Kipping (Rev. S. Hulme), Hull (Rev. T. 
Fletcher), Beverley (Rev. John Gould), Thirsk (Rev. 
Joseph Cullingworth), Pickering (Rev. George Walker). 
Most of the other congregations are classed as Presby- 
terian. The following, however, have no mark of 
distinction : — Knaresborough (Rev. Ralph Hill), Halifax 
(Rev. N. Priestley), Hopton (Rev. J. Dobson), Long 
Houghton, Tadcaster (Rev. Jos. Astley), Idle (Rev. 
John Buck), LightclirTe (Rev. Jon. Wright), Ossett 
(Revs. Sam. Hanson and Jos. Dobson), Ottringham (Rev. 

Rook), Swaledale (Rev. J. Burgess), Ellenthorpe 

(Rev. James Taylor), Ay ton (Rev. — Seaton). Rev. 

Timothy Jollie is called an Independent, as is Rev. Joshua 
Hoyle (Malton). Taking both bodies, the congregations 
of the largest class are Leeds, Mill-hill (600), Call-lane 
(800), Sheffield Upper Chapel (r,i63, and 75 voters), 
Halifax (600), Mixenden (500), Northowram (500), Brad- 
ford (Horton) (500), Hull (Bowl-alley) (500). In the 
second class are Sheffield, Nether Chapel (200), Wakefield 
(400), Attercliffe (150), Stannington (350), Bull-house 
(200), Pudsey (250), Bingley (250), Elland (240), 
Heckmondwike (350), Kipping (300), Warley (300), 
Morley (450), Beverley (450), Bridlington (300), Swan- 
land (450), Cottingham (350), South Cave (400), Scar- 
borough (260). The others are comparatively small. 
Neal gives the total number for Yorkshire as only 48 ; 
none being Baptist, both unquestionable mistakes. Yet it 
is certain that at this time the number of Independent 
congregations in this large county was by no means large, 
only thirteen being in this list definitely marked out as 
distinctly of that communion. 

The state of religion at the accession of George I., 


130 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

1 7 14, may be learned from many independent testimonies, 
all tending to one general conclusion. Bishop Burnet 
speaks of the imminent risk to which the whole Reforma- 
tion was exposed, and describes the clergy as being, in 
general, extremely ignorant, especially of the Scriptures, 
which it was their business to teach. Watts, Doddridge, 
Hurrion, and others on the Dissenting side, join in the 
lamentation as to the decay of vital piety, A little later, 
a pamphlet was published for circulation among ministers, 
by Nathaniel Neal (son of the historian of the Puritans, 
and afterwards one of Coward's trustees), in which he 
says : — cc It cannot fail being a grievous and distressing 
consideration to every pious and thoughtful Christian who 
frequents our public assemblies to observe how indifferently 
most of them are attended ; how cold and formal the 
worship is of many, who dare not or choose not to be 
absent ; and what little hope remains that the rising 
generation should fill the seats that their fathers have left, 
or are very likely soon to leave vacant." He then 
seriously asks, cc whether the zeal and assiduity of minis- 
ters in general, in qualifying themselves for, and in 
administering the ordinances of, Divine worship are not 
considerably abated, as well as the people's piety and 
regularity in attending them ? Whether there is not a 
lukewarmness, or a careless and negligent, a light or 
worldly spirit visible among those who should cherish the 
sacred fire of pure and heavenly devotion in the hearts 
of Christians ? Whether the vigilance and circumspection, 
the concern and ardour of ministers have arisen in pro- 
portion to the danger there confessedly is that the cause of 
their great and worthy Master, which they have solemnly 
undertaken to serve and support at any temporal pains 
and hazard, should decline and perish in their hands ? " * 

1 " Free and serious remonstrance to Protestant Dissenting Ministers, on 
occasion of the decay of Religion," &c. — By a Layman. 

Defection and Revival, 131 

It is not easy to determine to what extent this general 
defection in doctrine affected the Yorkshire churches. 
Positive evidence on the subject is not very easy to be 
now obtained, Nor was it indeed readily furnished by the 
ministers of the period. There was a defective presenta- 
tion of truth, rather than a positive presentation of error. 
The few Yorkshire sermons of that period, however, 
which have been preserved, do not authorize us to believe 
that there was the same full, earnest exhibition of the 
doctrine of salvation by the blood and sufferings of Jesus 
Christ, as is apparent in the discourses of an earlier 
period. The bright light of truth was certainly dying 

Mention is made at this time of several Christian 
ladies who did honour to their religion, and greatly aided 
the cause of Nonconformity. Among these were Madam 
Thorp, of Hopton, widow of Rev. Richard Thorp. 
She died at the house of her son-in-law, Mr. Hutton, 
of Pudsey, son of Richard Hutton, Poppleton, York, 
May 8, 1725, and was buried at Mirfleld. Her daughter, 
cc the Honourable Madam Hutton," as the Hopton 
Church book designates her, left legacies for the endow- 
ment of the chapels at Hopton, EUand, Thornton, East- 
wood, &c. 

In addition to these were Madam Dyneley, of Bram- 
hope ; Madam Rich, of Bullhouse ; Madam Reyner, 
<c a person," says the Northowram Register, cc of great 
knowledge, worth, and usefulness ; " Madam Cotton, 
of Hague-hall, "my dear and worthy friend " (ob. 1721); 
and cc Madam Stansfield, wife of Mr. Robert Stansfield, 
of Bradford, a very valuable and useful woman." 

In the increasing tendency to doctrinal latitudinarianism, 
which at this time prevailed, there was a just dissatisfaction 
with those clauses of the Toleration Act which required 
subscription to the doctrinal articles of the Church of 

k 2 

132 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

England, and which demanded the reception of the 
Sacrament as a qualification for office. A bill was brought 
into Parliament in the year 1736 to abrogate these offen- 
sive statutes, and the alteration would have been acceptable 
to the reigning Sovereign. But the ministry of the day 
felt themselves too weak to urge forward the proposed 
alteration, and it was reluctantly abandoned. 

In the year 1736 died, after a life of great usefulness, 
the Rev. Matthew Smith, minister of Mixenden. It is 
pleasant to disinter a buried reputation ; and as some 
slighting things have been said of this good man, to 
possess the materials which may do honour to his memory, 
Some passages which took place between the Kipping 
Church and their former pastor were doubtless painful 
to the parties concerned, but they appear to furnish no 
matter for just censure. Smith was educated at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he took the degree 
of M.A. He was then for some time at York, where 
he had first learned the truth under the ministry of Ward ; 
but the severities of the times drove him thence. After 
preaching for awhile at Kipping, he ultimately settled 
at Mixenden. He was much persecuted by the civil 
power, but contrived to escape its vigilance, although 
he was once so nearly overtaken as that his staff was 
snatched from him. He was exceedingly popular as 
a preacher, in which department he was unwearied. He 
possessed a clear and commanding voice, and great power 
over the passions of his hearers. His son, in a memoir 
prefixed to a volume of sermons, speaks emphatically of 
his " generous contempt of the world," which he showed 
by declining several tempting opportunities of advancement. 
One of his rich relations on his death-bed offered him 
his whole estate, which he at once declined in favour of 
the dying man's relations. He refused, also, proposals 

Defection and Revival. 133 

of conformity, backed by the offer of a comfortable 
income. He was remarkable for his maintenance of 
family religion, and expressed the deepest concern for 
the salvation of his children in his dying moments. Smith 
published several treatises. One of these, on cc Imputed 
Righteousness, and our Justification thereby," gave much 
offence to his brethren, and sorrow to his friend Heywood, 
who, in a letter to Jollie, says: — cc I am much concerned 
about it, because it diverts people from the main practical 
things to endless disputes, besides the perniciousness of 
the doctrine. I have chanty for him though (some) men 
have not, and others admire him." Jollie writes in return 
(1700): — " I have not seen Mr. Smith's book. O that 
we in the ministry were more clothed with humility ! I 
do heartily condole with you in the apprehension the 
common adversary will gain in these efforts, but I trust 
the faith of the martyrs and glorious Reformation will not 
be abandoned to novelists." Smith's views on the subject 
of justification were probably not very different from the 
moderate Calvinism of our own day. He said of himself 
that he was neither a Calvinist nor an Arminian. Such 
opinions were at that time, however, the usual complement 
of other less avowed sentiments respecting the person of 
Christ, and it is possible that Smith might be travelling 
in that direction. It is certain that his son, assistant 
and successor, became heterodox, and that the Rev. 
W. Graham, who followed that son at Mixenden, and 
subsequently often occupied his pulpit at Bradford, 
speaks (without remonstrance as it would appear on the 
part of the elder Smith's people) of the doctrines of 
satisfaction and imputed righteousness as "horrid and 

We have remarked that the keeping of diaries was one 
of the well-known practices of the pious Nonconformists. 

134 • Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

We have learned much from the careful diary of Oliver 
Hey wood. Recently there have been published (1866) 
portions of that of the Rev. Peter Walkden 1 (1725, 
1729, and 1730), minister of two conjoined congregations, 
Hesketh-lane in Lancashire, and Newton in Bowland, 
in Yorkshire, the former now disused as a place of 
regular worship, whilst the latter yet survives. The 
record has little religious interest, but it is valuable as 
affording an insight into the manners and customs of the 
period, especially as it* regards the habits of a poor 
Dissenting preacher in the remote northern country. It 
exhibits a minister whom we know, from other sources, 
to have been a truly good man, attending regularly to his 
public services and catechisings, and employing himself 
in laborious agricultural pursuits during the week ; living 
upon .poor food ; drinking small ale, instead of the tea 
now substituted; apprenticing his son to a "pled-weaver" 
in Blackburn with 45s. for premium ; purchasing at 
regular intervals wine (claret) and cc manchets " (white 
bread) for the Sacrament ; riding on horseback, with 
his wife behind him, on their little journeys ; and assisting 
occasionally in ordination services. The minister's stipend 
is shown to be miserable indeed : the numbers of his 
congregation scarcely less so, amounting on a wet day 
to only nine persons. Walkden was an intimate friend 
and neighbour of Rev. James Scott, then at Horton. 
Both were much concerned for the interests of vital 
religion, though Walkden's diary bears little evidence 
of the fact, and is, spiritually regarded, as jejune a record 
as can be well imagined. 

However forsaken seemed the condition of the Church 
at this period, it pleased Him who watches continually 

1 There was another Peter Walkden, M.A., at Holcombe, 1 741. He 
was at Stockport in 1747, and died 1769. 

Defection and Revival. 1 3 5 

over the safety and advancement of His own flock to 
provide an unexpected but most salutary, and indeed 
glorious., remedy. In the days of Wycliffe, Oxford had 
been the head-quarters of Reformation. It was at this 
juncture to receive, most unwillingly, a second and similar 
distinction. During the year 1735 there might be found 
meeting in the University, at frequent and regular intervals, 
" The Holy Club," a knot of young men " whose hearts 
God had touched." Their alliance was for purposes 
partly of learning and partly of devotion — the latter 
greatly predominating. They explored the Greek Testa- 
ment ; they visited prisons ; they exhorted the sick ; they 
went together to weekly communion ; they fasted twice a 
week. This Club had been begun in 1729 by the agency 
of Charles Wesley. His brother John was at the time 
taking his infirm father's duties at Epworth. But he 
returned to Oxford at the close of the year, and became 
the leader of the little band. At the time above men- 
tioned, amidst other names, two were conspicuous, 
Benjamin Ingham and George Whitefield, then twenty-one 
years of age. The term Methodist (not a new term, 
for it had been already applied to certain Nonconformists) 
was contumeliously affixed to these men as an epithet 
of satire and scorn, though it has since become one of 
respect and honour. The first Methodist Society in 
London was formed in 1738. Before that period, how- 
ever, Yorkshire had been awakened by the trumpet of the 
New Jubilee. 

The Rev. Benjamin Ingham was related by marriage 
to the Countess of Huntingdon. He was a native of 
Ossett, and after leaving Oxford, in the year 1734, before 
his ordination, had spent some time in his paternal home 
instituting meetings for prayer and preaching. Great 
effects resulted from these small beginnings, though the 

136 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

permanent result, so far as the societies then formed were 
concerned, did not correspond with the first expectations. 

Ingham, after having preached with much power in the 
neighbourhood of London, and having accompanied the 
Wesleys to Georgia, and afterwards visited, with John 
Wesley, the Moravian settlement at Herrnhutt, returned, 
1738, to Ossett, and began a course of Evangelistic 
labours in the vicinities of Leeds, Wakefield, and Halifax. 
The impression produced was immensely strong. The 
animosity of the clergy was aroused by the proceedings 
of the bold innovator, and an order of the Bishop, issued 
from a Visitation at Wakefield in 1739, prohibited the 
Methodist from preaching in any churches in the diocess 
of York. But nothing could check Ingham's apostolical 
ardour. Driven from churches, he preached in the fields, 
and wherever an audience could be gained ; and no fewer 
than forty religious societies arose as the results of his 
devoted labours. The following places are mentioned, 
among others, as the scenes of his exertions : — Mirfield, 
Gomersal, Cleckheaton, Halifax, Great Horton, Eccleshill, 
Baildon, Holbeck, Haworth, Dent, Leeds, York, &c. 
Ingham, who was in intimate communion with the 
Moravians, preached (among other places) frequently at 
Pudsey. He was much assisted by John Toeltsching, 
an early Moravian emigrant, sent by the brotherhood to 
give him aid. In the sequel, the neighbourhood of Pudsey 
became the site of an important Moravian settlement. 1 

Among the most distinguished converts of the early 
Methodist movement was John Nelson, a Yorkshire 
mason, born in Birstall. After his conversion in London 

1 This estate was at first called <c Falln-ek " (Fallen-oak), and under this 
name was assigned to Ingham, on behalf of the Moravian Brethren. The 
similarity of sounds suggested at length the name Fulneck, which had been 
the designation of one of the principal settlements in Moravia. 

Defection and Revival. 137 

he visited his native place, and produced so strong an 
impression on the multitudes who crowded to hear him as 
to induce Wesley himself to visit Yorkshire in order 
to give him aid. In the following year Wesley again 
came to Birstall, and afterwards, accompanied by John 
Nelson, appeared for the first time at Leeds, where a 
society appears to have been already formed. Soon after, 
when preaching at Adwalton, Nelson was seized, was 
impressed as a soldier, and, to prevent escape, was 
imprisoned in a filthy dungeon in Bradford. From this 
impressment he was with difficulty, and as the result of 
Lady Huntingdon's influence, released. 

In Sept., 1749, Whitefield made a tour in Yorkshire, 
accompanied by Ingham and Batty, and sometimes by 
Lady Huntingdon (who had a seat at Ledstone, six miles 
north of Pontefract). Some striking instances of conver- 
sion attended these visits. Whitefield conducted services 
in Yorkshire during this tour about thirty times. cc I 
have preached," he wrote, cc to many thousands at Rossen- 
dale, Aywood, and Halifax ; at Birstall, Pudsey, and 
Armley, and have had three precious seasons here. Con- 
gregations are exceedingly large indeed, and both the 
Established and Dissenting clergy are very angry." In 
the following year he was at Leeds, Haworth, Aberford, 
Sheffield, Leeds, and Rotherham. After this time his 
visits became almost annual till 1766. 

It is no part of our object to claim these movements of 
early Methodism as part and parcel of Protestant Non- 
conformity. With whatever practical inconsistency, the 
Methodists claimed to be members of the Established 
Church, which they desired to renovate, not to destroy. 
And had they pleaded Nonconformity, the law would 
have protected them from insult and injury. Their 
irregularities (as they were called) were scarcely more 

138 Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 

offensive to Churchmen than to Dissenters, though the 
latter body refrained from hostile modes of repression. 
Yet out of these exertions, especially out of those of 
Whitefield, arose results which greatly recruited the ranks 
of Nonconformity. A striking instance of this occurred 
at Rotherham. John Thorpe, and three of his com- 
panions, carousing together in an ale-house, undertook, by 
way of diversion and for a wager, to mimic Whitefield's 
preaching. This they proposed to do by opening, in 
turns, the Bible at random, and speaking, in turn, from 
the first text that occurred. After Thorpe's companions 
had exhibited, Thorpe himself took the place, exclaiming 
(for he had considerable talent at mimicry), cc I shall beat 
you all." His eye fell upon the text, cc Except ye repent 
ye shall all likewise perish." He spoke like one inspired, 
followed the passage into suitable divisions, and though 
aware that every word he spoke was condemning himself, 
and though his hair stood on end at the terrors which his 
own tongue was pronouncing, he pursued the subject to a 
close. His hearers listened awe-struck and spell-bound. 
No one ventured to interrupt the sermon ; in the strong 
excitement of the moment the wager was forgotten. 
Thorpe withdrew after his extraordinary exhibition in the 
deepest agitation. cc If ever I preached a sermon in my 
life by the assistance of the Spirit of God," he frequently 
said afterwards, "it was at that time." His debauched 
companions were forsaken ; the ale-house was deserted ; 
and from that time the mimic became a changed man. 
He soon after joined the Methodist Society, and attached 
himself to Mr. Ingharn, by whom he was afterwards sent 
out to preach the gospel of which he had so singularly 
experienced the power. As his views of Divine truth 
became matured, however, he forsook his first connection, 
and became ultimately pastor of an Independent Church at 

Defection and Revival. 139 

Rotherham. He was the father of the Rev. W. Thorpe, 
the well-known Independent minister at Bristol. 

Leeds afforded another instance of Methodism resulting 
in Independency. Both the Dissenting congregations in 
that town, though not yet distinctly avowing themselves, 
had partaken of the prevalent languor of religious feeling 
and laxity of doctrinal sentiment. The Mill-hill congre- 
gation at length heard from their Pastor, the Rev. T. 
Walker, M.A., a bold avowal of Arian sentiments, 
though in the Independent congregation the Rev. T. 
Whitaker, jun., was still negative ; — only cc not forward to 
introduce controverted points either in his sermons or 
conversation." In this crisis Wesley sent to Leeds an 
earnest man, who, having received from Whitefield's lips 
the truth as it was in Jesus, had afterwards became a 
preacher in the Wesleyan connexion. This was the Rev. 
J. Edwards. But the Methodist Society in that town was 
not, as appears from Wesley's journal, very harmonious or 
united, and the cause of contention was a difference of sen- 
timent on doctrinal points. After much deliberation and 
prayer, several members resolved to withdraw themselves 
and to form a distinct congregation, with Edwards at their 
head. They were joined by a number from Call-lane, who 
were dissatisfied with Mr. Whitaker's preaching. Thus 
was laid the foundation of an Independent Church. 1 

A similar change took place at Whitby, where Mr. 
Brownneld, doubting the scripturalness of some of the 
Wesleyan tenets, removed from that body and com- 
menced a separate congregation, which soon drifted into 

1 The Rev. John Newton, afterwards of Olney, being once at Leeds 
before his ordination, was invited to preach in Mr. Edward's chapel, 
where he underwent a humiliating failure. See Lady Huntingdon's Life, 
vol. \„ p. 271. 

14-0 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

At York, also, the preaching of the Methodists, fostered 
by Lady Huntingdon, and principally the ministry of 
Mr. Wren, led more remotely to the promotion of Inde- 
pendent sentiments in that city. 

Other instances of the same tendency of early Metho- 
dism to lapse into Independency will be given in the next 

Among the Yorkshire Dissenters of this time we must 
not omit one who had acquired not a little scientific 
celebrity. This was Abraham Sharp, of Horton, Brad- 
ford, brother to Rev. Thomas Sharp (the able minister of 
Mill-hill Presbyterian Chapel, Leeds), and cousin to the 
archbishop of that name. He was extremely eminent as a 
mathematician and an astronomer, and was an intimate 
friend of Flamstead, Halley, and Sir Isaac Newton. He 
regularly worshipped with the Presbyterian Congregation, 
Bradford. One practice marked his charitable disposition 
and the oddity of his character. It was his custom, when 
he attended public worship, to fill his pockets with half- 
pence, and from them to draw out successive handfuls, 
which he held behind his back in going and returning. A 
number of indigent persons thronged around him and 
helped themselves from his open palms. Science owes 
to this man many important services. He was the best 
astronomical instrument maker of his time, and the cele- 
brated catalogue of stars made by Flamstead, in con- 
junction with himself, gained him considerable notoriety. 
The tower which he built as an observatory, and the study 
in which he pursued his calculations, yet remain. He died 
in 1742, at the age of 91. 

The year 1745 is well known as one of agitation; it 
was that in which the Pretender made a vigorous though 
unsuccessful attempt to recover his patrimonial crown. It 
may be well supposed with what eager solicitude the Dis- 

Defection and Revival, 141 

senters, who had suffered such continued persecution at the 
hands of the Stuarts, would watch the issue of movements 
which threw all England into commotion. The proclama- 
tion of the first Pretender by Louis XIV. ( 1 7 1 4) had not 
a little alarmed them, and had prompted addresses to the 
throne, in which the Presbyterians of Hull had been con- 
spicuous. They declared "their detestation and abhorrence 
of the insolent and treacherous proceedings of that infamous 
violator of treaties, persecutor of Protestants, and oppressor 
of countries, the French King." On which Defoe remarks : 
" We know several doctors who would reprove these 
gentlemen for want of manners. They would cry out — 
c A crowned head!' But we must join with the Presby- 
terians of Hull ; for such a head is rather the worse than 
the better for having a crown upon it," cc History of 
Addresses 1. 23 8." x When the second Pretender landed 
in Scotland in 1745, and when the High Church party 
did not hesitate to avow their sympathy with his cause, the 
Dissenters were, as a body, most active in showing their 
zeal for the maintenance of the reigning dynasty. The 
London ministers of the three denominations wrote letters 
to the provinces recommending the setting apart of the 
31st of October as a day of special prayer for the success 
of the House of Hanover. 

Marshal Wade at this time encamped his army near 
Leeds, and great was the consternation of the inhabitants 
of the town. In the following year the rebels were totally 
routed and their leaders taken and executed. 

The diary of Rev. Timothy Jollie expresses his thank- 
fulness after this general dismay. 

"Oct., 1745.— The progress of the rebels (towards 
Derby) excited many fears. Blessed be God who sup- 

1 Calamy's Life and Times, vol. i. p. 437. 

142 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

ported our hopes, and in a surprising manner dispersed 
the threatening cloud. God raised up a glorious instru- 
ment, the Duke of Cumberland, whose courage and 
conduct, through a Divine blessing, stopped the enemy's 
career, struck them with a panic and drove them with 
precipitation to their bleak mountains. May I never 
forget the goodness of my God to these sinful nations ! 
Lord, thou wast not sought in vain ! Monthly days 
were observed and many earnest prayers offered up to the 
throne of Grace. Various congregations united in weekly 
hours of prayers ; every Wednesday evening. Thy vows, 
O God, are upon us ! " 



I750— I783. 

The religious declension which had for some considerable 
period been creeping over the Dissenting churches of 
England became only too apparent about the middle 
of the last century. That which had in the beginning 
been only negatively latitudinarian became in the issue 
a positive departure fronrthe faith. Doubts had ripened 
into convictions in some cases ; the mask fell from off the 
face in others. About this time was flourishing a public 
man whose unimpeachable integrity and openness lent 
no little aid to the heretical side, and whose eminent 
contributions to the cause of science had a heavy counter- 
balance in his bold opposition to the supporters of 
Evangelical doctrine. Let us give an account of him, 
though in doing so, we may a little anticipate. The 
influence which he exerted upon the times in which he 
lived will constitute our apology. 

Joseph Priestley, the son of Jonas Priestley, was 
born in 1733 at Field-head, near Birstall. As he had 

144 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

early lost his mother, he was confided to the care of 
his aunt, Mrs. Keighley, whose husband with herself were 
members of the Independent congregation at Heckmond- 
wike, then under the pastoral care of Rev. John Kirkby 
(from whom, and from the Rev. G. Haggerston, of 
Ossett, the young Priestley received parts of his education). 
Many neighbouring ministers were accustomed to visit 
at Mrs. Keighley's house, among others, the Rev. W. 
Graham, of Halifax (Mixenden), and Rev. T. Walker, 
of Leeds, both accounted, as Priestley tells us, fc the most 
heretical ministers in the neighbourhood." The young 
man made application to be admitted into the Independent 
Church, but his views on some doctrinal points were 
deemed unsatisfactory, and though the Pastor desired his 
reception, his deacons opposed it. When it was resolved, 
however, that Priestley should devote himself to the 
ministry, it was proposed that he should be sent to 
Mile End Academy, London. But this he resolutely 
opposed, and was strengthened in his resistance by 
Mr. Kirkby, who was a good classical scholar, and who 
said, that cc he had no opinion of the mode of education 
among the very orthodox Dissenters," and recommended 
Dr. Doddridge's Academy. Possibly the attachment of 
Mr. Kirkby himself to the cc very orthodox " doctrines 
was not pre-eminently strong. Priestley went, therefore, 
to Daventry (Dr. Doddridge being now dead), where 
he was the first pupil. He found the students about 
equally divided in opinion on points of importance, which 
were very freely discussed. Nor was there more agree- 
ment among the tutors, cc Dr. Ashworth taking the 
orthodox side of every question, and Mr. Clark, the 
sub-tutor, that of heresy, though always with the greatest 
modesty." Priestley himself generally took " the hetero- 
dox side of almost every question ; " and as he advanced 

Returning Day. 145 

in life Cf saw reason," says one of the Editors of his 
memoirs, <c to give up almost all the peculiar theological 
opinions which he had imbibed in early youth." At 
present, however, he was an Arian. Priestley went first 
to Needham Market in Suffolk, his brother says before he 
was eighteen years old, on the understanding that, whereas 
the congregation had hitherto received aid from both the 
Presbyterian and Independent funds, they should of them- 
selves raise a sum which might enable them to dispense 
with the latter. The Arian opinions of the young 
minister soon discovered themselves ; the congregation 
fell off, and with it the minister's salary. Priestley speedily 
rejected the doctrine of atonement, and proceeded to 
question inspiration itself. He was, at this time, in 
frequent correspondence with his early acquaintance, 
Rev. W. Graham. After three years spent at Needham, 
Priestley removed to Nantwich, where he settled in 1758. 

The course of opinion through which he was led was 
probably not very dissimilar from that of many men less 
able than himself, though they had not equal honesty 
in avowing it. It cannot be supposed that so wide a 
defection as was now everywhere apparent in the Dissent- 
ing churches could have been witnessed by the lovers 
of Evangelical doctrine without serious apprehension. 
Many were the efforts put forth to counteract it in various 
quarters. Yorkshire, now arousing to life under the 
movements of Methodism, was soon to be the scene 
of some of these exertions. 

We have spoken of the Independent congregation at 
Heckmondwike. As Mr. Kirkby was now aged and 
infirm, the propriety of furnishing him with an assistant 
became manifest, and the people fixed upon Rev. James 
Scott, then minister at Tockholes, Mr. Kirkby joining 
in the invitation. 

146 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

James Scot, or as he afterwards wrote Scott, was a 
native of Berwickshire, and was born in the year 17 10. 
He appears to have been from early life a subject of 
Divine influence, and at the age of twenty he made a 
solemn dedication of himself to God, in a paper still 
preserved. The observations of Mr. Scales upon this 
document are worthy of being transcribed : — cc If the 
youth and circumstances of the writer be taken into 
account, this paper will be deemed worthy of special 
notice, as supplying the germ and earnest of the future 
man ; of his vigorous piety, of his high appreciation 
of the authority and worth of the Word of God, and his 
uncompromising attachment to both the doctrines of grace 
and the obligations of holiness. Its phraseology, and 
even some of its sentiments, may not altogether suit 
the taste of our times ; and some may think that it 
savours too much of the theology of the Westminster 
School of Divines, and that it is too precise and puritanical 
in its views of Christian duty and of abstraction from the 
world. But they who see, or think they see, in the 
present day painful signs of religious declension, will 
be impressed with the conviction that, whatever alteration 
or improvement may be made in the form and style of 
writing or teaching the lessons and principles of our 
Divine Christianity, nothing less than its own precious 
truths and precepts, in their strength and substance, can 
secure the life and spirituality of the Church, and the 
consistent character and walk of its members." l Scott 
entered the University of Edinburgh in the session of 
1728-9. After spending some years as a private tutor, 
he resolved to dedicate himself to the work of the 
ministry ; and having learned that many congregations 

J MSS. life of Scott, p. 16. 

Returning Bay. 147 

in England were greatly in need of Pastors, he crossed the 
border, bearing with him the most satisfactory certificates 
of character and conduct. He travelled on foot, with 
a companion, over districts very imperfectly supplied with 
roads, and in the most economical manner possible (the 
expenses of both being only £3), till they reached Stainton, 
the place he had been directed to, as then without a 
minister. Here he settled for a time in 1739. But 
vexatious circumstances occurred ; and in 1741 Scott 
removed to Horton in Craven, where he was ordained 
May 20, 1 741. Whilst at Horton he received an invita- 
tion from Ravenstonedale and Keighley, as well as a 
re-invitation from the church at Stainton, all of which 
were declined. In 175 1 he removed to Tockholes, 
Lancashire, and in 1754 left Tockholes for Heckmond- 

Reflections upon the state of religion in England 
and Scotland had for a long time oppressed Scott's mind, 
and he had held many conversations on the subject with 
the Rev. Edward Hitchin, of White-row, London, who 
often visited his relatives in Heckmondwike. The congre- 
gations in the large towns were, at that time, almost 
wholly heterodox, with the single exception of Sheffield, 
where the pulpit of the Nether Chapel was held by 
Rev. J. Pye (maternal grandfather of the celebrated 
Dr. Pye Smith), and Leeds, where Rev. J. Edwards 
vigorously preached the doctrines of the Reformation. 
Hitchin at length took measures to give effect to his 
own and his friend's convictions. The result was the 
formation, in London (May 24, 1756), of cc The 
Northern Education Society," for the purpose Cf of dis- 
pelling the cloud of Socinian darkness then spreading 
over the northern counties of England, and by which 
many congregations might be blessed with godly preachers, 

L, 2 

148 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire, 

sound in the faith, and exemplary in their lives." To 
accomplish this purpose it was resolved to set up and 
maintain an Academy in the North of England. Under 
the deep conviction that the absence of an intense 
piety among ministers had been the cause of the evils 
deplored, it was resolved to admit into the new Institution 
those only who should give satisfactory evidence of 
personal piety, and who were ready to make a full declara- 
tion of Evangelical sentiments. Hitchin, who had from 
the first mentally fixed upon Scott as the tutor of the new 
seminary, was soon authorized to invite him to the post. 
The matter was a grave one ; it required thought, con- 
sultation and prayer. Scott, however, did not shrink 
from it. He conversed respecting it with his friends, and 
laid it before his church. He also, in answer to inquiries 
on the subject, explicitly stated his doctrinal opinions. 
They were in general accordance with the Westminster 
and Savoy confessions. He spoke with much humility 
of his own imperfect qualification for so great a work, and 
expressed fears as to the diversion such a duty would cause 
from his pastoral occupations. At length, however, he 
determined to accept the office. 

This movement of the Evangelical Dissenters led to 
a corresponding one on the part of the " rational " Non- 
conformists, as they then designated themselves. In the 
beginning of 1757 the first general meeting of the 
Warrington Academy was held, the Right Hon. Lord 
Willoughby, of Parham, President; Rev. Dr. John 
Taylor, Divinity tutor (afterwards succeeded by Dr. 
Aikin) ; the other tutors being Rev. John Holt and 
Rev. Joseph Priestley (afterwards succeeded by Gilbert 
Wakefield). The separation between the two parties was 
now complete. 

Mr. Scott resided in that part of Heckmondwike called 

Returning Day. 149 

Mill-bridge ; and he entered upon his new vocation in the 
year 1756. His first students were Thomas Waldegrave 
(of Bury St. Edmund's), Timothy Priestley (of Kipping, 
Manchester, and London), and Richard Plumbe (of 

The officers of the " Northern Education Society " 
were Rev. Dr.< Guyse, Chairman ; E. Webbe, Esq., 
Treasurer ; and Rev. E. Hitchin, B.D., Secretary. Mr. 
Hitchin died Jan. 11, 1774, set. 48, and was succeeded by 
John Gibson, Esq., London ; and Mr. Webbe was 
followed as Treasurer by W. Fuller, Esq., Banker, of the 
same city. These Christian friends became warmly 
^engaged in promoting the objects of this valuable institu- 

In 1759, Henry Venn, who had been curate at Clapham, 
and lecturer in London, received, by presentation of its 
patron, Sir John Ramsden, the appointment to the vicarage 
of Huddersfield. His Evangelical sentiments were most 
clear and definite ; he was very warm-hearted and 
affectionate in the style of his addresses ; and his exertions 
on behalf of the gospel were unwearied. He found his 
parish sunk in ignorance and barbarism, but his trumpet- 
voice soon roused his parishioners from their slumber 
of sin ; and though he did not fail to make many enemies, 
he drew large crowds to his effective preaching. Persons 
came from long distances every Sunday to hear the man 
whose pathos and power sent the truths of a gospel, 
then almost unknown, to their consciences and hearts. 
The whole district around profited by his labours. A 
continued round of preaching and devotional exercises 
filled up his time, and whilst he himself was indefatigable, 
those who assisted him as his curates followed up with 
fervour and energy the course in which he led the way. 
His house was the resort of the most Evangelical and 

150 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

useful ministers of his time, Whitefield, Newton, Romaine, 
Adams, Abraham Booth, and others like-minded with 
them. Whitefield spoke of him as "valiant for the truth; 
a son of thunder." Unrestrained by either conventional 
or ecclesiastical regulations, he preached in barns, out- 
houses, private residences, and often in the open air. 
Among the fruits of his ministry were no fewer than 
thirteen young men afterwards preachers of the gospel. 
Many of these became Independents, and profited by the 
education of Scott at Heckmondwike. The tutor con- 
tinued his devoted labours till the year 1770, when he 
accepted the living of Yelling, in Huntingdonshire, and 
left a memory of extraordinary usefulness, the fragrance 
of which still survives. The Independent congregations 
at Huddersfleld, Holmfirth, Honley, and Brighouse, arose 
out of these ministrations. 

Scarcely second to Venn was William Grimshaw, curate 
of Haworth. His early ministry had been negligent, even 
sinful ; but God had awakened him, and soon after his 
appointment to Haworth, 1742, he had joined himself 
as assistant to John Wesley. He became the head of two 
large circuits, superintended according to the rules of 
the Conference. He often preached thirty times a 
week. When his pulpit power failed to attract his 
parishioners to his services, he would leave the church 
before sermon, and drive into it those whom he found 
loitering about its precincts. (See Lady Huntingdon's 
Life.) Though an eccentric and extraordinary man, he 
was extremely powerful for good, and undaunted in his 
courage for his Master's service. He died of putrid 
fever, caught by visiting the sick, April 7, 1763. His 
last words were — "Here goes an unprofitable servant!" 
The Independent congregation at Booth mentions Mr. 
Grimshaw's name as associated with its early origin. 

Returning Day. 151 

The Rev. Titus Knight, Halifax, and Rev. David 
Crossley, of Booth, afterwards of Bradford, were in their 
first ministry associated with the Wesley an body. 

Another of the Methodists of that day was Dr. 
. Conyers, of Helmsley, in the North Riding. Though as 
a clergyman he had been attentive to his external duties, 
he had never felt the value of the gospel, but had travelled 
far on the road to Unitarianism, till the good providence of 
God had mercifully awakened him and changed his whole 
course. He then became eminently useful in the whole 
surrounding district. Every day he preached in some part 
of his parish. On one occasion his duty was to deliver a 
visitation sermon before Dr. Drummond, Archbishop of 
York, his diocesan. His neighbours declared that he 
durst not preach Methodism before such an auditor, "for 
that if he did,. he would have his gown stripped over his 
ears." Conyers, however, did not flinch. The Archbishop 
afterwards said, fc Were you to inculcate the morality of 
Socrates, it would do more good than canting about the 
new birth," and went off without waiting for a reply. 
Thornton, Conyer's brother-in-law, published the sermon, 
having stolen it from his pocket during the dinner. 1 

Such were some of the most prominent Yorkshire 
instruments in this glorious revival, which now, like a 
flame, spread itself over the length and breadth of 
the land. 

Amidst these encouraging omens, however, there were 
not wanting influences to sow tares among the wheat. 
Important as had been the usefulness of Ingham's labours 
in the first days of his zeal, the greater number of 
his congregations yielded afterwards to the influence of 
Sandemanianism, and not even Ingham himself could 

1 "Life and Times of Lady Huntingdon." Vol. i. p. 280. 

152 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

restrain them. Lady Huntingdon and Whitefield in vain 
interposed. Romaine came down into Yorkshire to 
endeavour to stem the torrent, but with as little success. 
Out of eighty societies, only thirteen remained. Such a 
result broke down Ingham's spirit for the time, though he 
died in tranquillity and honour. 

Ministering to the fresh eagerness for Evangelical 
religion, Scott's Academy at Heckmondwike proved of 
incalculable service. Under the agency of his students 
many new congregations arose in important localities 
where Evangelical religion had become extinct. In other 
cases a fresh air of gospel truth was breathed over bodies 
which had become lifeless and corrupt. And those 
who loved the doctrines of the Reformation circled round 
Scott and his establishment, aiding his efforts or receiving 
new vigour from the impulses he gave. Some of the 
names most honoured in the last generation for general 
acceptance or substantial usefulness are to be found 
in the list of Scott's students. Dr. Simpson, President 
of Hoxton Academy ; George Lambert, of Hull ; 
Joseph Cockin, afterwards of Halifax ; Jeremiah Toot- 
hill, of Hopton ; Galland, of Honley ; Bruce, of 
Liverpool ; Samuel Bruce, of Wakefield, owed the 
introduction to their useful ministries to the Institution 
at Heckmondwike. 

The strongest Christian charity could now no longer 
bridge over the chasm which separated one branch of 
Protestant Dissenters from the other. The Trinitarian 
party deemed the doctrines they held to be of Scriptural, 
and therefore of vital importance ; whilst in their judg- 
ment, the opposite party eliminated truths of the first 
magnitude. It was no trifling issue ; it carried with it the 
dearest interests of the gospel. 

This was never more apparent than when, in the year 

Returning Day. 153 

1767, the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D., became the 
minister of Mill-hill Chapel, Leeds. He was too honest 
and too artless not to avow with the utmost candour, and 
too able not to defend with considerable force, the opinions 
he had deliberately formed. But all the influence of his 
character and his pen was openly against Trinitarianism. 
In 1677, tne Rev. Newcome Cappe, of York, and Rev. 
W. Turner, of Wakefield, united with him in conducting 
the " Theological Repository." This work was the 
vehicle of many latitudinarian, not to say sceptical, 
opinions, in the utterance of which Priestley, under the 
name of " Paulinus," and Graham, 1 under that of 
"Pyrrho," were conspicuous. Priestley published (anony- 
mously) in 1770, " A Serious Appeal to the Professors of 
Christianity against the Errors of the Times." In this work 
he congratulates himself on the happy change which had 
taken place in the views of his own congregation since the 
first erection of their chapel, and indeed within a very few 
years, and says, " I shall think myself happy if I have 
been in any respect the means of advancing this great 
work of Reformation among you." Mr. Morgan, of 
Morley, having published <c An Appeal to the Common 
Sense of Plain and Common Christians in behalf of the 
Old Christianity of the Gospel," was answered by Dr. 
Priestley (1772), in a series of letters addressed to the 
" Leeds Intelligencer," with considerable severity. The 
Independent congregation at Call-lane, held opinions not 
greatly differing from its sister church. This may be 
inferred from the fact, that in 1772 the Rev. T. Belsham, 
then a tutor at Daventry, was invited (though the 

1 Graham published in 1772 " A Sermon preached before the Dis- 
senting Clergy in Mill-hill Chapel," entitled, " Repentance the only- 
condition of Final Acceptance." It was directed against Calvinism and 
Trinitarianism, and manifested considerable bitterness and more flippancy. 

154 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

invitation was declined) to become assistant to the Rev. 
T. Whitaker. 

At this time an estimate of the number of Dissenting 
churches, made by Rev. Josiah Thompson, a Baptist 
minister, and a correspondent of Rev. R. Robinson, of 
Cambridge, states that the total in Yorkshire was 67, of 
which 20 were Baptist. Three years later the amount was 
given by the same hand as 70, the number of Baptist 
congregations remaining the same. 1 

The oppressive operation of the Test and Corporation 
Acts was still severely felt by Dissenters, especially by those 
who held latitudinarian sentiments. In the year 1772 a 
considerable movement was made in favour of their repeal. 
Many Episcopal clergy on this occasion united to petition 
not only that Dissenters in general might be freed from 
such burdens, but that they themselves might be relieved 
from the strictness of their own subscription. Among 
them was Lindsey, then a minister in the Established 
Church, Catterick. The debate in the Commons, when 
the Repeal was agitated, was extremely animated, but the 
measure was thrown out by an overpowering majority 
(217 to 71). In consequence of this rejection, Lindsey, 
and other clergymen sympathising with his views, left the 
church. Shortly after, a second attempt after repeal was 
made. The bill passed the Commons, but was refused by 
the Upper House. The following year witnessed a third 
effort, at least so far as the relief of Dissenters was 
concerned. Again it was successful in the Commons. 
In the Lords it was vehemently opposed by Dr. Drum- 
mond, then Archbishop of York. He declared that 
Dissenting ministers were men of close ambition. His 
remarks drew forth from Lord Chatham the memorable 

3 Bogue and Bennett. Vol. iii. > 

Returning Day. 155 

words : — cc The Dissenting ministers are represented as 
men of close ambition. They are so, my lords, and their 
ambition is — to keep close to the college of fishermen, not 
of cardinals ; and to the doctrines of inspired apostles, not 
to the decrees of interested and aspiring bishops. They 
contend for a scriptural creed and a spiritual worship ; we 
have a Calvinistic creed, a Popish liturgy, and an Arminian 
clergy. The Reformation has laid the Scriptures open 
to all ; let not the bishops shut them again ! " 

In the petition presented by the Dissenting ministers 
of the West Riding in 1773, few names occur of those who 
were distinguished by Trinitarian sentiments, and the 
signatures of only twenty-four Dissenting ministers 
appeared. The agitation, however, continued, and in 
1779 a partial relief was afforded. The requisition to 
subscribe the articles was withdrawn, and a general de- 
claration of belief in Christianity was substituted in its 
place. But the Test and Corporation Acts were still 
maintained, though Charles James Fox fought bravely for 
their repeal. On this occasion a medal was struck by 
cc the Church and King Club," Manchester, representing 
on one side the King holding in his hand the Test and 
Corporation Acts, and exhibiting on the other the follow- 
ing inscription : " The third attempt of the Dissenters in 
the short space of three years to obtain a repeal of the 
Corporation and Test Acts, those barriers of the British 
Constitution, was frustrated by the House of Commons by 
a majority of 189, March 1, 1790." In the exergue was 
the motto, cc May our happy Constitution in Church and 
State ever remain unimpaired!" 

Another meeting was gathered on the subject in 1789, 
very numerously attended, Pemberton Milnes, Esq., in 
the chair. On this occasion the three bodies of Protestant 
Dissenters appear to have been adequately represented. 

156 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

A series of resolutions was passed, and deputies sent to a 
general meeting in London. A counter-meeting of the 
clergy of Leeds followed, replied to by an address from 
the Leeds Dissenting ministers. The accusation against 
the Dissenters was that fC this alarming confederacy, so 
widely distant from each other in some essentials of 
Christianity, meant a contest for power in the State." To 
which it was replied that the repeal of these Acts would 
" by no means put the Dissenters in actual possession 
of power " — that cc it would only restore to them a capacity 
of being admitted to power;" and it was contended 
that the expression of apprehension was a tacit admission 
of their superior fitness ; whilst, on the other hand, it was 
impossible that Dissenters could be satisfied under those 
degrading disqualifications, which ranked them with out- 
casts convicted of atrocious crimes. This address; was 
signed by Wm. Wood, Jos. Bowden, E. Parsons, Thomas 
Langdon, and William Price. 

In the year 1783 the Rev. James Scott died, 
after a life of great honour and usefulness. cc We all 
know," said Toothill, his pupil, in his funeral sermon, 
" that he was a great and good man, whom God raised up 
for singular and eminent usefulness in his day and 
place. . . . He preached the doctrines of original sin and 
redemption by Christ — of God's everlasting love and 
electing grace — of the person, office, atonement, and 
righteousness of the Mediator — of efficacious grace in 
conversion — of perseverance in holiness to everlasting life. 
He also insisted largely on the necessity, nature, and end 
of good works, and was not only careful to maintain them 
in preaching, but in practice. 'Tis true, he was thought 
a little singular in handling one point, viz., the invitations 
of the Gospel. Although I believe it incumbent on all 
ministers to preach the gospel to every creature, and to 

Returning Day. 157 

call sinners to repentance, yet it does not belong to me to 
vindicate any man's sentiments any further than I believe 
them consonant to the Divine Word, or to defend any 
particular modes of speaking not authorized therein ; and 
if it were an error, it was the error of his country." 
Scott's influence was very great, and was most judiciously 
exercised. As R. W. Hamilton says of Scott's pupil, Dr. 
Simpson, " He was placed at the spring-head of the 

We must now make mention of a new religious move- 
ment, which, though in its origin imperfect and inadequate, 
was destined ultimately to exercise the most important 
influence in the Christianization of our population and the 
extension of our churches. This was the Sunday-school 
system, originated by Robert Raikes, proprietor of the 
" Gloucester Journal." This benevolent man, accidentally 
walking through the streets of the city of Gloucester, 
was struck with concern at the vice and misery of the 
children around him, and was specially roused by being 
told that their conduct on Sundays, when they were set 
free from employment, exceeded in dissoluteness all the 
rest of the week. 

cc This conversation suggested to me," said Raikes, 
" that it would at least be a harmless attempt, if it were 
productive of no good, should some little plan be formed 
to check this deplorable profanation of the Sabbath. I 
then inquired if there were any decent, well-disposed 
women in this neighbourhood who kept schools for 
teaching to read. I presently was directed to four. To 
these I applied and made an agreement with them to 
receive as many children as I should send on the Sunday, 
whom they were to instruct in reading and in the Church 
Catechism. For this I engaged to pay them each a 
shilling for their day's employment. The women seemed 

158 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

pleased with my proposal. I then waited on the clergy- 
man and imparted to him my plan. He was so much 
satisfied with the idea, that he engaged to lend his 
assistance by going round to schools on a Sunday after- 
noon to examine the progress that was made, and to 
enforce order and decorum among such a set of little 
heathens. This, sir, was the commencement of my plan." 1 
Following out this example, schools were soon established 
in our larger towns ; Leeds, Huddersfield, Halifax, and 
Dewsbury being among the first to engage in the benevolent 
undertaking. 2 In the same volume of the cc Gentleman's 
Magazine" from which we have quoted above we find 
the following paragraph: — cc The Sunday-schools lately 
established at Leeds, in Yorkshire (1784), for the in- 
struction of the children of industrious parents, who keep 
them employed all the week, have been found to answer 
all the good purposes intended by those who formed the 
plan. There are, it is said, nearly 1800 already admitted, 
and when the plan is completed there will be more than 
aooo." 3 

Raikes called this plan cf botanizing in human nature." 
The mistresses took their children to church or to chapel, 
which, till then, the children had never attended. They 
received presents of Bibles, Testaments, etc., in return for 
little tickets given them as the rewards of good behaviour. 
In all these cases a paid teacher was probably employed. 4 

The remarkable success of this movement wonderfully 
illustrates Raikes' words : — cc I can never pass the spot 

1 Gentleman's Magazine, liv. 410. 

2 Gentleman's Magazine, ut super. 3 Ibid. 377. 

4 It is said that Mr. Hudson, of Gildersome, near Leeds, " formed a 
school in that village long before Mr. Raikes brought them into notice.'* 
See Evan. Mag. 1833, p. 207. An earlier school of this kind existed, 
and still exists, founded by Cardinal Borromeo in Italy. 

Returning Day. 159 

where the word c try ' came so powerfully into my mind, 
without lifting up my eyes and heart to Heaven, in 
gratitude to God for having put such a thought into 
my head." 



I783 CIRC. l800. 

The religion of Christ is essentially a missionary system. 
This has been made manifest in every successive period of 
its history. Nor has this characteristic feature failed to 
distinguish it in more modern times. In 1 742, Brainerd was 
appointed by a Scottish Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge as missionary to the Indians. The Moravians 
were peculiarly distinguished in this holy cause. The 
movements of the early Methodists were directed to sending 
the gospel across the Atlantic. Wesley and Whitefield had, 
in their commencing ministry, acted personally as mission- 
aries, and latterly Dr. Cooke, with an ardour worthy of 
the best days of the Church, had embodied the missionary 
principle of the Wesley ans in his own person. Eighteen 
times he crossed the Atlantic, besides visiting Ireland, the 
West Indies, the Channel Islands, and France. At length, 
at the age of seventy, he undertook, at his own expense, 
a mission to the East Indies, but died on the passage. 

The state of the Indian people across the Atlantic seems, 
about the year 1769^0 have excited much attention among 
the Christian people of Great Britain. We have before us 

Advance. 1 6 1 

Cf a continuation of the narrative of the Indian Charity 
School in Lebanon, in Connecticut, New England, founded 
and carried on by Dr. Eleazar Wheelock," which de- 
monstrates that a wide interest had been excited on 
behalf of that charity, and a large response had been 
made to the appeals of the Revs. Dr. Whitaker and 
M. Occum, who had visited England on its behalf. We 
may regard this as one of the proofs that a solicitude 
for the cause of missions was now extending beyond the 
Wesley ans themselves. 1 

Other forms of the same desire began soon to be exhi- 
bited. In the year 1793, the Baptist Mission to India, 
taking advantage of the success which opened the East to 
the British, was projected. It was warmly taken up 
at Halifax, and Dr. Fawcett, now an old man, entered into 
the scheme with the utmost zeal and energy. A new im- 
pulse was thus given to the missionary spirit which failed 
not to produce appropriate results; 

Before, however, we refer to these, we may notice some 
important occurrences which shook the whole of Europe, 

1 The names of John Thornton, Esq., treasurer, Fuller, W. Wilber- 
force, Gibbons, Romaine, Stennett, and many others, appear as subscribers, 
and among the Yorkshire congregations contributing are the following. 
The details at this distance of time are worthy of being preserved : — 
Bingley, Rev. Mr. Lillie, collection, ^11 is. i|d; Beverley, Rev. Mr. 
Harris, collection, £\ 12s. 8§d ; Heckmondwike, Rev. Mr. Scott, col- 
lection, £16 3s. 4|d, besides several £5 subscribers, of whom Scott was 
one; Hull, Rev. Mr. Burnett, collection, £24; Rev. Mr. Beverley, jTij ; 
Kipping, Rev. Mr. Whitford, collection, £6 17s. 8d. ; Leeds, Rev. Mr. 
Edwards, collection, ^15 3s. lofd; Rev. T. Whitaker, collection, 
£14 14s. ; Morley, Rev. Mr. Morgan, collection, ^8 ; Northowram, 
Rev. Mr. Hesketh, collection, £3 od. 3d.; Pudsey, Rev. Mr. Wainman, 
collection, ^1 3s. 6d. ; Rotherham, Rev. Mr. Thorpe and Rev. Mr. Moult, 
£zi 18s. 9d. ; Sheffield, Rev. Mr. Pye, collection, ^15 zs. ; Messrs. 
Evans and Dickenson, £7 3s. 9 d. ; Wakefield, Rev. Mr. Turner, collec- 
tion, £1 1 1 5s 9 d. 


1 6 2 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

and produced by their influence important consequences to 
the body of Protestant Dissenters. The events of the 
French Revolution were at this time the theme of universal 
attention. The adoption by the National Assembly of 
Paine's cc Rights of Man ;" the confiscation of clerical pro- 
perty ; the abolition of the hereditary nobility, and the im- 
prisonment of the King and Queen, roused the popular 
sympathies to the utmost. These were still farther in- 
flamed by the publication of Burke's celebrated cc Reflec- 
tions on the French Revolution." Under the influence of 
these strongly-aroused emotions, Dissenters became the 
objects of general odium and invective. A memorable 
demonstration of this feeling occurred at Birmingham on 
the celebration of the Revolution, in the year 1791. On 
that occasion Dr. Priestley, whose writings had strongly 
supported the Revolutionary proceedings, was peculiarly 
the victim of mob-violence. His meeting-house was burned, 
as was also his dwelling-house, his library destroyed, his 
papers — some of them of great scientific value — scattered 
to the winds, and the Doctor himself narrowly escaped 
with life. The propensity to riot, fostered by the High 
Church party, spread extensively over the country, and 
reached the West Riding. One minister, whose name has 
not been preserved, was put under a guard of soldiers to 
prevent him from exciting sedition. The Rev. Sylvanus 
Shaw, of Marsden, had his house searched by a disorderly 
rabble in quest of treasonable documents, though they found 
nothing beyond a few books and many sermons. The 
agitation was peculiarly great in the larger towns. Halifax, 
especially, was remarkable for its madness ; and the volun- 
teer system, which then received a great impetus, was the 
cause of ruin to some and of injury to many more. Nor 
was Huddersfield exempt from the contagion. <c I do envy 
your tranquillity," said Mr. Moorhouse to Mr. Toothill, 

Advance. 163 

cc and your blessed retreat among the woods at Hopton. 
Huddersfield is as hot as the inquisition. "' 

Such antagonistic influences did not, however, extinguish 
the ardour of true Christians. In this very crisis a zealous 
attempt was made for the conversion of the heathen world. 
The account of Cook's recent voyages had roused the ardour 
of Dr. Haweis, who prevailed on Lady Huntingdon to send 
two of her students to Tahiti. Difficulties, however, arose 
which prevented the completion of the undertaking. But 
other agencies were set in motion. The commencement of 
cc The Evangelical Magazine," under the editorship of 
Rev. John Eyre, was an important instrument for awaking 
a missionary spirit in our churches. In the year 1793 a 
body of Warwickshire ministers resolved to arouse their 
brethren to so important a work, and Dr. Williams, then 
minister of Carr's-lane, Birmingham, was requested to 
prepare a circular letter on the importance of praying for 
an enlarged diffusion of Divine influence and a regard for 
the conversion of pagan nations. This letter was afterwards 
sent to the various associations of the Independent denomi- 
nation throughout England and Wales. Among other 
objects it proposed the establishment of monthly prayer 
meetings for the spread of the Gospel. As an im- 
portant consequence of such suggestions, enforced by the 
publication of " Letters on Missions," by Rev. Melville 
Home, and especially as the result of an appeal by the Rev. 
D. Bogue, of Gosport, the Missionary Society, afterwards 
called cc The London Missionary Society," was established 
by men of various religious bodies in the year 1795, and at 
once took hold of the sympathies of the Christian public. 
It was formed at a time when men were less solicitous 
about party than about the spread of Evangelical Chris- 
tianity, and it disclaimed sectarianism from its very com- 

1 Cockin's Memoirs of the Rev. Joseph Cockin. 

M 2 

164 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

mencement. Among those who in Yorkshire appeared 
prominent in the ranks of its early supporters were Rev. 
E. Parsons, Leeds ; G. Lambert, Hull ; and Joseph 
Cockin, Halifax (who preached one of the four sermons 
before the society in Surrey Chapel, May 9, 1798). 

On the death of Scott, the academy at Heckmondwike 
had been transferred to the Rev. Samuel Walker of North- 
owram, together with the books and apparatus which 
constituted its property. Mr. Walker had been a student 
under Mr. Scott, and was supposed to be well acquainted 
with his plans, and to be qualified to succeed him. But the 
choice was unhappy ; and after the lapse of about twelve 
years, representations were made to the London Society 
which destroyed their confidence in Mr. Walker as a tutor. 
It was felt also that such an institution could not be longer 
managed by a committee resident so far from the scene of 
action. The purpose too for which the cc Northern Educa- 
tion Society " had been formed was now, in some degree, 
fulfilled ; and the Institution no longer commanded that 
sympathy in London which it had originally done. This 
state of things required, therefore, a change. The result 
was of great importance to the district. 

After considerable deliberation in London, a letter was 
sent by Mr. Fuller to J. Walker, Esq., of Rotherham, a very 
prominent man among the Dissenters of the West Riding, 
announcing that a considerable deficiency having taken place 
in the finances, it was resolved that Mr. Walker should be 
no longer considered the tutor, and that the establishment 
of a new Institution should be henceforth left to the Chris- 
tian friends of the West Riding. 

This letter was read by Mr. Walker to a meeting of 
ministers at Holmfirth. After deliberation and discussion 
it was resolved that Mr. Moorhouse should write a circular 
letter convening a meeting for the purpose of receiving it, 

Advance. 165 

and determining upon future action. On the 30th July, 
1794, this meeting was held at the Three Legs, Call-lane, 
Leeds. It was attended by 20 ministers and 12 lay 
gentlemen, some from Lancashire, but chiefly from 
churches in Yorkshire. At this meeting Mr. Kennedy, of 
Moseley-street, Manchester, proposed a plan for an 
academy with two tutors ; and a committee of five ministers 
and five laymen was appointed to prepare for another 

On the nth September, a representative meeting was 
held at the Waterhouse Arms, Halifax, when, besides all 
those who had attended the former meeting, five other 
ministers and six laymen were present. A matured 
scheme, prepared principally by Mr. Moorhouse, was 
adopted. It was resolved that the institution be con- 
sidered altogether new, and that it be presided over by 
two tutors ; only students of Calvinistic sentiments 
being received. The term of study was fixed for four 
years. These conclusions were ratified by a meeting at 
Huddersfield ; present, Rev. Messrs. Brewer, Moorhouse, 
Dawson, Galland, Bennett (Heckmondwike), Jos. Cockin, 
Blackburn, Vint, Hudson, M'Quhae, Hale, with many 
laymen. Northowram was deemed the most eligible 
locality, and premises which were at that time deemed 
suitable were offered by Mr. Asquith. It was resolved to 
invite to the presidency Rev. J. Bennett, then of Romsey. 
For the present, however, this invitation was declined. 

In the following year it was reported that some confi- 
dential communications had been held with the Rev. Dr. 
Williams, of Carr's-lane, Birmingham, and he was warmly 
recommended as a suitable man to undertake the office of 

As, however, the Doctor deemed a pastoral charge 
essential to his acceptance of the office, and as the church 

1 66 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

at Rotherham was now without a pastor, it was agreed that, 
should his ministry prove acceptable to that church, his 
acceptance should determine the site of the future college. 
When these arrangements took effect, Joshua Walker, 
Esq., was requested to erect a suitable building for the 
reception of the College, the designation of which was 
henceforth " the Rotherham Independent Academy." 

Three benefactions of ^50 each were offered respectively 
by Mr. Whittenbury, Mr. Joshua Walker, and Mr. 
Thomas Walker, and one of ^10 10s. by Rev Mr. 

The office of second tutor had been offered to Mr. 
Berry, of West Bromwich, but as he had accepted a 
similar office at the College at Homerton, the Rev. 
Maurice Phillips was appointed in his place. 

Mr. Williams was born at Denbigh, Nov. 14, 1750, and 
gave early promise of talents and worth. Early in life he 
felt the power of Divine truth under the preaching of the 
Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, and studied for the Chris- 
tian ministry at Abergavenny, under Dr. Davies. His 
industry was remarkable ; his reasoning and meta- 
physical powers were of a high order, and his piety 
unquestionable. His first settlement had been at Ross, 
where he laboriously cultivated his powers in a sphere of 
comparative leisure. He next removed to Oswestry. At 
that time Lady Glenorchy was desirous to form an establish- 
ment for the education of young ministers, and Dr. Williams 
was fixed upon as their tutor. Two students were placed 
under his charge with a view to a future increase. But 
before this project could take full effect, Dr. Davies had 
removed from Abergavenny to take charge of the college 
at Homerton, and application was made to Williams to 
become his successor. After some difficulty, Williams' 
pupils were removed from Abergavenny to Oswestry. 

Advance. 1 6 7 

Whilst here Williams entered the field of controversy, first 
with Abraham Booth, on the subject of baptism, then with 
Rev. Mr. Belsham, who was at that time the apostle of the 
Unitarians. Circumstances afterwards led him (in the year 
1 791) to relinquish his position as tutor, and he accepted 
the invitation of the church at Carr's-lane, Birmingham, 
to become their pastor. Here he received from the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh the degree of D.D. 

Dr. Williams entered on his duties as President of 
Rotherham Academy, Sept. 30, 1795. The Institution 
itself commenced its first session on Nov. 5. 

The important and valuable services rendered by Joshua 
Walker, Esq., have been already referred to. Mr. Walker 
provided suitable premises for the accommodation of the 
students, and presented the amount of rent to the Insti- 
tution from year to year, in addition to his annual 
subscription. On his death the whole was conveyed to the 
Academy. To him and to his family the new Institution 
was under lasting obligations. 

Whilst these movements bearing reference to the esta- 
blishment of Rotherham Academy were taking place, a 
concurrent movement led to the establishment of Airedale 
College. On the breaking up of Mr. Walker's institution, 
only four students remained. These were Thomas Taylor, 
afterwards of Bradford ; C. Ely, afterwards of Bury, 
Lanes. ; Abraham Hudswell, afterwards of Bingley ; and 
— Batley. As a temporary expedient, these young men 
were placed under the charge of the Rev. W. Vint, of Idle. 
As soon as the arrangements for Rotherham were com- 
pleted, the last two were removed to the new academy. 
But the loss of the Institution from the centre of the West 
Riding was severely felt, and many painful consequences 
to the denomination were apprehended. In this juncture 
Edward Hanson, Esq., of London, who had formerly 

1 68 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

resided in Yorkshire, undertook to support two young men 
for the ministry under the charge of Mr. Vint. • For this 
purpose he contributed, in 1800, the annual sum of £60, 
and at his death (1803) left ^150 per annum for carrying 
on the work of preparatory instruction. Other pecuniary 
aids were soon afforded, and the establishment took the 
name of Idle (afterwards Airedale) Academy. Whether of 
the two institutions is the legitimate successor of the 
Academy commenced by Mr. Scott is therefore a matter 
of some dubiety. 

It is interesting to observe how, about this period, and 
greatly in consequence of the activity and zeal which the 
spirit of Christian missions awakened and stimulated, the 
principal towns of the Riding where the decay of Evan- 
gelical religion had been most apparent, recovered then- 
spiritual position and influence. By the close of this cen- 
tury there were bodies of earnest and active Christians in 
Leeds, Hull, Halifax, Huddersfield, Sheffield, Wakefield, 
Whitby, Bradford, Barnsley, &c. 

Efforts had been also made in the city of York, but they 
had been less successful. 




A.D. I80O 1 83 I. 

There is, probably, no period of British history in which 
Evangelical religion presented so favourable an aspect as at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. The energy of 
Methodism had accomplished a great work. The Wesley an 
body began to be strong and well- compacted, and was full 
of love to God and zeal for the souls of men. The 
Calvinistic Methodists had accomplished much ; but 
wanting organization and a definite Church government, 
had failed to establish themselves to any extent as a 
separate body. Yet the influence of both branches had 
been immensely great beyond the range of their own 
circle. The dying embers of religion had been every- 
where fanned into a flame. Many pulpits of the Es- 
tablished Church, which had only heard the drone of 
an almost heathen morality, now echoed with the sounds 
of living salvation through the precious blood of Christ. 
The effect on Dissenters was marvellous. God had 
visited his Church and watered it. Men began to bear 
the truth into nooks and corners unvisited before. A 

170 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

missionary zeal had been awakened, full of promise for 
the heathen world. And the spirit thus evoked reacted 
most beneficially upon the churches themselves, awoke 
them from their languor, and inspired the cheerfulness 
which always accompanies conscientious, and especially 
Christian, work. 

It only needs that we shall recall the names of the men 
who at the beginning of the century occupied the chief 
places of Protestant Dissent in Yorkshire, to obtain 
the conviction that Independency was now a spiritual 
power. Parsons at Leeds, Cockin at Halifax, Lambert at 
Hull, Moorhouse at Huddersfield, Arundel at Whitby, 
Kidd at Cleckheaton, Vint at Idle, Howell at Knares- 
borough, Boden at Sheffield, Poole at Kipping, Taylor at 
Ossett and Bradford — these were men indeed ! None of 
them were possessors of distinguished genius ; few of them 
of high intellectual eminence ; but they were ministers 
whose religious sensibility and holy unction rendered them 
fit standard-bearers of a holy cause, which they loved 
with their whole hearts. Usefulness was to them an 
instinct; they "naturally" cared for the "state" of 
those by whom they were surrounded. The work 
of winning souls and forming character was the most 
congenial of all possible occupations. Some of them 
might not have the most comprehensive views, but 
they had on all important points the strongest con- 
victions. If not distinguished for their scholarship, 
which was perhaps no more than respectable, the 
energy of the heart was transcendent. They were iden- 
tified with their cause, and to extend it was their meat 
and drink. It is not wonderful that the seed they sowed 
in prayer and faith ripened into so abundant a harvest. 

Having prepared the instruments to effect it, God found 
for them the work which He had designed them to perform. 

Consolidation. 171 

The revival of religion brought in its train not only 
a desire to do good, but an inventiveness in the means 
of accomplishing it. Valuable institutions were formed 
at this period which are still in vigorous existence, showing 
no signs of decaying life. It was a new thing when 
Dissenting ministers, whose sphere had always been, till 
now, the pulpit, were seen taking their places as platform 
orators. There were some indeed who could never re- 
concile themselves to the change. Others took to it 
naturally and freely, and found it only an enlargement of 
the sphere of their usefulness. It will usually be found 
that where conversational powers exist, platform speaking 
is easy and natural ; and that that branch of public service 
is difficult where such conversational powers are defective. 
Henceforward, however, business-meetings were destined 
to form an important, and when good sense directs them, a 
very interesting, part of the apparatus of Christian action, 
of special service to the ministry, and of no less service to 
the people, whether male or female. 

Among the movements which characterized the early 
part of the present century, there was one peculiarity 
already adverted to, which in its present development 
became pricelessly valuable, and was destined to exert the 
most important future influence on the well-being of the 
Dissenting congregations. The old exercises of the Non- 
conformists had served their day till the minds of the 
young had grown dull beneath the infliction of the formal, 
precise, and measured doctrines of the Assembly's Cate- 
chism. When Sunday-schools were first introduced, they 
were not definitely affiliated to any special congregations ; 
and it appears not to have been imagined, until about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, what extraordinary 
powers the system possessed. The discovery was like 
a new revelation in congregational life. Instead of the 

IJ2 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

paid instructors with whom the movement began/ volun- 
tary agency became the very soul of the system ; instead 
of the work being scattered over many localities, poor 
children were brought together into one focus ; instead of 
the prominent commercial instruction hitherto given, 
Christians, instinct with spiritual life, poured out their 
convictions upon the minds of their scholars. School- 
rooms were not at first provided ; the young were prin- 
cipally taught in pews in the chapels. Gradually the 
old Catechisms became disused, and from the Bible as a 
text-book, the heart of the teacher met the heart of 
the learner. When the advantages of the new system 
became apparent, it spread with extraordinary rapidity. 
Sunday-schools arose in all directions ; suitable rooms were 
erected ; and the religious education of the poor became 
"the means of grace" to the whole congregation. Out of 
them came not only teachers of others, but ministers and 
missionaries ; and every step in the process was a new 
illustration of the compound interest of doing good. 
When Mr. Moorhouse, of Huddersfield, first saw the 
children of his new Sunday-school marched into the 
chapel and seated in the aisles, he said, cc it was the 
happiest day of his life." 

In this great work of Christian benevolence Yorkshire 
has proved inferior in zeal to no district under the sun. 
Even to this day no subject will command larger audiences. 
So wide is the liberality which this great work evokes, that 
in many congregations other benevolent purposes gladly 
avail themselves of the plea of affinity to Sunday- schools 
in order to gain a more abundant support. It may be that 
in the nineteenth century this noble enterprise, begun by 
Raikes, needs revision and completion ; that what availed 

1 From 1786 to 1800 the Sunday- School Society alone paid upwards 
of £4000 for instruction. 

Consolidation . 173 

for the wants of one age needs to be readjusted to those of 
another ; and that in proportion to the progress of general 
education amidst our masses the school should aim at 
objects more definitively spiritual. It may also be that 
what in the first instance came to our Christian bodies from 
without should now be taken up as the incumbent duty of 
the churches themselves. We eagerly long to see this 
important subject treated with the earnestness it well 
deserves ; but we cannot believe that so potent an instru- 
ment as Sunday-school instruction is destined (unless vital 
religion suffers an awful collapse) to become obsolete or to 
lose its power. From it our churches, our pulpits, our 
colleges have been largely and continuously recruited. Our 
missionary societies are indebted to it for some of its 
most effective instrumentality. Ever by its means precious 
gems of talent and character have been discovered and 
rendered brilliant, which, but for the institution which drew 
them out, had been lost in inglorious ignorance. And if 
Great Britain have any claim to morals and virtue ; if, 
on that ground, she can hold her head high amidst the 
nations of the earth, and if our national character have any 
bases of righteousness and uprightness, who can tell how 
much of this is due to the direct and indirect influence 
of our Sunday-schools ? Well may Lord Mahon say : 
"Among the principal means which, under Providence, 
tended to a better system in the coming age may be ranked 
the system of Sunday-schools, and of these the main praise 
belongs to Robert Raikes." 

The operation of Sunday-schools stimulated the increa- 
sing desire of Dissenters to undertake the work of general 
education. About the year 1 8 1 4, Joseph Lancaster pro- 
pounded his plan of monitorial instruction, and for that 
purpose lectured in the principal towns of the kingdom, 
and among other parts, in Yorkshire. His system excited 

1 74 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

great attention, and led to the formation of numerous 
schools, especially in the great centres of population, sup- 
ported by voluntary contributions. At this time the 
attention paid by Dissenters to the work of general 
education created some dismay among the ranks of the 
Episcopalians. Dr. Bell, who was favoured by the latter, 
wrote : <c It cannot be dissembled, that thousands in 
various parts of the kingdom are drawn off from the 
Church, by the superior attention paid to education out of 
the Church." 1 Southey, the great apologist of the party, 
(in allusion to a caricature then bearing the name of 
cc Bel(l) and the Dragon)/' says that the Church did their 
duty at last, not because they were persuaded to it, but 
because they were cc frightened and shamed into it by 
the Dragon." 

The strong prejudice with which Dissenters had been 
regarded at the close of the eighteenth century had retained 
much of its virulence at the commencement of the nine- 
teenth. It appears that an anonymous pamphleteer had 
published in the West Riding, a tract entitled, " A Candid 
Inquiry into the Democratic Schemes of the Dissenters," 
which was fraught with the most vituperative epithets — 
"hypocrites, disaffected, meddling mortals," "wild beasts," 
cc savage brutes," &c. The following passage (scarcely 
worthy of being raked up from oblivion except for the 
sake of illustrating the spirit of the times) is a specimen 
of the whole : — cc The Dissenters have been the greatest 
opposers of the most religious of the clergy ; the more 
effectually to beguile the unwary, they introduce their 
political sentiments into their very prayers ; in six out of 
ten of the visits made to their schism-shops, the dis- 
affected meddling mortals stir up strife and sedition. The 
Dissenters have supported democratic candidates at an 
1 Dunn's Sketches: Joseph Lancaster, p. 51. 

Consolidation . 175 

election, and formed parties to introduce democratic publi- 
cations into our book-clubs ; a brutal neglect of good 
breeding is imposed on them as a mark of civism by their 
conscientious priests ; they were begot by sedition, and 
by the paps of sedition they have been fostered ever since 
they made their entree ; with all their superabundant 
piety, they are often convicted of short weights and 
measures ; and to finish this black list, the Dissenters 
are the children of the devil, who, having entirely left the 
Church, soon become heterodox in sentiment, immoral in 
practice, and at last complete infidels." To this pamphlet, 
Rev. E. Parsons, of Leeds, replied in a style of dignified 
but trenchant severity, without, however, silencing his 
opponent, whom he proclaimed to be Rev. W. Atkinson, 
Lecturer of the Parish Church, Bradford. This unhappy 
clergyman returned again to the attack in language so 
coarse and scurrilous as would disgust all modern readers, 
and Mr. Parsons published a triumphant rejoinder. Such 
was the embittered feeling with which our predecessors 
were called to contend ! Nor was Bradford alone in 
such demonstrations. Even so late as about the year 
1820, Dissenters still remained subjects of suspicion, and 
were denounced as ill-affected to the Government. The 
name of Joseph Boothroyd (then of Pontefract) was 
transmitted to the Privy Council, accompanied by a copy 
of the laws of a reading society drawn up by him as 
evidence of his treasonable intentions. But one of the 
representatives of the borough, happening in a visit to the 
minister of the day to gain information of the charge, 
warmly vindicated the good man's honour, and assured the 
minister that Boothroyd was a man of peace, and that he 
and his congregation were loyal subjects of the King. 
Indeed, some of the Dissenting clergy of that day, in their 
hatred of Jacobinism, stood too close to the principles of 

176 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

passive obedience and non-resistance, to be consistent with 
their own acknowledged position. 

The unenlightened condition of many parts of this large 
county had not failed, from the beginning of the century, 
to awaken the concern and prompt the efforts of many true 
servants of Jesus Christ. No church was more zealous in 
this department than that of the Rev. G. Lambert, Fish- 
street, Hull ; and many parts of the surrounding district 
were permanently indebted to its pious exertions. But the 
large mass of ignorance required a combination of effort. 
An attempt was made in 1 806 to form an association for 
the whole county, one of the special objects being to 
countervail the system of religious mendicancy which the 
erection of new chapels had occasioned. It appears, how- 
ever, to have died out soon after its formation. In 1809 
an association was formed for the Fast Riding, which, during 
some time, issued annual pastoral letters, and was energetic. 
A similar society was formed in 1 8 1 1 for the West Riding, 
and was named the Itinerant Society. It was resolved that 
the district of Craven should be the scene of its first 
operation, though its circle was afterwards enlarged. No 
man was personally more active in these enterprises than the 
Rev. Joseph Cockin, then of Kipping. His son, the Rev. 
John Cockin, of Holmfirth, was afterwards a zealous 
imitator of his active father. An interesting account of 
Mr. Cockin's second journey in this district is furnished 
in the memoir of the father, written by the son. 

We have mentioned the auspicious formation of the 
London Missionary Society, and the interest taken in it 
by some ministers in Yorkshire. When the ship cc Duff" 
was sent out in 1799 on her second voyage, the superin- 
tendency of the expedition was entrusted to the Rev. W. 
Howell, then of Knaresborough. The "Duff" was cap- 
tured by a French privateer, and her passengers were, after 

Consolidation. 1 7 7 

much suffering, landed at Monte Video. The ship in 
which they were re-embarked was again taken by the Portu- 
guese. In the end, however, they landed safe upon their 
native shores. 

The narrative of these incidents, published by Mr. 
Howell in 1809, ten ded doubtless to increase the interest 
taken by Yorkshire Dissenters in the progress of the mis- 
sionary cause. That interest was deepened by the intelli- 
gence furnished from time to time from Tahiti, the scene 
of the Society's first operations, where, after thirteen years 
of most disheartening failure, a marvellous change had 
taken place. The King avowed himself a' Christian. The 
natives abandoned their idols. The hopes of the Church 
damped, but not extinguished, at once revived, and the 
work of Christian missions received a new and powerful 

Such was the condition of matters when in the month of 
August, 1 8 13, a meeting was held at Leeds to form an 
auxiliary to the London Missionary Society for the West 
Riding. Among the speakers and preachers were the Revs. 
G. Burder (Secretary to the Parent Society), T. Raffles, 
Bogue, Waugh, Thorpe (Bristol), Joseph and John 
Cockin, E. Parsons, Boden, Moorehouse, Boothroyd, &c, 
and Messrs. Joshua Walker (chairman), Clapham, Daw- 
son, and many others. cc A great concourse of people," 
we are told, cc from the neighbourhood, as well as from 
town, crowded the spacious places of worship at every 
service. Between sixty and seventy ministers were present 
on the occasion. The most desirable unanimity, cordial 
affection, and fervent zeal were displayed. The collections 
and donations, exclusive of annual subscriptions, amounted 
to about £460." From that time the annual meeting 
circulated during many years in the large towns of the 
Riding with wonderful spirit and success. It only failed 


178 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

when each considerable town began to hold an anniversary 
of its own, and the efforts became thus distributed among 
more numerous channels. 

A similar auxiliary was formed for the North Riding in 

In the same year, also, the Hull and East Riding Aux- 
iliary was instituted. 

It has been often observed how religious institutions act 
and re-act on each other, and how the zeal which the work of 
foreign missions engenders operates advantageously on move- 
ments at home. The efforts made in the West Riding on 
behalf of the heathen led to the feeling that more ought to be 
done for the uninstructed population of the country, and at 
a meeting of the Sixth Anniversary of the London Mis- 
sionary Society (Sheffield, 18 19), it was resolved to make 
more strenuous exertions for the spread of the gospel in the 
West Riding. A provisional committee was accordingly 
appointed, to represent, in a circular, the dark and ignorant 
state of many of the Yorkshire districts, and the insuffi- 
ciency of the means hitherto employed to meet the great 
demand ; and inviting Christians and ministers to form a 
new union for the purpose of aiding weak churches, and 
carrying the gospel to places then destitute of it. A 
meeting was accordingly held in Salem Chapel, Wakefield, 
Oct. 27, 1 819, Samuel Thompson, Jun., Esq., in the 
chair, when it was resolved that a new society be formed, 
entitled cc The Home Missionary Society for the West 
Riding of Yorkshire," and that its object be " the preaching 
of the gospel, the formation of Congregational churches, and 
the pecuniary aid of weak interests in the towns and villages 
of the West Riding and its vicinity." Of this new society 
the Chairman was appointed Treasurer, and Rev. J. Jeffer- 
son, Secretary. Its first annual meeting was held at Hud- 
dersfield, April 25, 1820. In 1822, the Rev. J. Jefferson 

Consolidation. 179 

removed from the Riding, and Rev. James Scott, of Cleck- 
heaton, in his place, took office, which he retained till the 
year 1829. Sheffield soon separated itself, and during 
many succeeding years formed a district society of its own, 
but at length returned. The labours of the West Riding 
Society proved of great importance, and some places 
which received aid in the first year of its formation, as 
Ripon, Clayton West, Sedberg, Cowick, Grassington, and 
Settle remain beneficiaries to this day. Many complaints 
were, however, made that the society did not receive 
that full and general support from the churches of the 
Riding to which it was felt to be fairly entitled. It was 
long before it was vigorously sustained ; even in the pre- 
sent day its support is inadequate to the wants of the 
population with which it has to deal, and it appears to 
disadvantage when put into comparison with the more 
zealous exertions of a sister institution — the Congre- 
gational Union of Lancashire. Nor can it be said to 
have accomplished its appropriate work till it shall have 
energetically set itself to provide for the untaught masses 
of our large towns. 

The year 1815 witnessed the ordination of a minister 
whose name will be long remembered in Yorkshire, not 
only for the varied talents it recalls, but for its con- 
nection with many of the most important public move- 
ments in the West Riding and the county. The Rev. 
R. W. Hamilton was young when he first settled in Leeds, 
but he soon became distinguished as the pride and power 
of that town and its vicinity. Reference is made else- 
where to his sermon ( cc Condemned Sermon," as he termed 
it), preached on occasion of an execution at York, and to the 
unfavourable and unfair criticism to which the publication 
gave rise. The very outcry served, however, to raise the 
young man into notoriety, and his talents soon redeemed 

N 2 

180 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

the juvenility of his publication. In the year 1819, Mr. 
Hamilton entered the lists of controversy. A sermon was 
preached before " the Association of Unitarian Christians 
residing at Hull, Thorne, Doncaster, Gainsborough, Lin- 
coln, and adjacent places," then holding its meeting in Bowl- 
alley Chapel, Hull, by the Rev. Joseph Hutton, A.B., of 
Mill-hill, Leeds, which was afterwards published, and 
entitled " Omniscience the Attribute of the Father only." 
In reply to this, Hamilton sent forth a pamphlet, entitled 
" Strictures," &c, in a letter to the author. These " Stric- 
tures " were written in a spirit and temper which did 
honour to controversy, and which Mr. Hutton himself was 
ready to acknowledge in kind and complimentary terms. 
Hamilton's reply was the first fleshing of the sword after- 
wards to be wielded with power in the battle against Unita- 
rianism. He subsequently returned to the conflict with the 
same antagonist. He had now shown himself no mean 
warrior — a champion for the forefront whenever his services 
should be required in the cause of the common Christianity. 
Up to the year 18 14, no movement had been success- 
fully made to establish Independency in the metropolitan 
city of York. Ingham had formed a society, but it had 
lapsed, like most others of his establishment, into Sande- 
manianism. Lady Huntingdon had stationed a preacher, 
Rev. Mr. Wren, in College-street ; but without much 
apparent result. After his death, Rev. E. Parsons, 
Leeds, took the chapel for a year; but was then com- 
pelled to relinquish the effort. Other arrangements 
followed, still without success, till, in the year 18 14, 
the West Riding Itinerant Society, then recently formed, 
resolved on the erection of a new chapel in Lendal, which 
was opened in 18 16 (see Lendal Chapel, York). One of 
the Reports on the litigated Lady Hewley's case (pub- 
lished in 1829) contains the following remarks: — 

Consolidation. 1 8 1 

cc Since the time when Socinianism took full possession 
of St. Saviour's-gate Chapel, together with the ample 
funds left by Lady Hewley for the support of a different 
system, orthodox Nonconformity in the city of York 
has had to struggle with many and very trying diffi- 
culties. At some periods its total extinction has appeared 
to be threatened. For a succession of many years, its 
chief friends were a few persons in low circumstances of 
life ; their place of worship was small and very incon- 
veniently situated, and for a long period, till about 1 8 1 2, 
no hope of a revival had been entertained. At that time, 
however, under the gracious Providence of God, a very 
striking coincidence of circumstances occurred which, it 
may with confidence be asserted, has issued in one of 
the most remarkable revivals of a dying interest which 
has taken place, for a long time past, in any part of the 
United Kingdom. Lendal Chapel was opened for public 
worship Nov. 7, 18 16, and the congregation and church, 
under the pastoral care of that very excellent and popular 
young minister, the Rev. James Parsons, have risen in the 
course of a short time to a high rank of respectability ; 
and long may they continue to enjoy the advantages of 
his zealous and efficient labours ! " The prayer has been 
abundantly realized ! 

We have already made mention of the College at 
Rotherham. Very important spiritual results followed 
from its establishment. The presidency of Dr. Wil- 
liams gave it a moral power and intellectual character 
of a high order. Whatever may be the opinion formed 
as to some of the propositions contained in his well- 
known work on cc The Equity of the Divine Govern- 
ment and the Sovereignty of Divine Grace," none can 
doubt that to Dr. Williams we owe one of the mcst 
able defences of the Calvinistic system, and that it 

1 82 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

rendered the author's name conspicuous among our 
own and other churches. But death had done its 
work upon him; in the year 1808, his place was vacant. 
His friend and biographer, the late Rev. Joseph 
Gilbert, thus characterizes him : — cc By his various 
knowledge, his liberal views, the simplicity of his 
character, his gentleness and urbanity of manners, his 
fervent, prevailing piety ; by his consistency and blame- 
lessness of deportment, his solid judgment, his catholic 
principles, his public spirit, and his intimate familiarity 
with every question relating to theology ; he was un- 
questionably qualified, in no common degree, for his 
office as a tutor of youth for the Christian ministry." 1 

In 1 8 13, a successor was appointed in the person of Rev. 
James (afterwards Dr.) Bennett, then at Romsey, already 
known by being a conjoint author, with Dr. Bogue, of cc The 
History of Dissenters." Dr. Bennett was a minister of 
considerable attainments, and an admirable preacher ; and 
as the tutor was expected to take the oversight of the 
church at Masborough, the latter point was of considerable 
and indeed of disproportionate importance. In 1 8 1 2, the 
failure of his health induced him to withdraw, and having 
accepted the invitation of the church at Silver-street, he 
became a power among the ministers of the metropolis. 

During the presidency of Dr. Williams, the classical 
tutorship was occupied by Rev. Maurice Phillips and 
the Rev. Joseph Gilbert, who held the post in conjunc- 
tion with the pastorship of the Nether Chapel, Sheffield. 
After his removal to Hull, the Rev. Thomas Smith, M.A., 
succeeded him in both offices. 

In the year 1824 arose a controversy, well-known as 
cc the Manchester Socinian Controversy." As it proved 
to be of considerable importance to Dissenters, especially 

1 Life of the late Rev. E. Williams, D.D., p. 534. 

Consolidation. i $3 

in the northern counties, an account of its origin may be 
somewhat fully given. 

In the month of August a valedictory dinner was given 
in Manchester to the Rev. John Grundy, a Unitarian 
minister, then about to remove from that town to Liver- 
pool. In the course of the evening, the health of the 
Rev. George Harris, another minister of that persuasion, 
was toasted. In acknowledgment of this compliment, Mr. 
Harris made a speech, in which very hard and sarcastic 
expressions were employed in reference to Trinitarianism ; 
and it was declared that "its direful and demoralizing 
effects may be read in the history of every nation under 
the sun." The speech was published, and became the 
origin of a newspaper controversy which extended over 
a period of several months, and afterwards obtained a 
large circulation as a pamphlet. In the course of this 
argument, the alleged perversion by Unitarians of 
orthodox trusts was made specially prominent. Two 
years later, the Rev. Dr. Bennett, and others represent- 
ing Rotherham College, availed themselves of the visit 
to Yorkshire of the Commissioners of Public Charities, 
to complain of the perversion of the trusts of Lady 
Hewley — those funds having been designed for orthodox 
ministers, but being at that time principally employed 
for the maintenance of Unitarian opinions. An inquiry 
was accordingly instituted into the facts of the bequest; 
and the opinion of the Commissioners was given, to 
the effect that it was extremely doubtful whether the 
funds were rightly administered. They recommended the 
reference of the question to a court of equity. 

On the publication of the report of the Commissioners, 
and at the instance of G. Hadfield, Esq., the facts of 
Lady Hewley's bequest were arranged and published for 
the information of the Lancashire Independent Churches 

184 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

and the public in general. The preparation of the tract 
was entrusted to the hands of Mr. Hadfield himself, whose 
vigour, zeal, and assiduity in the whole affair is beyond 
all praise. In the issue the case was regarded as one well 
worthy of being submitted to the judgment of the highest 
legal authorities. The case was put into the hands of 
Joseph Blower, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, who brought out 
its points with the utmost talent and energy, and secured 
very able advocates in its support. An information was 
filed in 1830 by His Majesty's Attorney-General against 
the trustees, sub-trustees, and managers, at the relation of 
Thomas Wilson, Esq., treasurer of Highbury College, 
Joseph Read, Esq., vice-treasurer of Rotherham College, 
George Hadfield, Esq., treasurer of Blackburn Academy, 
John Clapham and Joseph Hodgson, Esqrs. The case 
excited the utmost interest and a bitterness of feeling 
and invective almost beyond parallel. 

The case of the Rev. John Smith, of Demerara, who, 
in the year 1824, fell a victim to the overbearing tyranny 
of West Indian prejudice and infatuation, could not fail to 
awaken the most lively sympathy in the minds of the 
Evangelical Christians of Yorkshire. Strong representa- 
tions were sent up to the Government, and the intense 
excitement of the occasion not only prompted fervid 
denunciation on every missionary platform, but dealt to 
the system of West Indian slavery a blow from which it 
never recovered. Leeds took a foremost place in the 
demonstrations which this event called forth. The energy 
of the Rev. T. Scales was conspicuous in this crisis, and 
was powerfully aided by the eloquence of Rev. R. W. 
Hamilton, who preached and published a discourse of 
distinguished merit on the occasion. Soon after (1825), the 
same preacher delivered one of the annual sermons before 
the London Missionary Society. It was in advocacy of a 

Consolidation . 185 

cause specially near to the preacher's heart, and was strik- 
ing in illustration and powerful in argument, though it 
failed of producing a general and popular impression. Soon 
after, the remarkable talents of Mr. H. were manifested in 
advocacy of the cause of Catholic Emancipation, in an able 
letter addressed to the editors of the <c Leeds Mercury." 
cc As a calm, dignified, and earnest exposition of great 
principles," says Dr. Stowell," it has been seldom equalled; 
it would be sufficient to gain for the writer a noble reputa- 

The London Missionary Society, having in view the 
importance of sustaining and directing its missions in the 
Southern seas, resolved, in the year 1821, to send thither 
a deputation who might, at the same time, visit other posts 
of labour, and encourage and strengthen its various mis- 
sionaries. Two gentlemen were selected for this duty. As 
coadjutor to the Rev. D. Tyerman, George Bennett, Esq., 
of Sheffield, undertook the responsible task. These gentle- 
men set sail on the 2nd of May. After spending nearly 
a year in the islands of the Pacific, they touched at New 
Holland, Batavia, Java, China, India, and Madagascar. At 
the latter place, Mr. Tyerman was arrested by the stroke 
of death, and Mr. Bennett was left to complete the 
journey alone. On his return to this country (1829), tne 
journal of the Deputation was put into the hands of the 
poet Montgomery, and was published in two volumes. 
Mr. Bennett afterwards visited many of the principal towns 
of England, and gave an account of the scenes he had 
visited and the impressions he had received. 



A.D. I83I 1868. 

In the year 1831 was commenced a new building, called 
by the name of cc Airedale College," for the education 
of the Northern Congregational ministry. It was 
an enlargement of the institution which had hitherto 
been carried on at Idle, under the presidency of 
Rev. W. Vint. Its removal had been earnestly pro- 
moted by the liberality of a pious and wealthy lady of 
Bradford, Mrs. Bacon, who gave two estates for its 
sustenance. The address at laying the foundation- 
stone was delivered by Rev. R. W. Hamilton, June 20. 
It gained considerable notoriety, and became the basis of 
a subsequent controversy. In it Mr. H. took a view 
of ministerial education among the Congregationalists, 
especially in the North, and uttered a severe diatribe 
against the appropriation by Unitarians of the trusts left 
by orthodox Presbyterians, and abjured religious com- 
munion with them. The attack did not long remain 
unnoticed. Mr. Hamilton's former antagonist, Rev. Joseph 
(afterwards Dr.) Hutton, published, in reply, a sermon 
entitled fC Unitarians entitled to the name of Christians." 
To this Mr. Hamilton made an immediate and spirited 
rejoinder, in which, though outward courtesy was main- 

The Modern Era, 187 

tained, the style was like a surgeon's knife cutting into 
the living flesh. " The Manchester Socinian Contro- 
versy " was brought into the light of day, whilst the 
Unitarian body was unsparingly challenged. The conflict 
lasted for some time, with much power on the side of 
Hamilton. In the end Dr. Hutton retired from the 
field, declaring himself not convinced, but considerably 

We return, however, to Airedale College. Its erection 
was completed in 1834. The removal of the institution 
was a source of great trouble to Mr. Vint, and his health, 
which had been failing for some years, now declined more 
rapidly. He died March 13, 1834. "Never," said 
Hamilton, in his funeral sermon, " should his efforts to 
extend the influence of our community be forgotten by us. 
He found it respectable, but not numerous in proportion 
to its means and the exigency of the district. It scarcely 
was known to overflow. It can now swell beyond itself. 
We can think now of villages and towns which possess not 
Evangelical teaching, and carry it to them in our de- 
nominational form. And he it was who greatly com- 
municated this impulse, and his Presidency gave him 
general opportunities of intercourse with our Churches, 
which he failed not to improve. Other holy men had 
preceded him in the exertions of zeal, but it was he who 
principally gave them their system, and secured for them 
their stability." x 

The history of Airedale College till the present time 
may be briefly given. 

Mr. Vint was succeeded in his tutorship by Rev. 
Walter Scott, who removed from Rowell. Mr. S. was 
not new to the work of a tutor; having already given 
instruction to many useful, and some eminent, ministers. 

1 Funeral Sermon for Vint, p. 46. 

1 8 8 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

He was a man of high mental power, and of unquestioned 
attachment to the cardinal doctrines of the gospel. He 
was warmly welcomed at Airedale ; there being, as 
Hamilton said, in allusion to his defective elocution, cc no 
voice against him but his own." He continued to hold 
the office with much honour till 1856, when age came 
upon him. A handsome presentation, with every expres- 
sion of esteem, accompanied his retirement. His first 
associate in the classical tutorship was Rev. T, R. Taylor, 1 
son of Mr. Taylor, of Bradford, a young man of singular 
promise and genius, as his fragmentary remains and poems 
attest. But his occupation of office was short. He died 
1835, °f consumption. After Mr. Taylor's death, the 
tutorship was held for some time by Rev. W. B. Clulow, 
who on retirement was succeeded by Rev. D. Fraser. A 
third tutor was appointed in 1 848 in the person of Rev. 
H. B. Creak. 

On Mr. Scott's retirement the Presidential chair was 
taken by Rev. D. Fraser, now LL.D., who holds it at 
the present time. He was first assisted by Rev. R. G. 
Hartley, who retired in 1863 to become a missionary 
at Madagascar; then in 1863 by Rev. W. C. Shearer, 
the present Classical Professor. 

Mr. Creak died amidst universal respect and lamen- 
tation in the year 1864, an d was succeeded by Rev. R. 
Harley. F.R.S., who has just (1868) relinquished the post 
his mathematical accomplishments so much adorned. 

We turn from Airedale to Rotherham. The Presi- 
dency of the Rev. C. Perrot was short, and was termi- 
nated by his resignation in Midsummer, 1 834. His place 
was supplied by Rev. W. H. (afterwards Dr.) StowelJ, 
then minister of North Shields. 

1 See Howard- street, Sheffield. 

2 Memoirs and Remains of T. R. Taylor. 

The Modern Era. 189 

In 1845, Rotherham College having been in existence 
fifty years, its jubilee was celebrated with becoming accom- 
paniments. Amongst other commemorations, a public 
meeting was held, and contributions were made to the 
amount of £1000, part of which was expended in the 
enlargement of the College premises. A season of reverse 
followed. " Owing to a change in the investment of the 
funded property, which had been gradually accumulated 
by donations and bequests, this source of income became 
quite unproductive, and at the same time, owing to various 
causes, the annual subscriptions were considerably dimi- 
nished, so that in June, 1850, there was a debt against 
the College of nearly £900." At this time, Rev. T. 
Smith, A.M., resigned his tutorship, amidst strong ex- 
pressions of regard and esteem, he having held the office 
during thirty-three years. Dr. Stowell, after having con- 
tinued for a time without a colleague, and with only seven 
students, removed, to become the head of Cheshunt 
College. The union between the Presidency of the 
College and the pastorship of the Masborough Church 
was now dissolved, and the Rev. T. J. (now Dr.) 
Falding was appointed the College tutor, at first tem- 
porarily, but as affairs became increasingly auspicious, more 
permanently, the Rev. T. Clark, B.A., being classical 
and mathematical professor. In 1855, the latter gentle- 
man, having removed to Taunton, was replaced by the 
Rev. C. C. Tyte, who still continues. 

We recur to the Hewley case, of which mention was 
made in the last chapter. 

It was heard before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir L. Shadwell, 
in January, 1833. After being argued for four days, his 
opinion was given that " no persons who denied the 
doctrine of our Saviour's divine person and the doctrine 
of original sin were entitled to participate in Lady 

190 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

Hewley's charities." Against this decision an appeal was 
made, partly heard before Lord Brougham, the then 
Chancellor, assisted by Baron Parke and Justice Little- 
dale. Before judgment, however, could be given, Lord 
Brougham resigned the seals. The case was afterwards 
heard by Lord Lyndhurst, assisted by Baron Alderson 
and Justice Patteson, and was again interrupted by Lord 
Lyndhurst's resignation of office, but as both parties 
agreed to receive his award, judgment was pronounced 
Feb. 5, 1836. 

After citing the various points of the case, Lord 
Lyndhurst said : — cc These circumstances, with others, 
lead me, therefore, to the conclusion, not merely that 
these parties (the Unitarians) have misapplied the 
funds, but that in the exercise of their trust, they have 
manifested a strong and undue leaning in favour of 
persons of their own persuasion. I think, then, looking 
at these circumstances and considering the extensive and 
continued misapplication of the funds which has taken 
place, and adverting also to the consideration of the 
danger of future abuse, if persons maintaining one 
particular class of opinions are to be entrusted with the 
management and entire control of funds which are to be 
applied for the benefit of persons maintaining other 
opinions, that I am bound to come to the conclusion 
that the Vice-Chancellor was correct in removing the 
trustees ... I think that the judgment of the Vice- 
Chancellor should be affirmed.' ' 

The case was subsequently carried into the House of 
Lords, where it was argued May 13, 1839. After con- 
siderable delay, the judgment was pronounced May 10, 
1842. It sustained by the votes of six out of seven law- 
lords the previous decisions on the question, and entirely 
disqualified the existing trustees. The final deliverance 

The Modern Era. 


was given by Lord Lyndhurst, and the Court of Chan- 
cery subsequently nominated new administrators of the 
charities. These are, at present, Robert Barbour, Esq. ; 
Thomas Barnes, Esq., M.P. ; J. Crossley, Esq. ; Sir M. 
Peto, Bart., M.P. ; J. R. Mills, Esq., M.P. ; J. Ross, 
Esq. ; and S. Stitt, Esq. 

Thus terminated a contest of prolonged duration, 
marked by an acrimony which widely separated two Non- 
conformist bodies from each other; the effects of 
which have been felt even on the other side of the 
Atlantic. The decision placed in jeopardy all the proper- 
ties held by Unitarians as derived from the orthodox 
Presbyterians. To meet the exigency, a bill was intro- 
duced by Sir R. Peel's Government in 1844, which 
provided that undisputed occupation for twenty-five years 
should be regarded as conferring on any congregation a 
right to their place of worship and the appurtenances 
thereof. This measure, though strongly opposed by 
the Nonconformist bodies, passed the Commons by 300 
votes against 119, and was supported in the Upper House 
by all the law-lords who had given judgment in the 
Hewley case. 

An Institution of the utmost value to the Dissenters 
of the Northern Counties had its origin about this period 
(1831). This was the school now at Silcoates. In the 
year 1809 an establishment had been formed for the 
education of youth, entitled " The Yorkshire Protestant 
Dissenters' Grammar School." It was designed, as its title 
implies, for the benefit of Dissenters in the county of 
York ; the pupils to be carefully instructed in the principles 
of religion and Nonconformity. The sons of Dissenting 
ministers were admissible at a lower rate. The first Prin- 
cipal was Mr. France. The project, however, failed ; and 
for some years the subject was in abeyance. In the year 

192 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

1820 it was resumed, and arrangements were made for 
opening a similar institution at Silcoates House, Wake- 
field. Its designation then became cc The Yorkshire 
Dissenters' Grammar School." But the establishment was 
not of long continuance; and in the year 1831, at a 
meeting held in Bradford, it was determined to commence, 
on the same premises, a school for the benefit of the sons 
of ministers only. The principal movers in this important 
undertaking were G. Rawson, Esq., J. Clapham, Esq., and 
the Rev. T. Scales ; the former gentlemen contributing 
generously by their purse, the latter — the indefatigable 
instigator — by his pen and his unwearied personal services. 
The Rev. J. Pridie gave also valuable aid in the under- 
taking. The Institution was now called cc The Congre- 
gational School for the Sons of Independent Ministers in 
the Counties of York and Lancaster." The Rev. Ebenezer 
Miller, M.A., was appointed Principal, and the school was 
opened July 27, 1831. Mr. Miller held the office for eight 
years, and left for Rotterdam in 1839. He was succeeded 
by J. Munro, Esq., LL.D., as Principal, and Rev. T. 
Roome as Chaplain. In 1850, Dr. Munro resigned his 
trust, and was followed by his brother, D. Munro, Esq., 
M.A. ; Rev. T. Scales succeeding Mr. Roome (deceased) 
as Chaplain, retaining also the office of Secretary. 

In the year 1854, Mr. Munro having relinquished his 
post, the office of Principal was undertaken by Rev. J. 
Bewglass, LL.D., who has continued to fulfil it with much 
efficiency till the present moment. In 1855, ^ e sons °f 
laymen were made admissible, and the title was adapted to 
the change ; it now being, cc The Northern Congregational 

In 1858, Mr. Scales, who had now reached advanced 
life, tendered his resignation. The following resolution 
was passed at the subsequent anniversary : — 

"The Modern Era. 193 

cc That this meeting has heard with regret of the retire- 
ment of the Rev. T. Scales from the office of Secretary to 
this Institution, and cannot allow the present occasion to 
pass without expressing its high estimation of his zealous 
and faithful labours on behalf of the Northern Congre- 
gational School from its establishment to the present 

The year 1836 witnessed the close of the life of one 
who deserves more than a passing mention among the 
Congregationalists of Yorkshire. This was Dr. Boothroyd, 
successively minister of the congregations of Pontefract 
and Huddersfield, but best known for his important con- 
tributions to the cause of Biblical truth. The origin of 
Benjamin Boothroyd was humble, and his education very 
imperfect. But his desire for knowledge was strong, and 
when he became a Christian and resolved to dedicate him- 
self to the ministry, his progress was surprising. After 
his settlement in Pontefract, and notwithstanding that he 
was compelled to follow the trade of a bookseller in order 
to help out a scanty income, he devoted himself so sedu- 
lously to study, as to become one of the most useful 
Hebrew scholars of his day. In addition to less important 
works, he published cc Biblia Hebraica, or the Hebrew 
Scriptures of the Old Testament after the text of Kennicott, 
with the chief various readings from Hebrew MSS. and 
ancient versions, accompanied with English notes, critical, 
philological, and explanatory." This work was completed 
in the year 18 16, and drew many encomiums from high 
quarters, especially from the Bishops of Durham and St. 
David's, J on the learned and laborious author. The preface 

1 " The Bishop being in the neighbourhood of Pontefract, resolved to 
visit Mr. B., and introduced himself as a clergyman of the name of 
Burgess, upon which Mr. B. immediately identified him. Their conver- 
sation was long and interesting, and when the Bishop returned to Ferry- 


tp4 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

to the second volume of this work states, that " the single 
aid the author had in revising the press was derived from one 
whose sole knowledge of Hebrew was acquired only so 
far as might be necessary to ascertain the correctness of 
the letters." This referred to Mrs. Boothroyd, who actually 
went over the proofs with her husband, letter by letter, 
so anxious was he that the utmost correctness possible 
should be secured. Mr. Boothroyd afterwards published 
cc An Improved English version of the Holy Scriptures," 
and, as preparatory to this, ff Reflections on the Authorized 
Version," in which the defects of that translation were pointed 
out with much judgment and faithfulness. cc In 1824," 
says Mr. Scales, cc he had completed his plan, and accom- 
plished what perhaps had never before been effected by one 
individual in this department of literature, — a corrected 
Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and a revised English 
version of the whole Bible — both of them works of 
eminence, labour, and importance ; and it was the source of 
the purest and highest satisfaction to his good mind that he 
was permitted to live long enough to see a new and im- 
proved edition of his Bible just completed before he was 
laid aside by his last illness." * 

About the year 1837, tne publication of fC The Oxford 
Tracts" excited great attention throughout the whole king- 
bridge, where he had left his carriage and servants, Mr. Boothroyd 
accompanied him, and as they walked arm-in-arm together, could not 
help remarking on the strangeness of the occurrence that he, a humble 
Dissenting pastor, should be thus familiarly linked and associated with 
a Dignitary of the Established Church. The Bishop generously replied 
that such things ought not to be thought strange, and that in the republic 
of letters there was no such thing as aristocracy. He also remarked in 
the course of his conversation, that while the education given in the 
Church of England might produce better scholars, that of the Evangelical 
Dissenters was more calculated to promote piety in their ministers." — 
—Scales' MSS. 

1 Scales' Funeral Sermon. 

The Modern Era. 195 

dom. This renewed attempt to restore the principles of 
Anglicanism, with a greater and more openly avowed 
leaning to Rome, awakened not a little alarm in the minds 
of those to whom the cause of Evangelical religion was 
dear. Among other pens enlisted in defence of the truth, 
that of Rev. John Ely was conspicuous. He had been 
recently settled at Leeds, over the congregation vacant by 
the death of Rev. Edward Parsons. About the same 
time, the Rev. Walter Farquhar Hook (now Dean of 
Chichester) was appointed Vicar of Leeds, and, soon after, 
Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen. In this latter capacity 
he had preached at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, a sermon 
on the text, or fraction of the text (for the fragment 
selected does not contain a distinct sentiment at all, and 
unquestionably not the sentiment educed from it), cc Hear 
the Church." The biographer of Ely describes the con- 
troversy : cc This arbitrary abscission is not original. It 
is borrowed from Jones of Nay land. The curt title of 
the discourse lent it an unenviable notoriety, and secured 
it almost an unprecedented circulation. It claimed sub- 
mission, the most blind and unreasoning, to the dominant 
sect. Its judgment was bound on every conscience, 
though it was admitted that that judgment was self- 
discrepant. The safety of the soul was made to rest 
on simple acquiescence. The Church was to decide, and 
the contemporaries of the most opposite decisions were 
religiously obliged to believe them, however new the 
fashion, however conflicting their tone. Authority was to 
supersede evidence. It was no question of truth. Faith 
in the dictum dogma of the docent Church was all. 
Never, perhaps, was such a loose, immoral principle 
avouched. My friend deemed that it ought to be refuted, 
or rather exposed, in the town of which the preacher was 
the superior ecclesiastic. The difficulty was in its intan- 

o 2 

196 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

gibleness. But its lubricity is its vice. He sickened, he 
shuddered, as many more have done, as he read the 
following inexpiable paragraph in reference to the state of 
religious faith prior to the Reformation : c Opinions were 
prevalent (such as those relating to Transubstantiation) 
decidedly erroneous, which the Church did not protest 
against, but which it, on the contrary, rather seemed (! !) to 
sanction. Now, when once these errors were pointed out 
and proved to be unscriptural, our divines would have been 
guilty of heresy had they pertinaciously adhered to them. 
Before the Reformation those who had adhered to them 
were not guilty of heresy, for they held the doctrines which 
(ever since the Reformation) we have renounced, from a 
mere error of fact. They supposed them to be revealed 
doctrines, and therefore they in humble faith received them. 
We, on the contrary, have ascertained that these doctrines 
were not revealed, and therefore, influenced by the same 
faith, we reject them ; so that it was by one and the self- 
same principle, that both before and since the Refor- 
mation, the true members of the Church of England have 
been actuated. They said, and we say precisely the same, 
whatever is revealed, that we will not question but 
believe. But as to the fact whether or not this doctrine 
was revealed, they were less cautious than we are now ; 
we, who perhaps err on the very side of caution/ There 
sat our Island-Queen, even where "young Edward im- 
bibed the principles of Divine truth from the lips of 
Ridley and Cranmer." What a desecration of those 
walls ! What a degeneracy from those prelates ! Elo- 
quently and mightily did our friend write, while regretting 
the abuse of such an opportunity and the perversion of 
such a function, while imagining there had been as earnest 
an exhibition of the Lamb of God : c What tears might 
have been wept ! How might salvation then have been 

The Modern Era. 197 

welcomed ! How beautiful then had been the feet which 
brought the glad tidings ! What a centre of influence had 
then been acted upon ! What recollections of the day had 
then been in store for a dying hour I ' His animadversions 
commanded a large sale." 

cc The sentiments broached by the Oxford Tracts early 
drew his notice and awakened his alarm. He beheld 
them attracting no little sympathy. He found close 
at hand many supporters. A few clerists favoured them, 
and the head of the parish was considered their most 
determined champion. This was again and again denied, 
but at last there came testimony that could not be 
impeached — avowal of agreement with the ninetieth of the 
series, that overtopping enormity which exceeded the 
patience of the faction itself. The pyramid reeled and 
fell. Honest Newman obeyed the tendency and fol- 
lowed the conclusion of his argument. So did others 
nearer our doors. What the future may reveal, they 
will know who see it. Schoolmasters are not often as 
agile as their pupils. In counteraction of these Anglo- 
Roman principles, my friend published about this time, 
c An Appeal to the Religious Community on the Dis- 
puted Questions of the Times ; in three lectures — On the 
Doctrine of Sacramental Efficacy ; the Claims of Apos- 
tolical Succession ; and the Union of Church and State.' 
It was very seasonable. It is not, possibly, so close in 
reasoning as some of his works ; there is some difFuseness 
in it. But its points are very well presented, and the 
admissions of opponents are most caustically applied." x 

The interest taken by the Congregationalists of York- 
shire in the progress of the questions of colonial slavery 
had been marked and definite, though our contracted space 
does not allow us to follow the details of the agitation 
1 Hamilton's Preface to Ely's Posthumous Works, p s lxviiL 

198 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

for its abolition. Except the Friends, no body had felt 
a greater interest in the abolition of the slave-trade in 
1807, after an agitation of twenty years ; none was more 
energetic in upholding Wilberforce and others in the 
measures which terminated in Lord Stanley's bill of 1833, 
and none worked with more heart in the forced termi- 
nation of the apprenticeship system. A foremost man 
in all these movements was Rev. Thomas Scales. It 
is due to a venerated minister of another denomination, 
the Rev. B. (now Dr.) Godwin, of Bradford, to state 
that the cause of abolition was also greatly indebted to his 
vigorous and able exertions. 1 

Hitherto no provision had been made in the West 
Riding on behalf of aged or infirm ministers, or of their 
widows and children. This deficiency touched the bene- 
volent heart of Rev. Jon. Glyde, the pastor of Horton- 
lane chapel, Bradford. <c Soon after his settlement at 
Bradford, and about the year 1837, Mr. Glyde took part 
with a few of his brethren and several benevolent lay 
gentlemen, in the formation of * the Provident Society 
of the Independent Churches of the West Riding, for the 
relief by annuity of aged and infirm ministers of the 
Gospel, and the widows, and children under the age of 
sixteen, of deceased ministers.' At a meeting held in 
Cleckheaton, December 4th, 1837, the Society was estab- 
lished with a capital of about ^4,000, and Mr. Glyde cheer- 
fully took the office of Secretary ; Messrs. Dixon, Spen Hall, 
and Burnley, Pollard Hall, being successive Treasurers. 

1 The 1st of August, 1838, witnessed, after many struggles, the 
entire extinction of slavery in the British dominions. The boon had 
been purchased of the planter at the expense of ^20,000,000 sterling. 
The sum was large, but the disgrace was one of no common turpitude ; 
and none more sincerely rejoiced in its removal than the Congregationalists 
of this large county, whose earliest exertions had been unsparingly 
dedicated to the great cause of negro emancipation. 

The Modern Era. 


Mr. Glyde applied himself assiduously to its duties, col- 
lected information, and prepared the constitution and code 
of laws for its organization." He took the liveliest 
interest in its affairs, earnestly commended its support to 
the wealthier members of his own Church and congrega- 
tion, as well as of other congregations in the Riding, and 
took several journeys, along with another minister who had 
acted cordially with him from the commencement of the 
undertaking, to collect subscriptions and donations in aid 
of the object." 1 The Society is now supported by 
regulated payments of the beneficiary members and by 
congregational collections and occasional gifts and bequests. 
Its capital is to reach ^10,000, and when it has attained 
that sum, it is never to sink below it, that ample pro- 
vision may be thus made for contingencies. The sum is 
already above ^8,000. 

The chapels of the Nonconformists in Yorkshire had 
been hitherto characterized by few architectural pretensions. 
Many of them had been erected when persecution had 
begun to give way to a tolerated, but restricted liberty ; 
and it is not wonderful that at a time when truth was more 
valued than taste, and when even beautiful parish churches 
were disfigured by the incongruous additions made for the 
accommodation of their worshippers, Dissenters had cared 
for little beyond the present necessity. As time rolled on, 
these original buildings had become extended and enlarged 
with extremely little regard to the aesthetic. But about 
the year 1835, a more advanced style of building was 
attempted. One of the earliest erections of the new order 
was Belgrave Chapel, Leeds, by the congregation of the 
Rev. R. W. Hamilton. It was speedily succeeded by 
many others. Nonconformists now came boldly out of the 
corners into which they had crept for security and privacy, 

1 Scales' MSS. 

200 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

and placed their buildings in commanding positions. The 
movement once begun extended rapidly. It is true, 
that when we look at these erections after the lapse 
of more than thirty years, they appear seriously defect- 
ive, both in taste and in the conveniences required by 
the activity of the bodies for whom they were designed. 
Much has been done since that period in advancing chapel 
architecture. More, however, still remains to be learned 
and accomplished. The neo-Gothic is too often feeble, 
paltry, and self-convicting. We may well dispense with 
aisles which no processions are intended to traverse ; with 
huge pillars, which serve only to obstruct the hearers' view ; 
with high roofs, which defy every principle of acoustics ; 
with spires guiltless of the bells which alone justified 
their erection ; and with the obtrusive and ornamental organ- 
case which converts the house of God into a music-hall, 
and thus derogates from its original and solemn idea. Pos- 
terity has yet mainly to invent a new and perfectly con- 
gruous style adapted to preaching and worship as its main 
object, and removed from the representative ecclesiastical 
adornments which present windows in the form of mitres, 
brackets suggestive of the Trinity in Unity, colours, the 
mixture of which is traditionally Romanistic, demons 
which fly from the presence of the consecrated host, and 
other religious fripperies which can never find in Noncon- 
formity a congenial home. We have no desire, indeed, to 
perpetuate in our edifices the barns and outhouses wherein 
our forefathers worshipped ; but we have lost much and 
gained little if, in place of these, our sanctuaries suggest 
the sacramental observances against which we so loudly 
protest, and forcibly recal high ritualism on the one hand, 
or pagan idolatry on' the other. 

About the year 1843, a movement, originating with 
Salem Chapel, Bradford, spread itself through the West 

The Modern Era. 201 

Riding, to disembarrass these chapels of the heavy incum- 
brances which oppressed their worshippers. By a con- 
tagious influence, multitudes of these erections were by a 
strong effort at once set free. Since then, the former 
system of religious mendicancy, equally burdensome and 
disgraceful, has happily become obsolete. 

Considerable discussion had taken place during many 
years as to the union of the congregational churches of 
England and Wales into a general association for purposes 
of counsel and action. In the year 1 83 1 and 1832 the subject 
was specially canvassed. Among the letters adverse to the 
scheme was one addressed to the cc Congregational Maga- 
zine," bearing the signature of cc Roffensis," the production 
of Rev. J. Ely, then of Rochdale. The writer feared lest 
the proposed organization should either prove dangerous 
to the independence of the churches, or be a cumbrous 
and useless appendage. Notwithstanding many similar 
objections, the union was formed, and the first general 
meeting was held at the Congregational Library, Blom- 
field Street, May 8th and nth, 1832, — Chairman, Rev. 
W. Chaplin, Bishop's Stortford. No Yorkshire minister 
or delegate was present at the first or second meeting. 
The third meeting (1834) was attended by Revs. T. 
Stratten, Hull, and R. W. Hamilton, Leeds; and the 
number gradually increased. The Congregational Union 
took, however, some years to gain even a moderate amount 
of adherence from the body it desired to represent, it being 
the notion of many that independency meant insulation, 
and that its interests would be destroyed by a general 
confederacy. In 1842 Rev. R. W. Hamilton preached 
before the body at Liverpool, on the cc Intercommunity 
of Churches," and his discourse was " afterwards pub- 

Mr. Ely had now removed for some years from Roch- 

202 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire, 

dale to Leeds as successor to the late Rev. E. Parsons. 
Time, and the actual working of the union, aided not 
a little, probably, by the influence of his "more than 
brother" Hamilton, had gradually removed his prejudices ; 
and in the year 1 843 that institution paid an autumnal 
visit to the town of Leeds. The adhesion of the con- 
gregations of that local metropolis drew after them a consi- 
derable number of the churches of the county. Since that 
period Yorkshire has been conspicuous in its support of 
the union. York, Bradford, Halifax, and Hull, have 
successively, at due intervals, entertained its members, 
and Yorkshire has sometimes supplied the Chairmen of its 

In the year 1847, Dr. Hamilton was President of the 
Union, then meeting at Crosby Hall, London. It was a 
crisis in Nonconformist history. No question had more 
demonstrably shown the large-heartedness of Dissenters, 
or their desire for the general welfare of the community, 
than that of Education. But in the year 1847 were pub- 
lished cc The Minutes of Council of the Committee of 
Education." A vigorous opposition was made to them 
by some of the most distinguished Yorkshire Dissenters, 
among whom E. Baines, Esq. and Rev. Dr. Hamilton 
were conspicuous. In his address to the Congregational 
Union, Dr. Hamilton referred to this subject : — - 

"A measure most unconstitutional in its form, most 
ensnaring in its character, has been brought into the Legis- 
lature, and, for the time, has passed. Though we might 
not agree to an absolute unanimity on certain abstract and 
residuary points — as it was declared to be designedly and 
necessarily a scheme of religious education — we have, it is 
believed, with one voice repudiated it. We, who object to 
all establishments of religion, could not foster a new one. 
We, who refuse all parliamentary grants for religious pur- 

The Modern Era. 203 

poses, could not accept this. We have been overborne ; 
but our resistance has not been in vain. Public inquiry 
has been aroused. Cognate questions have been provoked. 
Men begin to search more keenly into the scope of 
government, and into the province of legislation. An 
incredible extent of misinformation and prejudice has been 
detected, which has, at least, been surprised and shocked. 
All the symptoms of misgiving have been betrayed. 
Brilliant sophism was all that could be afforded in answer 
to statistics and facts. We have stood true. We have 
been found c faithful among the faithless.' Its mockery of 
fairness towards us, who could not defile ourselves with its 
benefits, we saw from the beginning ; but state-craft and 
diplomacy had not prepared us for its ignoble shifts and 
its gratuitous wrong-doings. What concerns us now is 
our honour ! In all our conduct throughout this strife, 
this has come forth unstained. It must have been respected 
from the first, for none tampered with us. We doubt not 
that it is allowed in high places, however our opposition be 
deplored. A nobler passage scarcely does our history 
inscribe. It will tell our children that we, the foremost 
friends of education, would not make an idol of that 
charmed word ; that the warmest champions of justice and 
impartiality, we could not be deceived by their pretexts ; 
that we held out, where many trusted to see us in the van; 
that we saw concealed in that scheme, a ghostly power ready 
to seize the universal mind ; and that all acknowledge that, 
while we felt defeat, we sank not under it ; that we at no 
moment, not in the last reverse, despaired of our principles ; 
that we left the conflict, and that only for a time, c bating 
nothing of heart and hope ; ■ warped by no negotiation ; 
corrupted by no bribe ; soiled by no intrigue ; disgraced 
by no coalition ; not having bartered our Protestantism ; 
not having cashiered our Bible ; not having strengthened 

204 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

the impugners of the glory and of the atonement of our 
Divine Lord ; unconscious of the shame of abandoning our 
friends, casting off our confederates, or crouching to our 
enemies. But the trial has not passed. There glitters 
still the bait. We may, after all, recant. Retreat is still 
open. Can such things be supposed ? Shall there go 
forth from us, after such disclaimers, a stooping mendi- 
cant ? Having said, before the great, lavish with their 
gifts, c As the Lord liveth before whom we stand, we will 
receive none/ is there a Gehazi who will regret that we 
have not c spared them, in not receiving of their hand 
that which they brought ' — is there a Gehazi who will 
c run after them and take somewhat of them ? ' " 

The gathering at York, 1847, was remarkable. Dr. 
Hamilton was chairman. As president, he advanced what 
had been previously matter-of-business addresses into the 
elaborate and stately harangues that have ever since con- 
tinued. But a deep shadow was over the speaker and 
the assembly, for the Rev. J. Ely, the bosom friend 
of the chairman and the beloved of the whole denomina- 
tion was lying in the chamber of death — cc Multis ille 
flebilis occidit — nulli flebilior quam tibi, Virgili." A bright 
light was quenched in him— a light which Heaven itself had 
kindled. Such talents, such goodness, such largeness of 
heart, such public labour, such pastoral devotedness, have 
seldom been gathered together into the same man. When, 
immediately after the funeral of his friend, Hamilton sat 
down, as a prefix to a volume of scattered remains, to 
enshrine in beautiful and touching miniature the memory 
of one whom he so dearly loved, the following words bore 
witness to the intensity of his emotions : — cc It is not easy 
to describe such a disappointment. When it has always 
been assumed that some one must outlive us, that he shall 
be the guardian of our memory, when heedlessly we have 

The Modern Era. 205 

seen in this the very course of nature, the reversal of our 
expectation is unutterable bitterness .... There is 
none to undertake for us. There is a wanting. The 
comforter of our death-bed draws not near. The mourner 
of our burial follows not. He who was to compose our 
grave is not there .... The subject of this memo- 
rial was a few months older than its writer. I cannot, 
therefore say, in the touching language of Burke, c I live 
in an inverted order.' Yet I do feel it. I had always 
thought otherwise." 1 

The writer at this time was haunted by a presentiment 
of his own death. He described the world as feeling " grave- 
like " to him. A very brief interval elapsed and his body was 
laid down by the side of his friend. In the following year, 
1848, a long train of mourners, including more than a 
hundred ministers, followed the remains of the gifted 
Richard Winter Hamilton to his grave. Some portions of 
the character given of him by his friend and admirer, the 
late Rev. Dr. Harris, may be here transcribed. cc His route 
was ordinarily a triumphal march ; and with the ease and 
prodigality of conscious opulence, he scattered royal gifts 

by the way He saw truths intuitively and 

in their insulation, as the voyager in the Pacific sees peaks 
and clusters of islands and cares not to think or to speak 
of the common ocean-covered base in which they are all 

profoundly embedded His last great work, 

the c Doctrine of Rewards and Punishments/ placed his 
architectural skill in a comparatively advantageous light. 

It is a grand and massive structure I say 

nothing of his great versatility of mind — of his keen per- 
ception of the ludicrous — of his richness and quickness of 
repartee — of his prevailing geniality of temperament — of 
a wit which sometimes scintillated till it seemed to blaze, 
1 Memoir of Rev. J. Ely, iii. iv. 

iq6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

or to surround him with an atmosphere of c star-dust ' — of 
his large-heartedness and generosity of soul — nor of that 
marvellous skill which his writings display in the apt quo- 
tation of what I may call the gems and beauties of 
Scripture, and by which sometimes pages together are 
made to resemble a rich mosaic, inlaid c with all manner of 
precious stones.' " 

We may add to this, as apposite to our present purpose, 
part of the summary of his character furnished by the pen 
of his biographer, Rev. Dr. Stowell : — 

cc How many there are that can bear cheerful testimony 
to the promptitude and earnestness with which he laid 
himself out for the service of surrounding ministers and 
churches in the West Riding ! At the numerous meetings 
held in this populous district for promoting objects dear to 
the congregational churches, he was more frequently present 
than any other of its ministers, excepting Mr. Scales. 1 
He was a strict disciplinarian and a thorough Independent. 
Whilst there were few preachers who equalled him in the 
tenacity and constancy with which he taught the doctrines 
of modern Calvinism, he was a great favourite among 
Christian societies maintaining other views of revealed truth, 
and his last sermon was preached in a Wesleyan pulpit. 
Though he became a member of the Anti-State Church 
Association, after the educational controversies in which he 
took so prominent a part, he cordially joined the Evange- 
lical Alliance, and became the Chairman of its northern 
division." 1 

The measure proposed by the Government of Sir 
Robert Peel in the year 1845 f° r tne endowment of May - 
nooth College from the public revenues, excited not a little 
indignation among the Nonconformists of our great 
northern county. Till then, the Anti-state-church Society, 

1 Stowell's Life of Hamilton, 484, 5. 

The Modern Era. 107 

which had been formed in the year 1 844, for the separa- 
tion of the functions of the Church from those of the State, 
had received but a partial adherence and support in York- 
shire. That measure, however, greatly increased the 
number of its supporters ; and at this juncture the names 
were given in of many ministers and influential laymen 
who had previously questioned the propriety of so open an 
avowal of hostility to the political position of the Church 
of England. The opposition to the measure proved, how- 
ever, fruitless. The sustenance of Roman Catholicism was 
voted by large majorities in the Houses of Parliament. 
Though Dissenters joined with Evangelical Churchmen 
in opposing the grant, the reasons which influenced the 
respective parties were widely different. The Churchman 
objected because he held it to be an outrage that the State 
should uphold religious error. The Nonconformist, on 
the other hand, was dissentient, because he held that all 
state patronage of religion, of whatever kind, was politi- 
cally unjust and religiously unlawful ; and because he could 
not concede that Government should undertake a new 
responsibility in so dangerous a direction. In the issue, 
the severance between the bodies of Evangelical Christians 
became more painfully marked and definite. Nor have 
we much reason for hoping that the amalgamation of 
bodies so similar in the most important particulars will be 
sincere and complete, so long as the existence of a State 
Church rears its formidable barrier to union and com- 
munion. The lapse of time and the progress of events 
have removed much of the aversion at first borne to the 
proceedings of the Anti-state-church Society ; and since its 
title was softened, though its avowed objects remained as 
distinct and decisive as before, " the Society for the Liber- 
ation of Religion from State Patronage and Control " has 
been generally recognised by Congregational Dissenters as 

208 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

one of their own institutions, though embracing many other 
bodies in its range, and may now be regarded as expressing 
the sympathies and asserting the principles of the entire 
body. In the advocacy of these large and enlightened 
principles, no man in Yorkshire has been more dis- 
tinguished than Edward Baines, Esq., the present M.P. 
for Leeds. Representing the same constituency before 
him, his father had constantly advocated the exemption of 
Dissenters from the practical grievances by which they 
were harassed. With equal consistency, but with greater 
breadth of view, the son has constantly attacked the mis- 
taken principle itself. The cause of liberty in general, 
and of Congregational Dissent in particular, owes to 
Mr. Baines many important obligations, and the town of 
Leeds may congratulate itself on the possession of a repre- 
sentative who, whilst eminently true to them, expresses 
the sympathies of so large a portion of the general public. 

In the year 1 849, the great Methodist body of the 
empire was disturbed by dissensions, painful not only to 
themselves, but to all well-wishers to the progress of 
Gospel truth. In the end a considerable disruption took 
place in the body. The separation, however, asserted 
some important principles dear to Congregationalists, 
among which the right of the laity to be consulted in the 
administration of church affairs was not the least con- 
spicuous. The severed members took the name of Wes- 
leyan Reformers, since exchanged for that of the Wesleyan 
Free Church. In the issue, many ministers and congrega- 
tions united themselves to the Independents, from whose 
views of church government indeed the whole body are 
separated by the smallest appreciable difference. 

The important census of the population in 1 8 5 1 threw 
much light upon the comparative numbers of the different 
religionists throughout England and Wales. The general 

The Modern Era. 209 

result is thus summarized : "In 1 8 1 2 there seem to have 
been 1024 Independent Churches in England and Wales 
(799 in England and 225 in Wales). In 1838, an 
estimate gives 1 840 churches in England and Wales. The 
present census makes the number 3244 (2604 for England 
and 640 in Wales) with accommodation (after making an 
allowance for 185 incomplete returns) for 1,063,136 

Looking at this census with special reference to York- 
shire, we find the following under the head of " Number 
of persons present at the most numerously attended ser- 
vices, March 30, 1851 : " Population, 1,789,047 ; Church 
of England, 216,062; Protestant Dissenters, 374,820; 
all Denominations, 613,039, exhibiting a number of per- 
sons amounting to upwards of a million who did not 
attend public worship on that day. Taking some of our 
large towns in Yorkshire, the number of appropriated 
sittings in the Independent denomination stood thus ; — 
for Bradford, 2878 ; for Halifax (no return) ; for Hud- 
dersfield, 2450 ; for Hull, 4372 ; for Leeds, 6255 ; for 
Wakefield, 2516. The whole account, however, exhibited 
an enormous mass who did not, under any religious 
body, avail themselves of the means of spiritual in- 

Many examples have been afforded in these pages of 
the liberality of Yorkshire Nonconformists. It affords us 
pleasure to record another instance in the present times, 
worthy of being ranked with the bequests of Lady 
Armine, Lord Wharton, Lady Hewley, and Mrs. Hutton, 
and one which was the more remarkable because it was not 
the first gift which had emanated from the same quarter. 
We refer to the benefaction of the late Mrs. Bacon. This 
lady was a resident in Spring House, Bradford, and was, 
during many years, a conspicuous member of the congre- 


210 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

gation of Horton Lane Chapel in that town. Mention has 
been already made of her bequest of two estates in the 
neighbourhood of Bradford for the purpose of promoting 
the education of the rising ministry. Her death took 
place February 24, 1853. By her will, and in the name 
of her sister, she bequeathed a considerable sum of money 
to be applied to Dissenting ministers and their widows 
resident within the West Riding, with a preference for those 
who had been connected with the churches of that district. 
Her benefaction also extended to the unmarried daugh- 
ters of ministers, provided their age exceeded forty-five 
years. Such grants to be made annually, on a renewed 
application for the same. By these bequests a most im- 
portant aid was afforded to a class whose position seldom 
enables them to make adequate provision against the hours 
of sickness and death, and many grateful remembrances 
will ever follow the memory of the considerate bene- 
factress. The Rev. J. Savage, one of the trustees, is 
(1868) the valued Secretary of this important endow- 

Mrs. Bacon, however, was but one of several congre- 
gationalists in this district whose wealth has been con- 
secrated to the cause of Christ. The names of these 
generous and devoted servants of their Lord will readily 
occur to our readers. Death has removed some of them 
from the sphere of labour to that of reward. Though, to 
particularize them all is impossible, the names of J. Clap- 
ham, Esq., Leeds, and W. Willans, Esq., Huddersfield, will 
not be forgotten. And we may refer conspicuously to 
members of our body yet surviving, with gratitude to the 
God who has opened their hearts and hands, and disposed 
them to use the abundance with which Providence has 
blessed them for the advancement of religion, the honour 
of the Church, and the promotion, far beyond the narrow 

The Modern Era. 2 1 1 

range of any sectarian denomination, of all public, bene- 
volent and patriotic undertakings. Wealth so employed 
under the direction of high motives becomes riches indeed ! 

As in other parts of the kingdom, so in Yorkshire, the 
second Centenary of the Ejection of 1662 was celebrated by 
Nonconformists with distinct, and sometimes pungent, 
references to a historical event of so much importance in 
their annals. Though many of the sufferers at the Resto- 
ration were Presbyterians who had vainly looked for the 
resurrection of their state religion, and though with this 
desire the present race of Dissenters could have no sym- 
pathy ; — though, moreover, Congregationalists boasted of 
a higher parentage and adhered to a more scriptural autho- 
rity, it was yet felt that between the two bodies there had 
been a natural alliance, both having held the same Evan- 
gelical truth, and both having been sufferers in a common 
cause ; whilst in many cases Independents had succeeded 
to the pulpits heretofore occupied by Presbyterians. It 
was impossible therefore that modern Congregationalists 
should not regard with reverence the men, and with admi- 
ration the sacrifice, thus brought into notice by the Bicen- 
tenary anniversary. Many congregations availed them- 
selves of the occasion to commence some special erection 
which might stand as a monument of the memorable year. 
The opportunity was most favourable for a fresh enuncia- 
tion of the great principles which distinguish the body of 
Protestant Dissenters. 

As had been expected, however, such expositions pro- 
voked no small acrimony on the part of those who 
regarded themselves as objects of attack, and pages of 
<c Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy " were eagerly ran- 
sacked for instances of injury and oppression on the Non- 
conformist side. 

Yet the celebration proved to be no vain or useless 

p 2 

2J2 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

demonstration. The prominence thus given to the oppres- 
sive conditions of the Act of Uniformity under which 
our forefathers suffered so deeply, excited much popular 
sentiment adverse to the perpetuation of a rule so stringent 
and unreasonable ; and in the end the legislature lightened 
the load by which the consciences of subscribing clergymen 
had been galled, and instead of demanding from each 
minister a declaration of cc unfeigned assent and consent to 
all and everything contained in the Book of Common 
Prayer," &c, it substituted in its place a general expres- 
sion of approval of the articles and the Prayer Book, and a 
concurrence in the use of the same. Nor will this, it is 
probable, be the last of the triumphs which an enlightened 
public opinion will gain from the decreasing influence of the 
State establishment. For, at the moment at which we write 
(April, 1868), a great struggle is in progress upon the 
question of the Irish Church Establishment. It is impos- 
sible but that the public agitation of this subject will 
awaken inquiry to a more general issue. And though we 
pretend not to divine the course which public events may 
take, and though many outworks must be attacked before 
the citadel itself will yield, it seems inevitable, that before 
another generation shall have passed away, the mighty 
subject of the continuance of an Established Church 
in these realms will stand out prominently before the 
public eye. 

Whilst these agitations are pending, however, there are 
other opinions bearing relation to some departments of the 
action of the Established Church well worthy of being 
carefully pondered. The following observations of one 
of our Yorkshire ministers are appropriate at this 
important crisis : — 

cc At such a time when not a few are dissatisfied with 
the forms and preaching of their parish churches, how 

The Modern Era. 213 

should we, as a denomination, act ? What legitimate 
inducement can we hold out to those who seek to be 
delivered from the smoke of incense, the display of church 
millinery and the abominations of a new idolatry at a Chris- 
tian altar — what inducements can we hold out which would 
lead them to cast in their lot with us, with whom they 
could have the gospel free from such obnoxious additions 
and corruptions ? Shall we modify our forms, or rather 
our freedom, of worship to suit the taste of a few possible 
refugees from the Church ? I hope not. I am exceedingly 
sorry that any attempt should be made among us to intro- 
duce a liturgy, either in place of, or even as a supplement 
to, Free Prayer. Such an attempt, which, I am persuaded, 
has few supporters either among our ministers or 
people, is exceedingly inopportune. It implies, what I do 
not admit, serious imperfection in our services, which by 
their simplicity and fervour, have been sources of joy and 
strength to our fathers for many generations. It would 
appear a weak and time-serving departure from our time- 
honoured practice, which would repel rather than attract 
dissatisfied Churchmen. It would place us, as innovators, 
in a line with, if not on a level with, the Ritualists. De- 
pend upon it that such an innovation would be just as 
objectionable to the majority of our hearers as Ritualism 
is to the majority of Church people. I should regard it as 
a decided step in the same direction. We should be 
sacrificing life, freedom and power, to the mere form and 
beauty of words. We should lose far more than we should 
gain by it. We have lived and grown to become powerful 
without a liturgy •, and the continuance of our power, as 
churches, depends not on the importation of a novelty, but 
on the fulness and freeness of our spiritual life, the piety, 
intellect and earnestness of our ministers, and the peaceful- 
ness of our churches. Give these, intensified and sanctified 

214 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

by the Holy Ghost, c His Free Spirit,' and we shall not only 
not need a liturgy, but it will feel as great a burden to us 
as a crutch to him who is not lame. c Where the spirit of 
the Lord is, there is Liberty.' Our prayers, which are the 
breath of spiritual life, ought to be free. No doubt there 
ought to be decency and order — c the spirits of the prophets 
should be subject to the prophets ' — but that subjection is 
conformity to inward personal law of propriety and good 
sense, not bondage to any outward antiquated form. All 
life to be vigorous, ought to be free. You may safely 
build a wall enclosing a post or plank of dead timber ; but 
put the same material round the trunk of a living green 
tree, and, in a short time, the tree will be stunted and 
killed ; or, more probably, the hidden, silent force of 
vitality in it will burst the strongest wall, and the ugly 
bulges and cracks will proclaim to every passer-by that life 
is ever craving for liberty. So, when the Methodist Revival 
of the English Church took place through the preaching of 
Wesley and Whitefield, free prayer became a necessity of 
the fervent piety they had quickened, and the liturgy, 
though never forbidden, was nearly universally abandoned. 
I believe, therefore, that the testimony of history, as well 
as the conviction of our wisest, most godly and experienced 
ministers is against liturgies. At the same time, I am very 
ready to admit that, without giving up our freedom, we 
ought to seek after more beauty, more variety, and more 
solemnity in our devotions. But after all, what we most 
want for the sustaining of our own religious life, and for 
the winning of souls to Christ and to our fellowship, is that 
God c will pour ' upon us c the spirit of grace and sup- 
plication/ then shall we c worship Him in the beauty of 
holiness/ " " 

1 Rev. R. Bruce, M.A. Chairman's Address before the West Riding 
Congregational Union, Dewsbury, 1 867. 

The Modern Era. 215 

Few questions have, in recent years, excited greater 
attention and interest among theCongregationalists of York- 
shire than the desirableness of a general Theological College, 
worthy of them and of the wants of the district of which 
their county forms so considerable a part. Many endea- 
vours have been made to effect a union between the insti- 
tutions of Rotherham and Airedale. But though the 
movements have sometimes seemed to promise a solution 
of the difficulties standing in the way of such an amalga- 
mation, untoward incidents have always hitherto prevented 
the settlement of the question. The matter is still in 
debate ; nor does it yet appear very probable that the 
many obstacles which perplex it will be speedily re- 

The position of our Theological institutions, however, 
is only part of a more extensive and comprehensive 
inquiry. That inquiry relates to the matter of education 
in general, and upon this the opinions of the best informed 
are far from being uniform. There are many who question 
the propriety of the decisions which, a few years ago, led 
Dissenters to an uncompromising refusal of Government aid. 
Whether the principle which has compelled them to protest 
against State endowments for religion be equally appli- 
cable to similar endowments for education, is at the present 
time a matter of earnest, though not acrimonious, con- 
troversy. In the mean time the disposition on the part of 
the legislature to throw more widely open the doors of 
our National Universities may have a most important 
bearing upon the position of our Theological seminaries. 
Time and ample discussion will probably do much in the 
settlement of these momentous questions. 

In the year in which we conclude this narrative of the 
progress of Yorkshire Congregational Dissent, we record, 
with thankfulness, many circumstances which render its 

2i 6 Congregationalism in Yorkshire. 

position externally advantageous. The progress of time 
and the enlightenment of the age have swept away some of 
its most formidable obstacles. Persecution in any virulent 
form exists no longer. Though the vexatious impost of 
Church-rates is not yet entirely abolished, it is in a fair pro- 
cess of being swept away, and it is not impossible that 
before the close of the present session of Parliament it will 
have entirely ceased. Dissent is not merely tolerated, but 
in many modes acknowledged as a spiritual provision for 
the wants of the people. Nonconformist sanctuaries are 
conspicuous, and often ornamental, structures in our towns 
and villages. The Test and Corporation Acts, which, 
during many years disfigured our statute-book, and re- 
mained the marks of an "hereditary bondage," have 
been, since 1828, abolished; thanks to the exertions of 
Earl Russell, whose efforts in this cause Dissenters will 
ever gratefully acknowledge. In the year 1837 the 
Registration and Marriage Acts conceded to Dissenters 
a farther equality. The census of 1851 distinctly 
proved the wide spread of Nonconformity throughout 
the kingdom, and showed how nearly the number of 
its adherents approximated to those who avowed their 
attachment to the Established Church. The York- 
shire Congregationalists may claim to be a body both of 
enlarged wealth and influence, taking no inconsiderable 
part in Parliamentary representation, in municipal transac- 
tions and in all public movements. Their pulpits are 
occupied by men of general education and of sound theolo- 
gical training ; and their colleges, though capable of much 
improvement, are seminaries of which they have no need 
to be ashamed. 

Nothing remains but that the religious power of the 
denomination shall be correspondent with such high 
advantages. Though spiritually inferior to no other body, 

The Modern Era. 217 

Congregationalists, in common with others, need a more 
plenteous communication of that Divine Spirit before whom 
languor and inertness will depart, and who can re-create 
even that which appears ready to die. The times are por- 
tentous. Great movements are clearly on their march. 
Questions of the highest magnitude are rising to the 
surface. The power of Congregationalism will be mea- 
sured by the amount of truth it shall exhibit in perilous 
times, and by the courage and purity with which that 
truth shall be maintained, defended, and promulgated. 
May the action of all individuals, and of all congregations, 
be worthy of their past history, and correspondent to the 
momentous interests committed to their charge ! 



From Clarkson's Richmond; Appendix XXX. 

" From the Report of the Commissioners for Inquiring concern- 
ing Charities, appointed in pursuance of two several Acts of 
Parliament, &c. &c, with some additions. 

philip lord wharton's bible charity. 

" By indentures of lease and release, the release dated the 12th 
of July, 1692, Philip Lord Wharton conveyed to Sir E. Harley, 
Sir T. Rokeby, Edward Harley, John White, Thomas Beulowes, 
William Taylor, and W. Mortimer, and their heirs, the capital 
messuage or grange and demesnes of Synethwaite, with the 
appurtenances, in the county of the city of York -, and also the 
demesne lands and outhouses, with the appurtenances to the said 
capital messuage belonging, situate in Bilton, Walton, Bickerton, 
and Synethwaite, in the said county of the city of York, and all 
other his messuages there, upon trust, that the rents and profits of 
the premises should be employed for the buying of English Bibles, 
of the translation established by authority, and Catechisms, to be 
distributed yearly to and amongst poor children who can read, in 
such towns, parishes, or places, and in such manner as the said 
Lord Wharton should by any writing under his hand nominate 

220 Congregationalism in Tor ks hire. 

and direct ; and likewise for the preaching of sermons yearly, as 
such of the said towns, parishes, or places, and in such manner as 
the said Lord Wharton should direct; and it was thereby directed 
that upon the death of any four or more of the trustees, the 
survivors should convey the estate of the premises to other trustees, 
to make up the full number of seven." 

Out of the proceeds of the estate were to be furnished 

" I. 1050 Bibles, with the singing psalms bound up therewith ; 
each Bible not exceeding the price of 2s. 6d., or as near there- 
abouts as can be bought for ready money. 

" 2. That the like number of Catechisms shall be yearly pro- 
vided, now entitled c The Grounds and Principles of the Christian 
Religion, with the Proofs thereof out of the Scriptures,' not 
exceeding the price of 2s. 6d. per dozen, or near thereabouts. 

" 3. That an inscription by a stamp shall be on the middle of 
the outside cover, &c, c By the will of Philip Lord Wharton,' &c. 

" 4. That in the inside of the upper cut cover of each of the 
said Bibles there shall be a printed paper pasted, to this effect : 
' These reading Psalms, in the English translation, are to be 
learned without book by the child to whom this Bible is given, 
namely, 1st, 15th, 25th, 37th, 101st, 113th, 145th,' in figures. 

" 6. The said books to be delivered out yearly by such persons 
as the trustees shall appoint, to such children who can read, of poor 
people of good report, in the cities, towns, and places hereafter 
appointed. A Catechism to be delivered to each child upon the 
second or third Tuesday in July, and a Bible on the second or 
third Tuesday in October following. 

" 8. That at the delivery of the said Bibles notice be given, that 
upon the second or third Tuesday in October following the 
children must produce their Bibles and Catechisms at a place 
appointed, and that a reward of I2d. be given to the parent or other 
person who hath the care of the education of each child giving the 
best account of his or her improvement in reading the Bible and 
repeating the Catechism and the said psalms, &c. 

" 9. That there be 100 Catechisms and as many Bibles delivered 
each year to so many poor children in the city of York, and also 
to so many poor children in the following towns and places in the 
county of York, namely in Doncaster, 20 ; Pontefract, 30 ; 
Leeds, 80 ; Halifax, 40 ; Bradford, 40 ; Wakefield, 30 ; Sheffield, 
503 Richmond, 40; Northallerton, 10 ; Bedale, to; Borough- 

Appendix I. 221 

bridge, 10 ; Thirsk, 10 ; Tadcaster, 10 ; Wetherby, 10 j and 
Knaresborough, 10, &c. &c. . . . 

" 12. That at some convenient time before producing the said 
books in October following, the persons so empowered for the 
delivery of the said books must inform themselves how the 
children have profited in reading their Bibles and learning their 
Catechisms and the psalms without book, and that the said per- 
sons give to one child in every ten children one book, entitled 4 A 
Sure Guide to Heaven,' or to that effect, by Joseph Alley ne, and 
one book, entitled ' The Principles of the Christian Religion, by 
Thomas Lye, A.M.;' and to the parents of such child a sum not 
exceeding I2d., or coals to that value. 

" 16. That on the day of the delivery of the Bibles there shall 
be sermons at the places following : namely, York and Leeds, by 
turns ; Sheffield, Doncaster, and Pomfret, by turns ; Halifax, Brad- 
ford, and Wakefield, by turns ; at Richmond, yearly ; Northaller- 
ton, Bedale, Thirsk, Boroughbridge, by turns ; Helaugh, Tadcaster, 
Wetherby, and Knaresborough, by turns ; Swaledale yearly . . . 
allowing 10s. for the preaching of each sermon. The purport, 
design, and scope of every such sermon shall be to discover and 
prove to the people the truth, usefulness, sufficiency, and excel- 
lency of the Holy Scriptures, and the people's right to have them 
fully in their own language ; and also their duty to read, study, and 
search the Scriptures, and take them for their only unerring rules of 
faith, worship, and manners ; and that there be conceived prayers 
by the minister who shall preach such sermon before and after 
every such sermon among other things proper on the said occasion ; 
no mention to be made of the donor, either in the sermon or 
prayers ; and when any of the ten sermons shall cease to be 
preached in any of the said places, in respect to the objects for the 
charity aforesaid do fail, the like sum of 10s. to be given to the 
minister of every other place where such books shall be delivered 
out, and such sermons to be preached by the appointment of 
my trustees, so that there be not above ten sermons yearly ," 






%* The following account of the Churches has been the 
result of much attention, correspondence, and labour. Co- 
operation has been in almost every case invited, but by- 
no means, in all instances, accorded. The papers of the 
Rev. T. Scales have afforded considerable information on 
points of earlier history \ as it regards later periods, the 
process has been much more difficult. Thanks are due to 
Rev. B. Dale, M.A., Rev. Dr. Falding, Rev. J. Parsons, 
R. Leader, Esq., Rev. D. Jones, T. B. Oldfield, Esq., Rev. 
E. Weeks, Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., Rev. E. S. Prout, M.A.,Rev. 
J. Sibree, Rev. A. Dodgson, and to others, whose names 
appear in the following pages. The list must be regarded 
as an approximation to correctness, rather than as an attain- 
ment of what, under the circumstances, would be regarded 
as an impossible result. It would have afforded the author a 
just pleasure to characterize, with becoming emphasis, the labours 
of many of his living brethren in the ministry. But this, 
for obvious reasons, he has been compelled to forego. He 
is consoled by the thought that their obituary is yet future. 
Their successors will do them the honour which their talents, 
zeal, and energy so well demand. Whilst they live and labour, 
Congregational Nonconformity will be still a spiritual power. 







From early times there had been 
many godly persons in this village, 
accustomed to worship first at Kip- 
ping Chapel, afterwards at Horton 
Lane, Bradford. A separate sanc- 
tuary was, however, imperatively 
required. It was erected 1814. 
The pastors have been — 

181 5. Rev. Joseph Harrison 
(from Bury). He had often preached 
at Allerton whilst the congregation 
was being formed, and had promoted 
the erection of the new chapel. 
Ob. Feb. 8, 1 82 1. 

1 82 1. Rev. Jonas Hinchcliffe 
(Northowram Acy., from Booth 
and Haslingden). Resigned 1823, 
and became minister of the General 
Baptists, Bradford. Ob. 1833. 

1827. Rev. Thomas Hutton 
(Airedale Coll., from Pocklington). 
Greatly respected. Relinquished 
the pastoral office in 1857, and still 

1858. Rev. Joseph Mason Cal- 
vert (Airedale Coll.), from Dron- 
field. Resigned 1867, and is now 
settled at Stainland. 

The pulpit is vacant. 





The congregation at Appleton- 
Wiske was founded in 1835. Mr. 
Trowsdale, a man of wealth and 
long a member of the church at 
Whitby, came then into the pos- 
session of an estate on which was 
a chapel which he fitted up for 
congregational worship. It has 
usually enjoyed the benefit of the 
services of students (from Pickering 
and elsewhere), though sometimes 
the church has had a pastor for a 
short season. 

1838. Rev. John Boyd, 

1850. Rev. George Swann. 

1854. Rev. — Gaukroger. 

After Mr. Trowsdale's death his 
widow continued the generous sus- 
tentation which her husband had 
begun, and practised great economy 
that she might serve with greater 
liberality the cause of God. She 
died 1866. 





The lack of authentic records 

* Communicated by Rev. J. Atkinson. 
f Communicated by Rev. J. Brierley. 




renders the records of this ancient 
church very incomplete. Tradition 
says that, on account of the religious 
troubles in Scotland about two cen- 
turies ago, several natives of Scot- 
land left their country and settled 
in this vicinity. One of them 
became Lord of the Manor, and 
the first meeting-house was built by 
him on his land.' An imperfect 
account, kept by a John Jollie (who 
appears to have been an elder), 
amidst items of business matters, 
supplies the following facts : — 

" Mr. Porteous preached his last 
sermon at Ayton Feb. 8, 1746-7, 
from Phil. i. 27, 'Only let your 
conversation/ &c." His address 
then follows : " Rev. Mr. Porteous, 
Nuneaton, near Coventry, War- 
wickshire." (The ministry of Mr. 
Porteous, at Nuneaton, was regarded 
as having a tendency to Arianism.) 
Again, "The Rev. Mr. Brown 
came March 30, 1747." Again, 
"The Rev. Mr. Blakey came to 
our house June 4, 1 748. Paid him 
£1 14s." It is not said in what 
capacity these ministers were en- 
gaged, whether as pastors or only as 
occasional preachers. Again, " Mr. 
Simpson's last sermon at Ayton, 
26th d?y of August, 1758, from 
the words (1 Thess. iv. 1), 
' Furthermore then we beseech you, 
brethren,' &c." 

Rev. — Logan. Ob. 181 2 or 
18 13. During the latter years of 
Mr. Logan's life the congregation 
became Unitarian. After his 
death Mr. Hinmers obtained the 
use of the chapel, preaching in it 
and at Guisborough alternately. 
He at length removed from Guis- 

1826. Rev. W. Hinmers (from 
Guisborough and Stokesley). Ob. 

An interval ; during which no 
settled minister. 

1852. Rev. J. Atkinson (from 
Free Church). An Independent 
Church was now formed, and the 
chapel was rebuilt. Removed 
Dec, 1855, to Felling, Newcastle. 

1855. Rev. H. Hustwick. 
Removed to Honley, 1859. 

1859. Rev. Thomas Davison 
(from Stockton). Resigned Nov. 
24, 1859, 

1862. Rev. John Kay. Re- 
signed in 1863. 

May 15, 1864. Rev. Isaac 
Brierlev (Pickering Acy., from 
Mixenden). The present minister. 



The records of the early history 
of the Barnsley Church are few. 
An old Dissenting Meeting-house 
near Church Street was endowed 
by land at Beeston. The first 
minister mentioned is Rev. Samuel 
Roberts, whose death (1708) is 
recorded in the Northowram 
register, which characterizes him 
as " a brisk, active young man — 
had preached about six or seven 
years." Other ministers were 
William Sutcliffe and Samuel 
Midgeley, " a plain, pious man," 
who died here.f " The chapel," 
we are then told, " went to decay, 
and was taken possession of by a 
John Deakin, who converted the 
same into three dwelling-houses, 
called 'Chapel-hill' to this day" 
(1833). "The land, by some 
means, fell into the hands of Mr. 
Mills, of Wakefield." 

* Aided by Messrs. Shaw and Wilson. 

f Scales MSS. — Mr. Scales mentions a 
tradition he had received from Mrs. Briggs, 
that some tradesmen of Barnsley had once, 
in a drunken frolic, brought the pulpit out 
of the chapel, and put it in the public 


22 7 

The next chapel was begun in 
1777, an d was finished in 1778, 
chiefly through the liberality of the 
Messrs. Walker, of Rotherham. It 
had a large burial-ground. The 
successive ministers have been — 

1777. Rev. William En- 
twisle. He remained here in 
honour and usefulness for ten years. 
Died at Barnsley, 1787. 

1787. Rev. Robert Ellis. 
Died in 1832, after a ministry of 
45 years. For many years before 
his death the congregation was in a 
very declining state. The chapel 
was" diminished by the appropria- 
tion of part of it as a minister's 
house. After Mr. Ellis's death 
there was no regular pastor, except 
for a few months, when the pulpit 
was occupied by the Rev. T. Tully 
Crybbace. Very few remained of 
the original congregation. 

During the year 1866, at the 
instance of several members of 
Regent Street Congregation, a new 
trust-deed was prepared, and new 
trustees appointed : — Dr. G. W. 
Smith, Messrs. S. Simpson, J. W. 
Wilson, Henry Rhodes, John Smor- 
fitt, Edwin Byggate, and J. J. 
Huntley. The recent deed is in 
entire accordance with the preced- 
ing one, which prescribes the West- 
minster Confession as a standard of 
doctrine. It was designed, after 
repairing the building, to form a 
church and congregation, and to 
incorporate in it the small remains 
of the original body. The person, 
however, who resided in the house, 
and had been put in possession 
of the property by the previous 
trustees, and who had latterly 
officiated as minister, refused to 
admit the new trustees even to 
view the premises, though posses- 
sion had not been demanded. Many 
fruitless attempts having been made 
in the way of amicable adjustment, 

a formal notice was served on the 
part of the trustees. At length an 
order of the Vice-Chancellor was 
obtained, and the resisting occupier 
was ejected. (1867) 

It is intended to use the building 
for Evangelistic purposes. 




In the absence of all efficient 
teaching in the old chapel, the 
Revs. Dr. Bennett and T. Smith, 
with the co-operation of the students 
of Rotherham College, attempted, 
about 1824, a new movement. 
After contending with difficulties of 
no common kind, a plot of ground 
was purchased, and a building, called 
" Salem Chapel " was erected. It 
was opened March 16, 1825 ; the 
preachers being Revs. Dr. Raffles, 
R. W. Hamilton, and E. Parsons, 
junior, of Halifax. 

A Church was formed in 1826 
by Revs. Mark Docker, of Sheffield, 
and John Orange, of Rotherham 

1828. Rev. John Orange 
became the pastor. The congrega- 
tion increased till the removal of 
Mr. O. to Newcastle, Dec, 1832. 

1834. ^ ev * Joshua Armitage 
(Airedale Coll.). After upwards 
of six years of faithful service, Mr. 
A. retired to Elswick, Lancashire, 
where he still labours. 

1843. Rev. Benjamin Beddqw 
(Rotherham Coll., from Burley). 
During Mr. Beddow's ministry a 
new chapel was erected in Regent 
Street, calculated to accommodate 
about 750 hearers. It was opened 
Sept. 25, 1856, by Revs. G. W. 
Conder, Dr. George Smith, and 
Dr. Alexander, and the congrega- 
tion removed thither. 

Q 2 






This commodious and beautiful 
chapel was erected at a cost of 
£6,500, and upwards of ^1,000 
have been since spent in providing 
additional school accommodation, 
an organ, &c* The ministers of 
Regent Street have been — 

1856. Rev. Benjamin Beddow 
(Rotherham Coll., from Burley). 
Removed to Newbury, May 6, 
1 86 1. Now at Wanstead. 

1862. Rev. Joseph Oddy (from 
Dogley Lane). Removed to Whit- 
worth, 1867. 

1868. Rev. James Browne, B. A. 
(London U., from Bamford). 



Heywood makes mention of a 
Mr. Smallwood, formerly minister 
here, whom he calls " an eminent 
minister of God." He died 1667, 
at Flanshaw Hall. 

A chapel was built here in 1839, 
largely through the influence of the 
late Rev. A. Clarkson, formerly of 

* A handsome mural tablet has been 
erected in the building, bearing the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

"To the memory of William Shaw, 
Esq., who was born at Norsbro'-Dale (near 
Barnsley), and died at Stanley Hall, Nov. 
29, 1859, in the 55th year of his age, and 
was interred at the Cemetery, Wakefield. 

" Having in early life professed his faith 
in Christ, and through the Divine blessing 
being greatly prospered in business, he 
habitually and cheerfully contributed to 
many benevolent and Christian objects, and 
towards the close of his life he presented, as 
a thank-offering to the Lord, more than 
hair the cost of this building. 

" The congregation worshipping here 
have erected this Tablet as an abiding 
record of his munificence and their gra- 
f Communicated by Rev. J. Rae, M.A. 

Bingley, but then residing at Healey, 
near Batley. He received hearty 
assistance in this work from a small, 
but earnest band of Christians in 
Batley, members of the congrega- 
tion worshipping in Upper Chapel, 
Heckmondwike. Mr, Clarkson, 
though never recognised as the 
minister, preached usually once a 
month, and acted in many respects 
as the pastor to the church. 

The ministers have been — 

1845. R ev * John Hotham. 
Now in Australia. 

1854. Rev. James Rae, B.A. 
(Cheshunt), the present minister. 
Mr. Rae, is Co-Secretary to " The 
West Riding Provident Society." 

A handsome new chapel was built 
in 1856, and plans are under con- 
sideration to enlarge it, so as to 
provide 300 additional sittings and 
to build a minister's house. Large 
day and Sabbath schools, with lec- 
ture and class rooms, were erected 
in i860, at a cost of more than 
^"2,000. The day schools are 
on the voluntary principle, and for 
several years the attendance has 
averaged 250. 

BAWTRY — (With Ranskill).* 
Bawtry may justly claim to be 
remembered in the annals of In- 
dependency, since in its immediate 
neighbourhood the church presided 
over by Clifford and Robinson was 
formed. After their emigration, 
however, the neighbourhood re- 
mained very destitute of Evan- 
gelical preaching till the Sheffield 
Itinerant Society sent the Rev. R. 
Richards, of Attercliffe, to preach 
in a temporary place hired for the 
purpose. This building was opened 
in 1 819, and was afterwards 

* By aid of Rev. J. Wesson. 



supplied by students from Rother- 

In 1823, Rev. T. Hicks, from 
Doncaster, became the pastor. He 
left for Cottingham in 1824. 

In 1824, Henry Walker, Esq., of 
Blyth, having engaged Rev. Samuel 
Nichols to preach at a chapel of 
his erection, at Ranskill, offered Mr. 
N.'s services for Sunday evenings 
at Bawtry. His labours were so 
successful that a chapel was soon 
built (1826),* and a church 
formed ; Mr. Nichols continuing to 
preach in the evening. Removed 
1829, to Lower Darwen. 

1829. Rev. W. Eltringham 
took charge of both congregations. 
His ministry continued only one 
year. Bawtry became afterwards 
the parent church. 

1 83 1. Rev. Robert Kirkus 
(Rotherham Coll., from Patring- 

1840. Rev. E. C. Cooke. 

1845. Rev. E. Storrow. 

1850. Rev. John Wesson, the 
present pastor. 



The Rev. Christopher Nesse, 
whose name is well known in con- 
nection with Yorkshire Noncon- 
formity, was for some time oc- 
casional minister here and kept a 
school. He removed hence to 
Cottingham, and afterwards to 
Leeds. In 1642, 1643, and 1644, 
William Wilberforce, John John- 
son, and William Wade, were 
appointed members of the Corpora- 
tion of Beverley, " being Inde- 
pendents," but " set aside " at the 

* Mr. Nichols published his address at 
laying the foundation, 1825. 

f Aided by communication from Mr. 
J. Hind. 

Restoration. Mr. Oxenbridge, 
nominated by " the Committee of 
Plundered Ministers," preached in 
St. Mary's Church, from March 
20, 1648. In 1662, Rev. Joseph 
Wilson was ejected from Beverley, 
but continued to preach in the 
vicinity and at Hull. 

The early formation of a Con- 
gregational Church in Beverley is 
noticed by Edwards in his bitter 
pamphlets, entitled, " Gangrama." 
But few particulars are known. 
Among the early ministers appears 
the name of — 

1689. Rev. — Foster. 

1697. Rev. Thomas Bradbury, 
subsequently well known as the very 
public-spirited minister of New 
Court, Carey Street, London (see 
page 122). After leaving the house 
of Mr. Whitaker, Leeds, in which 
he was tutor, he preached during 
two years at Beverley, but, as Wil- 
son tells us,* "not as a candidate." 
At the expiration of that time he 
removed to Newcastle, where he 
succeeded Timothy Manlove, who 
had been previously minister of 
Pontefract and Leeds, but who 
died early. 

1 70 1. Rev. John Steere. In- 

In 1704, the meeting-house (Lair- 
gate) was erected. It was originally 
designed for Presbyterians. En- 
dowed, 171 1, by Robert Stephen- 
son. f 1743, a tenement and garden 
ground opposite to the meeting- 
house were purchased, and ten 
years after, three acres of land at 
Bromfleet were added. As the 
number of Presbyterians was now 
small, the property was assigned to 
the Independents. In 1789, Mark 
Bell bequeathed a sum of money 
for the benefit of the minister. 

* Dissenting Churches, III. 
-J- This endowment is now worth upwards 
of £500 per annum. 



Mr. Steere is said in Neal's list 
to have had 450 hearers. He died 
at Beverley, June 21, 171 5. 

In 1715, the chapel was blown 
down by a violent storm. 

1 71 5. Rev. John Gould. Mr. 
G. was succeeded by 

1736. Rev. John Auther. 
His successor was 

1737. Rev. John Harris, M.A. 
His name appears on the Hewley 
list, 1774. 

1777. Rev. Joshua Pickles. 

1780. Rev. Joseph Popple- 
well. He died 1790 

1.790. Rev. Peter Fiest. 

In 1 800, the chapel was rebuilt. 
The number of members was at 
that time 1 20. 

1807. Rev. John Mather 
(Cheshunt Coll.). 

1843. Rev. John Crombie 
Brown. Mr. B. removed in 1 844 
to Capetown, in connection with 
the London Missionary Society. 

1844. Rev. William Young, 
B.A. (Lond. U. and Cheshunt Coll.). 

1856. Rev. George Frederic 
Ryan, D.D. (Rotherham Coll.). 
After six years' ministry, he re- 
moved to Bridlington. 

1862. Rev. George Richards 
(Airedale Coll., from Howden). 
He is the present minister. 

A prolonged litigation has taken 
place relative to the chapel property. 
It is now happily terminated. 



Bingley was heretofore one of 
the most godless towns in the West 
Riding. Rev. Eli Bentley (ej. 
Halifax) was driven by the Five- 
mile Act to reside here. But he 
found the people (even in the house 

* Aided by a pamphlet by Mr. J. 

where he lodged) so hostile to 
religion that he durst not attempt 
to preach. The congregation arose 
out of the labours of Rev. O. Hey- 
wood, who gives in his diary some 
interesting particulars of the locality. 
Before the close of the century a 
meeting-house had been erected, 
which, now converted into cottages, 
is yet standing. 

The pastors have been — 

1695. Rev. Accepted Lister. 
For a time he preached here alter- 
nately with Kipping. Though 
supported on crutches in the pulpit 
he had much power over the pas- 
sions of his hearers. He was 
highly esteemed and beloved. After 
great solicitation, he returned to 
Kipping in 1702. A great dispute 
arose in consequence. Lister's 
mother was buried at Bingley. 

About this time Matthew Smith 
(Mixenden) preached frequently at 
Bingley, where he was invited to 
settle, but declined. 

1704. Rev. Thomas Wainman 
(Frankland's Acy.). During his mi- 
nistry the congregation amounted to 
about 250 persons, of whom 1 7 were 
freeholders. Mr. Wainman was 
on the Hewley fund. About this 
time the people from Keighley and 
Idle, who had hitherto worshipped 
at Bingley, formed themselves into 
separate bodies. Mr. W. died in 
1 746, and was buried in the parish 

* A letter from Mr. Thomas Ferrand, 
of Bradford, addressed to Thoresby, March 
15, 1703, gives some account of matters at 
this period ; Mrs. Walker appears to have 
applied to Mr. Stretton for a grant of 
money to Mr. Wainman : — 

"Sir, — Mr. Lister is some time ago 
removed from Bingley, and they have 
there now, a very hopeful young man, one 
Mr. Thomas Wainman, whose ministry is 
so acceptable to the people, that the con- 
gregation is increased since he came there. 
I have sent your letter forward to Bingley, 
and I hope, good sir, you will pardon what 


2 3 I 

1746. Rev. — Fenton, who 
exchanged pulpits periodically with 
Mr. Wainman, junior, of Pudsey. 

1754. Rev. Thomas Lillie. 
A Presbyterian. He was on the 
Hewley list, 1774 and 1775. He 
wrote in Priestley's " Theological 
Repository," under the signature of 
" Cornelius." He published a 
sermon on the death of Mrs. 
Phillips ; a well-composed dis- 
course, but wanting in an exhibi- 
tion of the doctrine of atonement, 
though the text (Ps. xxiii. 4) might 
have naturally led in that direction. 
He died May 3, 1797, after a 
pastorate of 44 years. His remains 
were interred in the old chapel, 
and a tablet to his memory still 

1 799. Rev. William Stephens. 
He had been heretofore on the 
stage. " Failing to prevail on the 
people to erect a new chapel, he 
gave up his ministry among them." 
He removed to Aberdeen, and 
" left the denomination." 

1800. Rev. Abraham Huds- 
well. A man of great zeal and 
piety. He removed to Morley, 

1818. Rev. Abraham Clark- 
son (Idle Acy., from Mixenden). 
A pious and peaceful man. A con- 
vert of the ministry of Rev. T. 
Taylor, then of Ossett. His 
ministry continued during a period 
of nearly 20 years. Soon after his 
settlement a new chapel was 
erected. Sermons at its opening 
were preached by Rev. Messrs. 
Parsons, Scott, and Hamilton. Its 

the widow (Mrs. Walker) writ to you, for 
it's from a hearty zeal she hath, to pro- 
pagate the gospel in that place. Sir, her 
husband built a chapel and lofted the same 
at his own charge, say for about £15, as I 
remember be had from his father and an 
uncle. The salary, as I am told, is very 
small; not above £16 for a year, to the 

cost was upwards of £1,200. Ill- 
health compelled his resignation. 
Removed to Batley, 1837, and died 

1838. Rev. John Protheroe 
(Newport Pagnel Acy.). Mr. 
Protheroe left for Bulford, Wilt- 
shire, March, 1840. 

A chapel was now erected at 
Harden, and after three years a 
church was formed at that place. 

Jan. 3, 1 841. Rev. William 
Atherton (from Middleton). An 
attractive, impressive, and useful 
minister. He left for Idle 1 848. 

During his ministry, 1845, a 
secession took place, and a chapel 
was built by part of the congrega- 
tion at Morton. 

1850. Rev. William Orgar 
(from Stubbin, Elsecar). Removed, 
1 86 1, to Rehoboth Chapel, Morley. 

1 863. Rev. E. H. Heron (from 
Ilkeston). The present minister. 
In the year 1 862, new school-rooms 
were built. A separation has taken 
place, and the new congregation 
are at present worshipping in the 
Mechanics' Institution. 



In the early history of Noncon- 
formity mention is made of Rev. 
Robert Constantine, who was for 
some time minister of Birstall, 
whence he removed to Oldham, 
till the ejection of 1662. Rev. 
Joseph Dawson, who was ejected 
from Thornton Chapel, preached 
here for some time, whilst residing 
at Halifax, and before his removal 
to Morley. 

Zion Chapel was built by the 
New Connexion Methodists, and 

* By aid of Rev. H. Davies. 

2 3 2 


was purchased by the Independents, 
1846. The pastors have been — 

1846. Rev. Robert Willan. 
Removed to Holmfirth, 1856. 

The present place of worship 
(Salem) was erected in 1856. It 
was intended for a school-room. 
It is now, 1867, in contemplation 
to build a chapel, that this original 
object may be secured. 

1857. Rev. David Wilson 
(from Newcastle). After a useful 
ministry, Mr. W. died in 1 864. 

1 865, Rev. Edward H. Davies 
(from Tipton, Dudley). The 
present minister. 

BOOTH— (Ebenezer Chapel).* 

The congregation at Booth 
originated in the apostolical labours 
of the Rev. W. Grimshaw, of 
Ha worth. Under his preaching 
some of the inhabitants of the 
Booth Valley felt the power of 
God's Word, and desired religious 
ordinances for themselves. They 
agreed, therefore, to unite to form a 
church, in a house called " Hutton." 
One of their own number was 
invited to become their pastor. 
The list of the Booth ministers is as 
follows : — 

Circ. 1763. Rev. James Cross- 
ley, the first pastor. He attributed 
his conversion to a sermon of 
Whitefield, preached near Hep ton- 
stall, from the words, "O earth, 
earth, earth, hear the word of the 
Lord." His convictions were en- 
couraged and deepened by Mr. 
Grimshaw, who recommended him 
to Mr. Wesley. Crossley's views, 
however, inclined to Independency. 
He had previously begun to preach to 
a congregation at Upper Saltonstall. 
The room soon proved too small. The 
flock accordingly drew up a modest 

* Communicated by Rev. D. Jones, 

and most Christian appeal to the 
neighbouring churches for aid in 
the erection of a chapel, on an 
estate, called "Booth." The 
people, though extremely poor (it is 
said that no one of their contribu- 
tions exceeded £1), gave their 
labour freely. The chapel was 
opened in 1761, and the public 
ordination of Mr. Crossley took 
place in 1763. Rev. T. Knight 
(himself ordained on the previous 
day), Rev. John Edwards, and Rev. 
James Scott, being engaged in the 

Mr. Crossley continued pastor at 
Booth for nearly 20 years. He 
was an excellent preacher, much 
esteemed in the principal congrega- 
tions of the county. He published 
two sermons ; one on the execution, 
for coining (1770), of James Old- 
field (formerly precentor of Booth 
meeting-house), entitled, " God's 
Indignation against Sin;" and a 
charge to the Rev. J. Calvert on 
his ordination at Chesterfield. 

Mr. Crossley was invited to 
other spheres (as to Huddersfield), 
which he declined. He accepted, 
however, the call to the newly- 
formed Independent Church at 
Bradford, and left Booth in May, 
1782. But he only preached 
during one Lord's day, after which 
he died, and was buried at Booth, 
leaving an honoured memory to his 

1783. Rev. John Toothill 
(Heckmondwike Acy.). Cousin to 
Rev. Jonathan Toothill (Hopton). 
In 1786, he removed to Rainford, 

1787. Rev. Joseph Sowden. 
He removed to Sowerby, 1 794. 

1 794. Rev. Jonas Hinchcliffe 
(Northowram Acy.). Disputes 
having arisen, Mr. H. relinquished 
his charge in 1 801, and settled at 


2 33 

1802. Rev. Joseph Pollard, a 
native of Bradford ; once a soldier. 
He was converted under the 
ministry of Rev. T. Holdgate, 
Bradford, and preached in that 
town and its neighbourhood. 
Under his ministry at Booth the 
wounds in the congregation were 
healed, and the numbers increased 
greatly. In his last years a great 
revival took place consequent upon 
the impulse given by the newly- 
created zeal for Christian Missions. 
Among his converts were the Rev. 
John Calvert, afterwards of Morley, 
and his brother, Rev. Daniel 
Calvert, of Sandy-Sike. A house 
was built, 1823, for the minister. 
Mr. Pollard died in 1825, ast. 59. 

1 826. Rev. John Newell (Idle 
Acy.). He was not ordained till 
1829. Discords arose, a division 
took place, an appeal was made to 
the arbitrament of law, and the 
decision was against the minister. 
Mr. Newell left Booth 1835. 

In 1 828, a new chapel was built, 
designated, " Ebenezer." 

1836. Rev. Joseph Massey 
(Idle Acy., from Hyde, Cheshire). 
Under his short ministry the old 
breaches were repaired, and the 
congregation much improved. A 
haemorrhage of the gums was the 
cause of his death, Dec. 8, 1 840. 

1 842. Rev. David Jones (Aire- 
dale Coll.). He is the present 


The chapel at Boroughbridge 
was opened May 10, 1804. The 
pastorate has been held in connec- 
tion with Ellenthorpe. 

Rev. — Nichol. 

Rev. — Norris. 

1826. Rev. George Cragg. 

* Information incomplete. 

Ordained April, 1829. Removed 
July, 1843. Now at Harrogate. 

1843. Rev. George Dunn 
(Pickering Acy.). Removed to 
Edgeworth, Bolton, about i860. 

Rev. J. E. Cullen. Removed 
to Fordham, Cambridgeshire. 



Rev. Thomas Hardcastle was 
ejected from Bramham. He after- 
wards became a Baptist, and settled 
at Broadmead, Bristol. He under- 
went many imprisonments ; 8 
months in York Castle ; 1 5 months 
in Chester Castle ; for some time at 
Leeds ; 6 months in London ; for 
two periods of 6 months, each at 
Bristol. He was 7 times appre- 
hended, and spent more than 3^ 
years in various prisons. 

The present congregation arose 
in the following manner : — Before 
1837, Rev. H. Bake, of Wetherby 
(now of Wellington, Salop), 
preached in a cottage at Thorpe 
Arch, and the rapid increase of the 
village as a watering-place prompted 
the desire to erect a Mission Chapel. 
This was done at an expense of 
£900. The chapel was opened 
May 17, 1837, by sermons from 
Revs. R. W. Hamilton, T. Scales, 
and W. Hudswell, all of Leeds. A 
church was formed in December, 
consisting of 16 communicants, of 
whom only four survive. The 
following is the list of ministers : — 

1843. R ev - R° BERT Hudson. 
He resigned his charge 1846. 

1852. Rev. William Sto well 
(of Rotherham Coll.). His 
ministry was at first prosperous, 
but he resigned his charge in 1854. 

1857. Rev. William Dixon 

* Aided by communication from Rev. 
J. H. Crippen. 



(from Springhead, Manchester). 
Mr. D. resigned through ill-health, 

1 861. Rev. Horrocks Cocks 
(Highbury Coll., from Tockholes). 
Mr. C. resigned 1865. He is now 
in London. 

1866. Rev. T. G. Crippen (of 
Airedale Coll.). The present 



In 1662 was living at Horton 
Hall, Bradford, a family of some 
importance, bearing the name of 
Sharp. The members of it were 
staunch Puritans, and the head of 
the family, John Sharp, had re- 
ceived a medal from Sir Thomas 
Fairfax for services rendered 
during the civil wars.* This John 
Sharp married Mary Clarkson, 
sister of David Clarkson, a 
celebrated Nonconformist Divine,t 

* A younger branch of this family was 
Thomas Sharp, who resided at Woodhouse, 
near Bradford. He also was a Puritan. 
During the civil wars, Fairfax took up his 
head-quarters at his house, and offered him 
a commission in the army. His wife, 
however, who was a Royalist, persuaded 
him to decline the offer. Archbishop 
Sharp was the son of this Puritan, having 
probably learned conformity on the 
maternal side. 

f Clarkson was born in Bradford. He 
was tutor at Cambridge to Tillotson. He 
was ejected from Mortlake, and became 
subsequently assistant to Dr. Owen. Bates 
says of him : " He was a man of sincere 
godliness and true holiness, which is the 
divine part of a minister. . . . Humility 
and modesty were the distinctive characters 
wherein he excelled. ... He was of a 
calm temper, not ruffled with passions, but 
gentle and kind and good ; his breast was 
the temple of peace." And Baxter de- 
scribes him as "a man of extraordinary 
worth for solid judgment, healing moderate 
principles, acquaintance with the fathers, 
great ministerial abilities, and a godly, 
upright life." Tillotson, whose tutor he 

and had two sons, Thomas Sharp 
and Abraham Sharp (afterwards a 
celebrated mathematician). The 
elder son was educated at Cam- 
bridge, under the care of his uncle, 
and subsequently obtained the living 
of Adel (the former incumbent, 
Dr. Hitch, also rector of Guiseley, 
having been removed by the 
ordinance against pluralities). 
After the Restoration, Sharp was 
ejected. For a time he pursued 
his studies in the family house at 
Horton, usually attending the 
parish church, though preaching 
occasionally. Heywood mentions 
being engaged with Sharp in a 
public service at Bowling, and 
states that he (Heywood) was 
keeping a private fast at the house 
of John Smith, of Bradford, on the 
day before the welcome news of 
the indulgence (1672) arrived. 
On the occurrence of this favour- 
able event, T. Sharp, his father 
being now dead, licensed his house 
at Horton Hall, and gathered a 
congregation, to whom he preached 
in his library. When, however, 
the licences were recalled in 1675, 
Sharp removed to Morley, and 
afterwards to Leeds. A meeting- 
house was afterwards erected on 
Chapel Green, near Wibsey, on 
land belonging to Sharp, part of 
which building still remains. 

Some uncertainty exists as to 
the pastorate of Horton after the 
removal of Sharp. Rev. Richard 
Whitehurst, minister of Kip- 
ping, is mentioned as, at least, a 
preacher. * 

Jonathan Wright and Nathaniel 

was at Cambridge, always regarded him 
with the utmost respect. — " Noncon. 
Mem." iii. 206. 

* Rev. Jonas Waterhouse had been 
Vicar of Bradford, but was ejected. He 
continued to worship at the parish church, 
but attended also the Nonconformist 



Priestley ministered here about 
1690, before ordination. 

James (" History of Bradford ") 
says, " Samuel Hulme, a worthy 
man, of great repute among the 
Presbyterians, resided and held the 
office of minister at Little Horton, 
about the year 1 700, and there his 
son, Dr. Hulme, the eminent 
physician, was born." Dr. Hulme 
was a resident in Halifax. 

We can speak with more con- 
fidence of the following pastors : — 

Rev. Samuel Crowther, who 
died 1706. 

Circ. 1706. Rev. Eli Dawson. 
He exchanged regular services with 
Rev. N. Priestley, of Halifax 
(who, with Jonathan Wright and 
Accepted Lister, had been ordained 
in this chapel, 1694). E. D. was 
the youngest son of Dawson, of 
Morley. He had seven sons, all of 
whom were brought up to the Dis- 
senting ministry, but almost all, 
greatly to the disgust of their father's 
friends, abandoned it, and four con- 
formed. The chapel received aid 
from the Stretton fund. 

In 1 716 the congregation is 
called Presbyterian, having 500 
hearers, 40 of whom had County 
votes. In the Church Register 
Robert Banke and Christopher 
Nesse are named as ministers, a 
term then applied to periodical 



In 1 7 1 7 or 1 7 1 8, a new meeting- 
house was built in the Town of 
Bradford. Cost £340 3s. 5d. ; 
part of the furnishings were after- 
wards brought from Howley Hall, 

gatherings. He died Feb. 13, 1717, aet. 
90. He left part of his library to William 
Hodgson, Bowling. 

when dismantled. The ground 
was given by Robert Stansfield, 
who married a daughter of Rev. 
T. Sharp. She died Oct. 3, 1722. 
Dickenson, in the Northowram 
Register, calls her " a very 
valuable, useful woman." 

In 1726, Madam Reyner, of G. 
Houghton, was buried in Wibsey 

Mr. Dawson removed to Halifax 

1 73 1. Rev. Joshua Hard- 
castle. On the Hewley fund. 
He died in Bradford ; though some 
accounts say he removed to Works- 
worth. Both may be correct. 

1753. Rev. John Smith, son, 
and for a time successor, of 
Rev. Matthew Smith, Mixenden. 
John Smith was related to the 
Sharps ; his mother having been a 
daughter of the younger branch of 
that family. He was a diligent 
pastor, but was probably an Arian. 
He published a volume of sermons, 
principally his father's, and a 
" Treatise on Natural and Revealed 

During his ministry there was a 
great declension in the Evangelical 
truth set forth in his sermons. It 
was then the custom, handed down 
from the Puritans, to rehearse, on 
Lord's day evenings, the discourses 
which had been preached during 
the day. This duty was assigned 
to a Mr. Swaine, who, however, 
instead of the sermons preached on 
that day, often substituted those of 
Smith's predecessors, of which he 
had taken notes years before, 
deeming them of far superior 
excellence. The decadence of the 
Reformed doctrines in Bradford 
was much mourned over by the 
pious inhabitants, and the desire 
for their restoration had been much 
stimulated by the preaching of 
Wesley and Whitefield. Many 



persons at this time walked every 
Sunday to Leeds, to attend the 
ministry of Edwards and Whitaker. 

At this time Swaine's influence 
prevented the election of Rev. W. 
Graham (Halifax.) 

1768. Rev. John Dean, M.A. 
(Glasgow University, from S. 
Shields). He was minister 45 
years, during which time the con- 
gregation became Unitarian. 




About the year 1781, the Rev. 
Joseph Cockin, then of Kipping, 
influenced by an earnest zeal for 
the promotion of the gospel truth, 
began to preach occasionally in the 
streets of Bradford. At his first 
coming he was alone, and with 
some difficulty preached on a fine 
evening in the old market-place, 
standing on some steps in front of 
a shop. The Methodists had 
already several Societies in the 
neighbourhood, and did not regard 
Mr. Cockin with favour. Before 
this time, several persons, dissatis- 
fied with the doctrine at the old 
chapel, had attempted to form 
an Independent congregation. A 
young man, named Hales, frequently 
preached to them, and was much 
esteemed. But though he had 
been bought off from his appren- 
ticeship at Wakefield, that he 
might devote himself to the 
ministry, he suddenly abandoned 
that thought and gave up his 
religious profession. This led to 
the formation of the Baptist con- 
gregation in Westgate. After 
his first essay, Mr Cockin was 
warmly welcomed, especially by 
those whom the Evangelical 
ministry of the Rev. Mr. Stilling- 

fleet, a clergyman of Calvinistic 
Methodist views, had already 
attracted to his church at Bierley. 
A room in the old brewery was 
soon engaged, and a congregation 
was gathered. The people invited 
Mr. Cockin to be their minister, 
which invitation was declined; a 
church being formed. By his 
advice they invited — 

1782. Rev. James Crossley, 
then at Booth (see page 232). Mr. 
C. was a man of great simplicity 
and piety ; an acceptable and 
useful preacher. He left Booth 
with much reluctance, and the 
removal (it was supposed) preyed 
upon his spirits and caused his 
death, after having preached in 
Bradford only a single Sunday. 
Ob. 1782. Mr. Crossley was 
succeeded by 

1784. Rev. Thomas Holdgate 
(from Marple-Bridge, Derbyshire). 
He had been originally a member 
of the church of Rev. T. Priestley, 
at Manchester, where he had been 
very useful. 

Soon after his coming a chapel 
was built in Little Horton Lane, 
then in the outskirts of the town. 
The congregation greatly increased 
during his ministry. Mr. Hold- 
gate died in 1806, aet. 58. 

1808. Rev. Thomas Taylor 
(Northowram and Idle Acys., from 
Ossett). The ministry of Mr. T. 
was peculiarly valuable, and his 
congregation was latterly very 
large. During his pastorate several 
enlargements of the chapel and 
premises took place. Mr. T. lived 
to advanced years. He resigned 
his office in 1835, but survived till 
Oct. 3, 1853, when he died, 
aged 86, greatly respected by all 

1836. Rev. Jonathan Glyde 
(Highbury Coll., from Collumpton 
and the Western Coll., in which 



he had been Classical Tutor). Mr. 
G., differing in many respects 
from his predecessor, was a man of 
almost original talent, and of the 
purest style of piety, and was 
greatly esteemed and beloved. He 
left his mark on the town in which 
he lived. Died 1854, set. 47. 

1855. Rev. James Robertson 
Campbell, M.A. (Glasgow Uni- 
versity and Theol. Ins., from 
Albany Street, Edinburgh). Mr. 
Campbell, soon after his arrival, 
received the degree of D.D. from 
the University of Glasgow. He is 
the present minister. 

In the year 1863, a new chapel 
was opened of considerable magni- 
tude and imposing appearance, No 
expense was spared in its erection, 
and its whole cost was defrayed 
immediately after its completion. It 
possesses every convenience for 
worship, instruction, and the needs 
of an active congregation, and is 
not to be surpassed in the West 



The increase of the congregation 
in Horton Lane Chapel and the 
consequent insufficiency of accom- 
modation had been long felt before, 
in 1835, a new chapel was resolved 
on. The building was opened 
in 1836, by sermons from Rev. R. 
W. Hamilton, Theophilus Lessey, 
and Dr. Raffles. The cost of the 
building was about ^7,000. The 
original mal-construction of the 
chapel, however, rendered altera- 
tions necessary. The only pastor 
has been — 

1837. Rev. James G. Miall 
(Hoxton Acy., from St. Neot's). 

Soon after his ministry commenced, 
the remaining debt on the chapel, 
amounting to upwards of ^4,000, 
was removed. This led the way 
to similar exertions for the relief of 
other chapels in the West Riding. 
In 1847, Salem Chapel underwent 
a considerable internal enlargement. 

A school-room at Cambridge 
Place, Spink well, used for regular 
preaching services, and a room 
fitted up for a Sunday-school in the 
Valley Mill (kindly proferred by S. 
Sutcliffe, Esq.), are attached to the 
Salem Chapel congregation. 

In 1865, Rev. Josiah Andrews 
(from Kings wood) became the 
assistant minister. 

Mr. Miall is the present pastor. 



This building was erected in 
1839. When the Rev. W. Scott 
became President of Airedale 
College, he desired a pastoral 
charge. The locality of the 
College was at that time in urgent 
need of religious instruction. 
Accordingly a chapel was b ilt, 
which was at first attached to the 
College, but became afterwards dis- 
sociated and independent. The 
pastors have been — 

1839. Rev. Walter Scott 
(from Rowell). Mr. S.'s ministry 
was greatly esteemed by those who 
enjoyed the privilege of being his 
hearers. In many respects he was 
a preacher of the first order. An 
active and zealous church arose 
under his care. Mr. Scott resigned 
his charge under the infirmities of 
age, 1855. Ob. Sept. 13, 1858, 
set. 79. 



1855. Rev. William Thomas 
(Rotherham Coll., from Ashton- 
under-Lyne). Mr. T. removed to 
Queen Street, Leeds, in 1 861. 

1862. Rev. William Kings- 
land (Western Coll., from 
Devizes). In 1865, the chapel 
was altered, enlarged, and beauti- 
fied. It is now very commodious. 

Mr. Kingsland is the present 



This chapel was erected mainly 
by the congregation assembling in 
Salem Chapel, with a view to the 
extension of Christ's gospel. It was 
opened January, 1852. 

The pastors have been — 

1853. Rev. Frederick Stephens 
(from the Wesleyan body). Re- 
moved to Newcastle. Mr. S. is 
now at Croydon, Surrey. 

1856. Rev. William Shillito 
(Airedale Coll.). Removed to 
Coventry ; at present at Sunder- 

i860. Rev. Thomas Gas- 
ouoine, B.A. (Lancashire Coll.). 
Removed to Oswestry, 1863; 
where he now ministers. 

1863. Rev. Thomas Theodore 
Waterman, B.A. (New Coll.). 
The present minister. 


This chapel was erected 1 854 for 
the benefit of the large population 
of a district in Bradford. Rev. J. Rae 

preached for a time, but removed to 
Batley. The pastors have been — 

1854. Rev. James Branwhite 
French (Cheshunt Coll.). Re- 
moved to Richmond, 1856. Now 
at Bayswater. 

1856. Rev. Joseph Williams 
(Cotton End Acy.). Left for Rod- 
borough, 1856. 

1856. Rev. Andrew Russell, 
M.A. (Glasgow University, from 
Stirling). Mr. R. resigned in 
1865, and is now resident at Brad- 

1865. Rev. Robert Tuck, 
B.A. (Spring Hill Coll. and London 
University, from Bromsgrove). 
Mr. Tuck is the present minister. 



This was the last of three 
chapels proposed to be undertaken 
by the Bradford churches, for the 
extension of the gospel in their 
rapidly-increasing town. It was 
opened March 28, 1865. 

1865. Rev. J. K. Nuttall (Ro- 
therham Coll.). The present minis- 


(wesleyan, now congregational.) 

This congregation was one of 
those which, in the year 1849, 
seceded from the old Wesleyans 
and united themselves to the body 
of Wesleyan Reformers, advancing 
nearer to Independency. It en- 
joyed the successive ministries of 


2 39 

Rev. John Myers, Rev. D. Wain- 
wright, and Rev. — Whiteley. 
Rev. G. H. White became pastor 
from 1862 to 1865. On his re- 
moval, the church was received 
into the West Riding Congrega- 
tional Union. Since that time, 
the only pastor has been — 

1865. Rev. J. B. Robertson 

Mr. Robertson is the present 



This congregation was formed 
by the ministry and exertions of 
Rev. J. Paul, then Missionary of 
Horton Lane Chapel. A church 
being gathered, was regularly 
organized, 1843. The ministers 
have been — 

1843. Rev. John Paul. After 
a useful ministry, Mr. P. died 1 86 1 . 

1861. Rev. James Innes (Glas- 
gow University). The present 

The chapel has just undergone 
(1868) considerable alteration and 


This chapel was erected in the 
year 1835, and enlarged 1839. It 
was at first attached to the 
Methodist New Connexion. In 
1865 ** Decame associated with the 
Congregational body. 

In Jan., 1866, Rev. Henry 
Maidment (from Little Hadham, 
Herts), became, and still continues, 
the pastor 



The chapel at Saltaire was 
erected, at the cost 0^13,000, by 
Titus Salt, Esq., who has placed it 
in the hands of trustees. It was 
opened April. 13, 1859. It is a 
most beautiful building, in the 
Graeco-Italian style. The church 
was formed April, 1857. The 
pastors have been — 

May, 1858. Rev. James 
Jeffries (New Coll.). Owing to 
illness, Mr. J. left Saltaire in 1858, 
and is now at Adelaide, Australia. 

Oct., 1859. Rev. John Robin- 
son (from Burley, Otley). Mr. R. 
died suddenly, June 20, 1861. 

Jan., 1862. Rev. H. Martyn 
Stallybrass (University and Aire- 
dale Coll.). Mr. S. is the present 



The origin of this long-established 
and still numerous congregation 
cannot be fixed with precise 
accuracy. There is a tradition 
that a body of Independent 
Christians assembled during the 
Long Parliament in the neighbour- 
hood of Wellheads or Hilltop. The 
late Rev. Robinson Pool (writing in 
1824) supposed "that the house, 
now called 'Kipping House,' the 
residence of the late J. S. Firth, 
Esq., was occupied by some pious 
individual, who on account of the 
scruples of his conscience could 
not worship in Thornton Chapel 
(Episcopal), and opened his house 
to Nonconformist ministers. This 

* Aided by Rev. J. Gregory. 



individual was the progenitor of 
Dr. Hall, mentioned in Joseph 
Lister's Memoir, and his house 
being in a lonely and retired valley, 
at a considerable distance from a 
market town, was well adapted as 
an asylum for the Nonconformist 
ministers. It is conjectured that 
Nonconformity was established 
about the year 1665/'* 

A barn was afterwards fitted up 
for purposes of Divine worship. 
In the agitations of the times the 
congregation met at uncertain hours, 
to defeat the suspicions of bailiffs 
and informers, sometimes at mid- 
night, sometimes at break of day — 
always at the greatest risk. But 
they did not confine themselves to 
one place, for, as Joseph Lister tells 
us, they had several houses of 
meeting, " as that at Kipping and 
John Berry's, and our house (Aller- 
ton), and sometimes at Horton," 

1668? During one year, Rev. 
John Ryther, who had been 
twice ejected, once from Froding- 
ham, Lincoln (probably at the 
Restoration), and again from Brough 
(1662), laboured among the 
Kipping people with much accept- 
ance, and assisted in forming a 
" gathered church." He is de- 
scribed as having " a very particular 
way of adapting his discourses to 
remarkable seasons and circum- 
stances." (Calamy). He preached 
several sermons occasioned by the 
Great Plague and Fire of London. 
But he was seized, and imprisoned 
in York Castle ; at one time for 6, 
and again for 18 months. The 
Five-mile Act once more forced 
him to remove from his home 
amidst circumstances of peculiar 
hardship. At length he sought an 
asylum in London, where he 

* Scales' MSS.— MS. of Rev. R. Poole. 

preached with much success.* 
Neighbouring ministers then occu- 
pied the Kipping pulpit. (1669?). 
We find the names of Henry Root, 
Sowerby ; Christopher Nesse, 
Leeds ; Coates, Rawden ; Bailey, 
Woodchurch or Topcliffe ; and Jere- 
miah Marsden (that peculiarly 
persecuted Puritan), who often 
preached here. 

Circ. 1672. Rev. Richard 
Whitehurst (ej. Laughton-en-le- 
Morthen) became the pastor. He 
appears to have resided at Lidget 
Green, Bradford, and. to have often 
preached at Little Horton. But 
difficulties arose. Whitehurst was 
a Fifth Monarchy Man, and though 
at first popular, his preaching of 
the personal reign was extremely 
offensive to some " gifted brethren " 
(Joseph Lister, John Hall, and 
George Ward among the number), 
who withdrew from communion. 
The church became unsettled. 
Heywood and Sharp interposed 
their influence, not without success, 
though they were Presbyterians.f 
But Whitehurst was compelled to 
leave about 1679. ^ e remove d 
to Bridlington. 

In 1672, the church at Kipping 
sent a member, George Wade, to 
be present at the formation of a 
Congregational Church, Call Lane, 

For some time the church re- 

* Among the MSS. in Thoresby's 
Museum were "A Journal kept by Rev. 
(. Ryther, of his Voyage from Venice to 
Zant, 1676. His Voyage from Zant to 
London. Another from Sardinia to Eng- 
land. . . . From London to the Coast of 
Coromandel, 1680, and Bay of Bengal. 
Fiom Fort St. George to Cape Bon Espe- 
rance. From St. Helena to England." 

f Dec. 19, 1679: "I rode to Mr. 
Whitehurst's upon a call, where was a 
meeting of him and the Dissenters. Many 
tough arguings they had, but no accommo- 
dation likely. Lord, humble us for that 
heavy breach."— Hey wood's "Diary." 



mained without a pastor. At length 
their attention was drawn to 

Circ. 1679. Rev. Matthew 
Smith, a young man of great zeal 
and energy, whose after-course was 
only inferior to that of Oliver Hey- 
wood, He accepted their invita- 
tion, but was not ordained till 1687 
at Shuckdenhead. After a few years 
the people at Mixenden, who had 
often invited him, and who greatly 
enjoyed his ministry, wished to 
obtain his services on alternate 
Sundays. Smith consented. He 
afterwards preached at Mixenden, 
M., and Thornton, A.,* to the no 
little annoyance and disgust of the 
people at Kipping, of whom Smith 
was disposed to complain at the 
meeting in Wakefield (see p. 109). 
This led to his removal from them, 

After the departure of Rev. M. 
Smith, the Kipping congregation 
was in a disorganized and distracted 
state. Joseph Lister says, " that 
Smith desired to return to Kipping, 
but that the congregation refused to 
receive him." Of this (though it 
may be true) there is no other 
evidence. Nor does there appear, 
at least on the surface, any justifica- 
tion of the severe strictures passed 
on Smith's conduct, f He certainly 
continued to preach, with some 
regularity at Kipping, as one of the 
neighbouring ministers who rilled 
the pulpit for a few years. Among 
these occasional preachers was 
Accepted Lister, son of Joseph 
Lister. He had received instruction 
from Matthew Smith (Hunter says 
Frankland), during three years, and 
towards the end of that time had 
the misfortune to break his thigh. 
As his father thought this would 
unfit him for the ministry, he built 

* For remarks on his orthodoxy, see 

f Hunter's Biog. Pur. 71. Mus. Brit. 

him a school-house ; but he was 
prosecuted for having no licence, 
and he refused to take the necessary 
oaths. After a time the Kipping 
congregation asked him to address 
them, which he declined, partly 
from weakness of body, partly from 
conscientious timidity. At length 
be began to preach in his father's 
house — one of the places in which 
the congregation had been accus- 
tomed to meet — and afterwards 
more publicly. "The people,"* 
says his father, " gave him a call to 
preach the gospel to them, which 
he accepted ; and promised to con- 
tinue with them one quarter of a 
year, which he did, and they re- 
newed their call every quarter." 
In the year 1693, as he was 
returning from Leeds, where he 
had been preaching at Mill Hill 
Chapel, he fell from his horse and 
broke both his thighs.f On his 
recovery he continued at Kipping, 
though the divisions of the people, 
and other impediments, prevented 
him from settling as their pastor. 
Preachers being then scarce, he 
undertook alternate services at Bing- 
ley, in journeying to which place 
he was again thrown, on a frosty 
day, from his horse, and again 
broke his thighs. At length, for 
the convenience of a house and 
chapel under the same roof, he 
went to reside at Bingley (1695). 
For the rest of his life he constantly 
preached on crutches. But the 
Kipping people were continually 
pressing him to return. To relieve 

* One of the congregation at that time 
was Jonas Tillotson, a relation (uncle ?) of 
the Archbishop. 

f " I received the sad tidings of Mr. 
Lister's fall from his horse, and thereby 
breaking both his thighs, which I was the 
more afflicted for, the rather because it 
happened on his return from preaching for 
us." (Mill Hill). — Thoresby's Diary, 
vol. i. p. 19. 



his embarrassment, A. Lister desired 
the opinion of his neighbours in 
the ministry, though without any 
decisive results. At last, however, 
Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Noble 
advised his return to Kipping. 
The people there received the news 
most joyfully, and says Joseph 
Lister, " they sent thirty men, and 
as many horses and carts as carried 
all we had away, on the 22nd July, 

1702. Rev. Accepted Lister. 
Pastor. Ordained at Horton, 1694. 

In the copy of a memorandum- 
book of accounts, kept by Dr. 
Hall, as Treasurer,* whom Hey- 
wood mentions as "a solid and 
judicious Christian, and useful 
physician,"t reaching from June 
4, 1699, to July 12, 1702, Mr. 
Smith's name occurs 22 times ; 
Mr. Lister's (of Tingley) 36 times; 
and "Little Mr. Lister's" (by 
which the crippled, but most 
valued minister is clearly meant) 7 
times. The rest are from the 
neighbourhood. The following is 
a specimen: — 

Sabbath day— s. d. 

4 June, 1699 to Mr. Smith 8 6 

18 „ „ to Mr. Lister 4 9 

2 July, „ to Mr. Ray 3 6 

16 „ „ to Mr. Lister 4 6 

j 3 Aug. 

to Mr. Smith 7 o 

Joseph Lister sent 10 o 

24 „ „ to Mr. Smith 9 6 

2 June, 1 700 to little Mr. Lister 6 o 

16 „ ,, to Mr. Lister 4 6 

30 „ „ to Mr. Smith n o 

14 July, „ to Mr. Lister 6 o 

28 5, » to Mr. Wainman 3 o 

The Rev. A. Lister remained at 
Kipping till 1708, when he died, 
aet. 38 ; his father helped to lay 
him in his grave, and died a fort- 
night after his son. In a funeral 
sermon for Joseph Lister, preached 

* Scale's MSS. 

■f Joseph Firth, also a medical man, 
was his grandson. Hall died 1709, aet. 78. 

at Kipping, Mr. Whitaker (of Call 
Lane, Leeds) thus characterizes 
both : — " You have lost an able and 
faithful minister of the New Testa- 
ment, whose soul prospered under 
all the infirmities of a crazy taber- 
nacle, and who knew how rightly 
to divide the word of truth. You 
have lost also an able, serious, expe- 
rienced Christian, whose advice, 
counsel, and example have been your 
glory for many years. Two such 
lives gone from the earth and 
gathered to heaven, as it were both 
in one day. Oh, what a wide gap 
has the removal of 'em made ! and 
what a melancholy aspect has it left 
upon this assembly ! " The North- 
owram " Register " contains the 
following entries : — 

" Mr. Accepted Lister, of Kip- 
ping, and Mary Whitehead, the 
housekeeper, married April 1 1, 
1 705 ." (Mrs. A. Lister afterwards 
married Rev. Robert Richmond, of 

" Mr. Accepted Lister, of Kip- 
ping, preached twice, and admini- 
stered Lord's Supper Feb. 20; 
died Feb. 25 (1708); an excellent 
preacher, a little helpless body, but 
a great and sound soul." 

" Mr. Joseph Lister, his father, 
died March 11, 1708, an eminent 
Christian. Both buried at Thorn- 
ton Chapel." A. Lister's grave may 
still be seen, though much injured 
by time. It bears the motto, 
" Impendam et expendar." " Dr. 
John Hall died Jan. 6, 1709, 
aet. 78." 

171 1. Rev. Samuel Hulme. 
Pastor.* During his ministry the 
congregation is reported to have 
numbered 300. Hulme was on 
the Hewley fund, and he needed 
help, for he had a salary of ^40 a 

* He married "Mrs. (Miss) Mary 
King, of Horton, Jan. 9, 1712." 



year, and a family of 1 1 children.* 
He died in 1756, after a ministry 
of 46 years, ast. 70. 

Rev. Thomas Muschett, 
minister of Keighley, preached at 
Kipping alternately with Keighley 
for some time, but at length re- 
moved to Thornton, 1757. At 
this period Mr. Firth, who had 
succeeded to the estate originally 
called "Kipping," disputed the 
right of the people to the building, 
and, seconded by other enemies of 
religion, gave Mr. M. so much 
trouble as to cause his retirement. 

1760. Rev. Timothy Priestley 
(Heckmondwike Acy.), a brother 
of Dr. Priestley (though without 
sympathy in the doctrinal senti- 
ments of that distinguished man), 
accepted the pastorate. Mr. Firth's 
opposition continued during his 
stay. In 1765, Priestley removed 
to Manchester, and thence to 
London. Ob. 18 14. 

1766. Rev. John Whiteford, 
who had travelled with George 
Whitefield, and had afterwards 
settled at Cleckheaton. During his 
residence the disputes respecting 
the old chapel continued, and 
attempts were made to seize, it and 
to expel the congregation. At 
last the old meeting-house was sold 
and a new one was erected in the 
village of Thornton. The con- 
gregation behaved most liberally — 
not only paying off the debt, but 
building a house for the minister in 
the course of a short time. White- 
ford's pastorate was not, however, 
prosperous, and his removal was a 

1778. Rev. Joseph Cockin 
(Heckmondwike Acy.). He re- 
mained at Kipping for 1 4 years — 

* I713. * c John Jewett, near Bradford, 
died Jan. 2.2, an old disciple ; one of the 
Kipping Society, about 90 years of age." — 
Northowram ' ' Register. " 

years of great honour and useful- 
ness — during which the chapel was 
crowded. Cockin was in his day 
what Heywood had been a century 
earlier — the apostle and itinerant of 
his district. Eccleshill, Idle, Brad- 
ford, Skipton, Bingley, and numerous 
other places in the immediate and 
remoter vicinity, attested the fre- 
quency and earnestness of his pious 
and useful labours. Amidst the re- 
grets of his people he removed to 
Halifax, January 1, 1792. 

1796. Rev. John Calvert, a 
warm-hearted and beloved pastor. 
In his day the chapel was much en- 
larged. He died suddenly, March 
26, 1816. 

18 1 6. Rev. Robinson Pool, a 
faithful minister ; much honoured. 
Chapel enlarged in 1823. Great 
afflictions compelled his resignation, 
circ. 1833. 

1834. ^ ev# J am es Gregory, 
the present pastor, accepted the 
charge. A new chapel was erected 
in 1844, and subsequently a large 
and convenient school-room. The 
chapel has recently undergone a 
complete renovation. 

A separation from the congrega- 
tion has taken place, and the new 
body is now worshipping in the 
Mechanics' Institution. 



Calamy mentions Robert Leaver 
(ej. Bolham) who married a daughter 
of Robert Dyneley, Esq., and 
preached in a chapel belonging to 
Sir W. Middleton (vol. iii., p. 58). 
Dyneley married a descendant of 
Archbishop Mathew. He built a 
chapel during the Commonwealth. 
After the ejection, Rev. — Crossley 
preached in it till his death for two 
years, though he never conformed. 
Mr. Dyneley's house was a refuge 
for persecuted ministers, who often 

R 2 



preached in his hall. Hunter says 
(Old Dissent, p. 164) : "It is one of 
the earliest instances of a foundation 
for religious purposes resting on a 
private trust-deed. There were 
four others in the diocese of York, 
and probably more : Ellenthorpe, 
G. Houghton, Stannington, and 
Morley. After a generation or 
two, the Dyneleys conformed, and 
Bramhope Chapel became united 
to the church." 



Calamy mentions Mr. Lucks as 
having been ejected in 1662 from 
Bridlington parish church, but gives 
no account of him. Mr. Laugh- 
thorne was at the same time re- 
moved from Boynton. Mr. Peter 
Clark, M.A. (a member of West- 
minster Assembly, ej. Kirkby),was 
at one period at Carnaby. It 
seems that Lucks preached to a 
small congregation in a private 
house. He was succeeded by 

1672. Rev. Richard White- 
hurst, from Thornton (ej. Northen- 
en-le-Morthen). He was a Fifth- 
Monarchy man ; a stedfast asserter 
of the personal reign. Died J 697. 
He probably preached in a brewery, 
on the site of which, a meeting- 
house was built in 1698. 

1698. Rev. John Benson be- 
came pastor. 

Rev. — Oils. Of him we 
know nothing but the name. 

About 1706, a new meeting- 
house was erected, called Zion 
Chapel. It was endowed by 
Matthew Yeates, who was a man 
in middle life at the time of the 
ejectment, and by his grandson, 
Matthew Prudom. A further en- 

* Authorities — Harness, Hunter, and 
Rev. J. Dickinson. Aided by Mr. Tyn- 

dowment was made in 1728 by 
E. Huddleston, Esq., of, or near, 

Rev. George Braithwaite, 
M. A., a Baptist. Wilson, in " Dis- 
senting Churches " (vol. i. p. 443), 
says, " He preached at Bridlington 
several years with reputation and 
success ; and in all probability had 
ended his days there, had not his 
zeal against prevailing intemperance 
rendered his situation uneasy. It 
was with a view to serve the best 
interests of his people that he pub- 
lished a small treatise against un- 
necessary frequenting public houses, 
which gave great offence." Re- 
moved to Devonshire Square, Lon- 
don, 1734. 

1736. Rev. Thomas Lax, from 
Topcliffe near Morley. Here in 


Circ. 1753. Rev. John Smith. 
Minister for nearly twenty years. 
Became Unitarian. Excluded by 
trustees. " There were, in 1773, 
two congregations, of which J. Smith 
and Jos. Gawkroger were minis- 
ters."* J. Smith was minister at 
Zion Chapel up to 1768, and pro- 
bably a few years later. 

Circ. 1780. Rev. William 
Northend (Heck. Acy., from 
Haslingden.) Resigned, and was 
afterwards at Brighouse. 

Circ. 1788. Rev. Samuel 
Lyndall. During his pastorate a 
new chapel was built. Removed 
to London, 1797. 

Rev. — Blake. 

1805. Rev. Ralph Davison. 
Removed to Newcastle. 

Rev. — Ford. Left England 
for America. 

1 816. Rev. G. F. Ryan. Re- 
moved to Stockport. 

Rev. Ebenezer Morley. Re- 
moved to Hull, thence to London. 

* Hunter's MSS., Mus. Brit. 



Rev. — Moses. 

Rev. E. Halliday. Removed 
to America. 

About 1832, Rev. J. Benson, 
M.A. (Rothm. Coll.), who had 
been settled at Northallerton, re- 
ceived a call from the church to 
the pastorate. The trustees, how- 
ever, refused to admit him. In 
consequence, a majority of the 
congregation worshipped for a time 
in the Towh Hall with the appro- 
bation of the "Hull and East 
Riding Association." In the mean 
time, the chapel was occupied by 
Rev. — Shawyer. By the with- 
drawal of the two ministers, how- 
ever, the people became at length 

1837. Rev. G. F. Ryan, 
D.D., from Dogley Lane. Re- 
moved to Beverley, 1857. 

1858. Rev. John Dickinson 
(Edin. Un. and Glas. Theol. Ins.). 
An attempted exercise of power on 
the part of the trustees led to the 
submittal of the whole question of 
right to the Charity Commissioners, 
by whom the whole matter has 
been finally arranged. Mr. Dickin- 
son is the present minister. 


(north-end chapel, congre- 

In 1662, Rev. William Ashley 
was silenced at Rais trick, though 
he had no living. 

Among those who came from 
considerable distances to the preach- 
ing of Venn and that of his curate, 
the Rev. — Burnet (afterwards of 
Elland), was Benjamin Morton, a 
farmer of Brighouse. When Venn 
removed from Huddersfield, Morton 
and his neighbours, feeling their 
need of Evangelical teaching, in- 
vited some Congregational ministers 

* Aided by Rev. R. Harley, F.R.S. 

to preach to them, and at length 
resolved to erect a chapel, opened 
about 1778. It was small, and 
without galleries ; capable of con- 
taining about 300 persons. Its 
completion was not accomplished 
without much difficulty, owing to 
the want of sufficient funds. 

The pulpit of the chapel thus 
erected was occupied during some 
time by Mr. Scholefield (father of 
the late Greek Professor at Cam- 
bridge). He remained, however, 
but a short time, and left for 
Henley-on-Thames. He died at 
Over (Cheshire). Rev. — Smith, 
who was afterwards at Leek, suc- 
ceeded him, but his stay was also 
brief. Neither of these was or- 
dained. The successive pastors 
have been :- — 

1782. Rev. Samuel Lowell, 
who had previously resided with 
his family at Halifax ; ordained 
1786. His labours were very suc- 
cessful, and by his exertions the 
debt on the chapel was removed. 
He removed to Woodbridge, Suf- 
folk, 1789, at the recommendation 
of Rev. J. Clayton, sen., and after- 
wards to Bridge Street, Bristol. 
During his stay, a minister's house 
was begun. It was finished for his 

Rev. John Meldrum, author of 
a work entitled, " The Incarnation 
of the Son of God." He collected 
money in various parts of England 
and Scotland for the chapel-house 
completion. Among other con- 
tributors was Lady Glenorchy, who 
took much interest in the progress 
of religion in Yorkshire. Mr. 
Meldrum removed, in 1786, to 
Hatherlow, Cheshire. 

Rev. Eli Hollingworth. Dur- 
ing his ministry the congregation 
declined. Removed to Sower by. 

1800. Rev. William North- 
end (Heckmondwike Acy., from 



Bridlington and Haslingden.). He 
married a daughter of Mr. Hesketh. 
Northowram. The congregation 
did not improve under his ministry. 
He resigned in 18 10, and lived in 
retirement, preaching occasionally. 

Whilst things were thus declin- 
ing, John Holland, Esq., of Slead- 
hallj had received spiritual benefit 
from the ministry of the Rev. 
Joseph Cockin, Halifax. After his 
marriage, he and Mrs. Holland at- 
tended at Bridge-end, but disrelish- 
ing the ministry, they, with some 
others, withdrew and assembled for 
worship at Slead-syke. In 1809, 
Mr. Crisp was sent from Idle Acy. 
to preach to them. In the end, an 
arrangement was made, and Mr. 
Northend was induced to retire. 

1 8 10. Rev. J. H. Crisp. Dur- 
ing his faithful ministry, a gallery, 
school-room, and vestry were added 
to the chapel, which was also made 
freehold. After thirty years' pas- 
torship, Mr. Crisp resigned his 
charge in the year 1842, with the 
affectionate regards of his former 

1842. Rev. Robert Bell 
(Airedale Coll , from Sowerby- 
bridge.) Land was now purchased 
for enlarging the burial-ground, and 
for a new chapel. The church 
and congregation made considerable 
progress; but in 1851, Mr. Bell 
was compelled, through ill-health, 
to resign his charge and to retire 
from the ministry. 

1853. Rev. Robert Harley 
(Airedale Coll.), ordained Sept. 13, 
1854. On the same day, the 
foundation-stone of a new chapel 
and school-room was laid by J. 
Crossley, Esq. The building was 
opened in January, 1856. The 
chapel (plain Italian) accommodates 
775 adults, and about 400 children. 
Underneath is a large school-room. 
Cost, exclusive of site and school- 

room furniture, £3,300. Upwards 
of 600 children are taught in the 
school. The church has steadily 

A few years ago, Mr. Harley 
received the honorary distinction of 
F.R.S., on the ground of his 
original contributions to mathe- 
matical science. He was Professor 
of mathematics and logic in Aire- 
dale College. Removed Feb. 1868, 
to Leicester. 

In 1 864, a minister's house was 
erected in Newlands, Raistrick, at 
a cost of £1,000. The whole of 
the amount was contributed by 
the congregation, without extra- 
neous help. The pulpit is now 


At Brightside, a small village 
midway between Rotherham and 
Sheffield, now rapidly stretching 
out towards the latter town, there 
has been for mqny years a small 
room, in which lay -preachers from 
Sheffield have conducted Divine 
worship. Two years ago (in 
1865-6), a new and greatly en- 
larged room was built, and an 
Evangelist was stationed here in 
connection with the church at 
AtterclifTe, under the pastoral care 
of Rev. J. Calvert. 

The Evangelist, Rev. J. Par- 
kinson, has also a preaching station 
at Darnall, another village near 
AtterclifTe. It is intended to erect 
a chapel at Brightside, to accom- 
modate the very fast-increasing 
population of the district. 


(See Knottingley.) 

* Communicated by Rev. Professor 
Falding, D.D. 





The chapel at Burley was built 
in the year 1839, principally 
through the exertions of J. P. Clap- 
ham, Esq., then resident in the 
village. The ministers have been — 

1 841. Rev. Benjamin Beddow. 
Removed to Barnsley, 1843. 

Aug. 7th, 1843. Rev. Joseph 
Boyd. Removed, 1855, to West 

Jan. 1st, 1858. Rev. John 
Robinson, from Middlewich. Re- 
moved, 1859, to Saltaire. 

Dec. nth, 1859. Rev Robert 
Goshawk (of Highbury Coll.), 
from Leek. Resigned Oct, 31st, 

Aug. 7th, 1864. Rev. John 
Wilde (of Airedale Coll.), who is 
the present minister. 



A room was opened for Con- 
gregational worship in this thriving 
village in the year 1861, and 
through the energy of Mr. 
McDowell, preachers were fur- 
nished from the Leeds Itinerant 
Preaching Society. A church was 
soon formed, and a Sunday-school. 
By means of a liberal grant from 
the West Riding Home Missionary 
Society, the congregation proceeded 
to elect a minister. 

1 86 1. Rev. Henry Simon 
(Spring Hill Coll.). The need was 
now felt of a suitable place of wor- 
ship, and by the aid of T. Salt, 
Esq., J. Crossley, Esq., and other 
friends, the undertaking was com- 
menced. The foundation was laid 
July 8th, 1862, by T. Salt, Esq. 
The chapel was opened July 29th, 
1863, by the Revs. James Parsons 

and Robert Balgarnie. The Rev. 
H. Simon, to whose ministerial 
energy the cause is greatly indebted, 
left for Tolmer Square, London, in 

1867. Rev. T. Child (Aire- 
dale Coll.), the present minister. 



The pulpit of the church at 
North Cave was occupied during 
the Commonwealth by Thomas 
Nesse, whose son, Christopher 
Nesse, preached during some time 
at ClifFe, where his uncle, Brear- 
clifFe, was vicar. 

The first mention we find of 
South Cave in connection with 
Nonconformity is in the Hewley 
Grant List, where the name of 
Rev. James Baycock appears as a 
grantee in 1728 and 1729. The 
earliest trust-deed, which bears Mr. 
Baycock's signature, is dated two 
years later. That deed recognises 
Presbyterian government; but, as 
is usual with similar instruments of 
the period, defines no doctrine. 

About 1715, the congregation 
amounted to 400 hearers. Bay- 
cock lived to extreme old age. He 
seems to be mentioned by Calamy 
as one who at the time of 
the ejectment had received no 
settlement. If the individual be 
the same, he was probably, as 
Hunter remarks, "the very last of 
all on that list." 

1754. Died Rev. Thos. Hick- 
ington, aged 82, minister above 
fifty years. 

In 1773, the congregation and 
minister became Independent. The 
pastors since that time have been — 

Rev. — Ellis or Ellice. An 

* By aid of Rev, J. Menzies. 



Arian. His doctrine being ex- 
tremely distasteful to the people, 
Mr. Ellice was compelled at last to 
retire from his office. 

1780. Rev. Noah Blackburn. 
He stayed only a year at Cave. 
As he desired that the people 
should repair the dilapidated roof 
of the chapel, a meeting was called 
after the afternoon service to con- 
sider the proposal. But just before 
that time a heavy shower of rain 
compelled them to crowd to one 
side of the building, and proved a 
convincing argument. The chapel 
was repaired and a vestry built. 
Mr. Blackburn removed to Tock- 
holes, 1 78 1. 

Rev. J. Grimshaw. During his 
ministry the chapel was crowded, 
and numerous vehicles brought 
worshippers from all directions ; 
but, on account of unhappy occur- 
rences, Mr. Grimshaw removed to 
Lancashire in 1778; ob. circ. 1833. 
1 79 1. Rev. William Tapp. 
Ob. 1819. 

1 821. Rev. George Nettle- 
ship. After a short period of 
awakened interest, disputes arose 
which led to Mr. Nettleship's re- 

1824. Rev. — Kelsey, once a 
missionary to the South Seas. He 
left, circ. 1831. 

Circ. 1 83 1. Rev. William 
Stott. In his day the congrega- 
tion was very low. His removal 
took place, circ, 1838. 

1839. Rev. John Allen. Re- 
moved to Australia, 1846. 

1 847. Rev. Thomas Roberts. 
During his ministry some were 
added to the church who have 
been honourably distinguished. Re- 
moved, 1854, to Bradford. 

1854. Rev. J. Menzies (Glas- 
gow Un.), the present minister. 

A chapel and school-room were 
built at Elloughton in the year 

1 8 14, principally through the 
liberality of Mr. T. Carlile, a 
London merchant, born in the vil- 
lage. The site was given by the 
mother of John Todd, Esq., Swan- 
land Hall. The building has been 
disused as a day-school, and is now 
a chapel. 


The first chapel (erected 1795) 
was irregularly supplied with pas- 
tors. They were — 

1795. Rev. George Wild- 

1817. Rev. W. Parkinson. 

1 8 1 8. Rev. J. Stewart. 
1823. Rev. J. Bond. 
1825. Rev. J. Holker. 
1845. Rev. J. R. Smith. 
1858. Rev. W. Axford. 

In 1866 the chapel was rebuilt, 
and a call given, in 1867, to Rev. 
John Scott, the present minister. 



There was preaching from an 
early period at a farm-house about 
half a mile from Cleckheaton, called 
" the Closes," under which name 
the first mention of the congrega- 
tion occurs. The pastors have 
been — 

1672. Rev. John Holds- 
worth (Frankland's Acy.). He 
seems to have regularly exchanged 
services, first with the Rev. Joseph 
Dawson, Morley (who received 
£2 10s. half-yearly from Stretton 
on behalf of " the Closes ") ; next, 
with the Rev. John Ray, Pudsey. 
Ob. Dec. 15, 171 1, and was buried 
at Birstall. 

In 1 7 10, the congregation met 
for worship at a hamlet called 



Swinley, or Egypt, between Cleck- 
heaton and Gomersal. In that 
year, John Dixon, of Bradford, 
purchased on their behalf a plot 
of land, which was afterwards con- 
veyed to them. On it the first 
chapel was erected. Being of 
brick, it was called "The Red 

17 1 2. Rev. Robert Rich- 
mond. He married the widow of 
Rev. A. Lister, Kipping (17 13). 
Ob. at Wisket Hill, 1728, after 
having been incapacitated for some 
years. At that time, according to 
Dr. Evans' list, the congregation 
consisted of 150 hearers, sixteen of 
whom were voters for the county. 
He was buried at New Chapel, 

1728. Rev. John Angier. 
Grantee from the Hewley fund, 
1728, 1729. Removed, 1740, to 

1 741. Rev. Evan Stock (from 
Warley). This minister was pro- 
bably of Arian sentiments. He 
married a lady of property, which 
on his death was divided among his 
three daughters. He is said to 
have been minister at Cleckheaton 
for nearly twenty years. 

1762. Rev. John Whiteford. 
He had been one of Wesley's 
preachers, but afterwards changed 
his doctrinal opinions for Indepen- 
dency. He left, in 1766, for 
Kipping. He kept a school. 

After his removal, Rev. Geo. 
Lambert, subsequently of Hull, 
preached for nearly a year with 
great acceptance. After him, 
Rev. John Beatson' occupied the 
pulpit for nearly the same period. 
The congregation increased greatly 
under his ministry. Mr. Beatson 
then adopted Baptist sentiments. 
• 1769. Rev. James Dawson 
(Heckmondwike Acy.). Mr. Daw- 
son was of weakly constitution, 

but was greatly beloved. In 1780, 
a new and considerably larger 
chapel was erected. Mr. Dawson 
died, 1795. 

1796. Rev. John Ralph (from 
Stone), under whom the congre- 
gation was much increased. Re- " 
moved to Liverpool, 1802. 

1803. Rev. Thornhill Kidd. 
Highly esteemed. He resigned 
his charge through illness, and was 
afterwards minister at Clapton, 
near London, and died, 18 19. An 
attempt was made, in 1809, to 
establish a monthly lecture at 
Cleckheaton and adjoining places 
during the summer months, in 
connection with the District Asso- 

1 8 14. Rev. James Scott (from 
Eastwood). His labours were 
abundantly successful. During 
his life, the chapel was again en- 
larged (18 1 5), and school-rooms 
were built in 18 19. Ob. 1852. 

1852. Rev. Robert Cuthbert- 
son, the present minister. 

In July, 1857, the foundation- 
stone of a new and handsome 
chapel was laid by F. Crossley, 
Esq., M.P. It was opened for 
Divine worship on the 18th May, 



The chapel was erected about 
1748. The successive ministers 
have been — 

1748. Rev. John Warden 

1764. Rev. James Shields 

1769. Rev. Luke Prattman 
(from Hopton). Rev. Dr. Simpson, 
Hoxton, was introduced into the 
I ministry by Mr. Prattman. 



Rev. A. Carneson, from An- 
nan, afterwards Parkhead. 

1 81 2. Rev. Luke Prattman 
became minister of Barnard Castle, 
after which Cotherstone became 
connected with that place. 



During the civil wars, Dr. 
Samuel Winter, afterwards Provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin, was 
Vicar of Cottingham. He had 
been before assistant to Rev. Ezek. 
Rogers, Rowley. He preached in 
the parish church with great zeal 
and usefulness. When, however, 
the subsequent religious persecutions 
arose, he emigrated to New Eng- 
land with Mr. Roades, Beverley, 
Mr. Colyer, afterwards of Bradford, 
and others. 

The Rev. Joseph Robinson, a 
man of great piety, was ejected 
from the church in 1662, and died 
soon after, probably broken-hearted. 
The first Dissenting minister 
appears to have been Rev Abra- 
ham Dawson, a pupil of Frank- 
land, eldest son of Rev. Joseph 
Dawson, of Morley. He settled 
here about 1696. There was, 
even at that time, a chapel at Cot- 
tingham, as appears from a bap- 
tismal register which goes back to 
1692, and it is reported not to 
have been the first. Mr. Dawson 
was an able minister. In 1 7 16 he 
had 350 hearers. Ob. Feb. 5, 1733. 
1734. Rev. John Brooke. Or- 
dained in Hull. Ob. Feb. 2, 1750. 
1750. Rev. Benjamin Clegg, 
from Derby. Ob. Aug. 26, 1775. 
1775. Rev. Edward Dew- 
hirst (of Daventry Acy.). From 
Oswestry. His sentiments were 
Arian, and a division took place 

* By aid of Rev. T. Hicks and J. Old- 
ham, Esq. 

in consequence. The Rev. G. 
Lambert (Hull), the Rev. G. Gill 
(Swanland), and afterwards Rev. 
Richard Leggatt, his successor, 
preached to the separatists. Mr. D. 
ob. 1784. He lies buried in the 
churchyard ; where, with a bigotry 
which deserves oblivion, his body 
and headstone lie in a reversed 
position. After his decease, the 
people became reunited. He was 
a man of superior classical attain- 

In 1776, Samuel Watson, Esq., 
one of the congregation, left by 
will the sum of ^200, the interest 
of which was to be paid to the 

1785. Rev. Richard Leggatt 
(of Lady Huntingdon's College). 
In 1790, he left Cottingham for 
the neighbourhood of London. 

1792. Rev. Anthony Kidd 
(brother of Rev. Thornhill Kidd, 
Cleckheaton). He removed to Hull 
in 1 817, where he kept a school 
till his death. 

1 818. Rev. Spedding Curwen 
(of Heckmondwike Acy.). From 
Heckmondwike Lower Chapel. 

In 1 8 19, a new chapel was 
erected, to accommodate about 
400 hearers. 

Mr. Curwen removed to Lon- 
don, 1823. 

1824. Rev. Thomas Hicks 
(from Bawtry), who yet survives 
in honourable old age. Rev. T. 
Rain, once a missionary at Berbice, 
is co-pastor. 


The pastors here have been — 

1827. Rev. — Mitchell. 

1 841. Rev. John Fogg. 

1849. Rev. John Cummings 
(from Leeds). Removed, in 1 851, 
to Stubbing, Elsecar. 


2 5 I 

185 1. Rev. Henry Bake. Re- 
moved to Malpas, Nov. 1857. 

The chapels now receive the 
services of students from Rother- 



The chapel at Delph was 
erected, 1746, by some members 
of the church at Greenacres for 
the convenience of distance. It 
is endowed. After the erection 
of the chapel, the congregation 
suffered much persecution from 
its High Church neighbours. 

The first minister was Rev. 
James Burgess, who left the 
church of Greenacres to settle 
here. He was an evangelical and 
faithful preacher, and possessed 
some knowledge of medicine, 
which he made useful to his 
neighbours. He removed after- 
wards to Oldham. 

1760. Rev. Thomas Morgan 
(from Wales). During his resi- 
dence, much uneasiness and con- 
tention occurred, probably without 
any substantial reason. Mr. Mor- 
gan left for Morley in 1763. 

Rev. Thomas Gurnell (Heck- 
mondwike Acy.). His zealous 
labours were very successful. He 
died 1769, and was buried in the 
chapel. A monument is erected 
to his memory. 

A gallery was erected during 
Mr. Gurnell's ministry. 

1769. Rev. William Armitage 
succeeded Mr. Gurnell. After 
about three years, he removed to 
Chester, 1772. 

1773. Rev. Henry Hunt (from 
Lancashire). His ministry was 
very useful, and continued thirteen 
years, when he removed in con- 

* By aid of Rev. A. F. Shawyer. 

sequence of some disagreement 

An invitation was now given to 
Rev. S. Lowell, of Brighouse, 
which was declined. 

1786. Rev. Noah Blackburn 
(from Tockholes). He was con- 
verted by the reading of a sermon 
of Mr. Whitaker's. He was 
twelve months at Cave, but was 
not ordained at that place. 

In 1 79 1, the old chapel was 
enlarged. Messrs. Parsons and 
Cockin preached at the re-open- 
ing. Mr. Blackburn was found 
a corpse one Sunday evening 
after his usual services. The last 
years of his life were equal to any 
preceding period for the success of 
his labours. His ministry lasted 
thirty-four years. He died, May 
4, 1821. 

1824. Rev. John Holroyd. 
He resigned the pastorate in 1 848, 
and settled at Denton. Mr. Hol- 
royd died Nov., 1 849. 

Rev. John George came to 
Delph in 1851, and removed, 
1856, to Manchester. 

1 86 1. Rev. Andrew Fielder 
Shawyer (Rotherham Coll.), from 
Pateley Bridge. He is the present 


This chapel was built in 1 844 ; 
the congregation being an offset 
from the church at Kipping. The 
pastors have been — 

1846. Rev. Ebenezer Sloane 
Heron. Left, 1856, for Ilkeston. 

1856. Rev. E. W. Garner, 
who left for Stainland, 1859. 

1 86 1. Rev. Thomas Roberts 
(from Newent). Removed to 
Bradford, 1864. The pulpit is 
now vacant. 




After the preaching of George 
Whitefield at Dent, a small chapel 
was erected, which afterwards fell 
into the hands of the Episco- 
palians. Subsequently, the Rev. 
John Hill, then minister of Raven- 
stonedale, seventeen miles distant, 
preached once a month in a chapel 
or barn. Under his ministry, the 
conversion of James Batty took 
place. A church was formed 
March 31, 1809. The ministers 
have been — 

1809. Revo — Helsall. He 
continued minister till 1 8 1 8. 

1820. Rev. James Batty. He 
began to preach also at Sedberg, 
and afterwards at Hawes, and 
laboured earnestly amidst many 
perplexing and discouraging diffi- 
culties. After a considerable 
period of decayed energy, Mr. 
Batty died, April 7, 1856, in the 
36th year of his ministry, aged 77. 

1853. Rev. William Kelsey. 
He retired from Dent, June, 1866. 

1867. Rev. J. Barnfather 
(from Ravenstonedale). The pre- 
sent minister. 

No Congregational chapel ex- 
isted in Dewsbury before 18 14. 
Till then, those who were attached 
to the Independent modes of wor- 
ship (and there were several, at 
Earlsheaton, Thornhill, and Thorn- 
hill Lees) walked either to Ossett 
or to Hopton. The Rev. T. 
Taylor preached, however, whilst 
minister at Ossett, on a week day, 
monthly, at Earlsheaton, and this 
service was continued after his 

* Communicated by Rev. E. H. Weeks. 

removal. In 1814, steps were 
taken for the erection of an Inde- 
pendent chapel. The foundation- 
stone was laid, and an address 
delivered, by Rev. E. Parsons 
(Leeds). The undertaking en- 
countered much opposition from 
the vicar and his congregation. 
"An incident occurred, however, at 
the ceremony of laying the founda- 
tion-stone which did much to dis- 
arm opposition and allay anger. 
One of the hymns sung on that 
occasion was the 11 8th Psalm, 
third part, in Dr. Watts' hymn- 
book, beginning, 'Behold the sure 
foundation-stone,' &c. The third 
verse runs thus : — 

" The foolish builders, scribe, and priest, 
Reject it with disdain j 
Yet on this Rock the Church shall rest, 
And envy rage in vain." 

The Rev. E. Parsons, who gave 
out the hymn, omitted this verse, 
and that omission had the effect of 
conciliating many members of the 
Establishment, some of whom sub- 
scribed towards the building of 
the chapel and school." The 
chapel was opened June 29, 18 15, 
by the Revs. E. Parsons, Jos. 
Cockin, and Toothill. Rev. T. 
Taylor preached and administered 
the Lord's Supper on the first 
Sunday. The building was called 
" Ebenezer Chapel." 

After two years' aid from 
ministers and students, the church 
elected as pastor — 

1 817. Rev. George Water- 
house. At the time of his settle- 
ment there was already a good 
congregation, but a heavy debt. 
The church then consisted of 
thirty-six members. A Sunday- 
school had been originated soon 
after the opening of the chapel. 
In 1822, the chapel ground was 
enlarged, and a school - room 



erected. The people struggled 
long and heavily with financial 
difficulties, and great sacrifices 
were made and much patience 
exercised before the debt could be 
cleared off. This, however, was 
accomplished about the year 1829. 
The graveyard was much extended 
by a purchase of land in 1835. 

An enlargement of the chapel 
took place in 1839, according to 
the plans of Mr. Jeremiah Mar- 
riott. (" The debt occasioned by 
this enlargement, interest, &c, 
was entirely cleared off" by private 
subscription in 1846.") Mr. 
Waterhouse, after a generally suc- 
cessful ministry, resigned his office, 
Aug. 1 842, and removed to Atter- 
cliffe, where he soon after died. 

1843. Rev. Edward Henry 
Weeks (of Cheshunt Coll.). Or- 
dained May 29, 1844. 

In 1848, a new school-room, 
costing upwards of £800, was 
erected, and the entire debt was 
cleared off ("the second during 
Mr. Weeks' ministry") in 1850. 
The chapel was then filled, and 
great need existed for extension. 
"An unexpected and apparently 
providential call to Manchester 
being given, Mr. Weeks accepted 
it, with the hope (afterwards 
abundantly realized) that the 
friends at Ebenezer would at 
his departure spread themselves 
abroad." On his removal, the 
friends presented him with .£100, 
and an address expressive of their 
esteem and regret. During his 
ministry, upwards of 260 members 
were received into the church. 

1856. Rev. Joseph Shillito 
(of Lancashire Coll.). He was 
ordained Sept. I. He laboured, 
with the approbation and esteem 
of his flock, till he accepted an 
invitation to Norwood Chapel, 
Liverpool, 1864. 

1865. Rev. Henry Sturt (from 
Market Drayton). He is the pre- 
sent pastor. 



When Mr. Weeks gave notice 
of his intention to resign his 
charge at Ebenezer Chapel, some 
of his friends suggested to him the 
erection of a new sanctuary in 
Dewsbury. This, however, he 
declined, being already under en- 
gagements to Manchester. Before 
Mr. Shillito's invitation, 107 
members amicably seceded. The 
number was afterwards increased 
to 116. A new chapel was com- 
menced, the foundation-stone of 
which was laid by E. Baines, Esq., 
of Leeds, March 25, 1856. It 
was opened, Nov. 26, by Revs. 
J. Sherman and E. Mellor. The 
first pastor was — 

1856. Rev. G. McCallum 
(from Perth). He is the present 





As many of the members and 
originators of Ebenezer Chapel 
resided here, it was felt that a 
sanctuary for their accommodation 
was requisite. A new chapel was 
accordingly erected and opened, 
Sept. 24, 1862, by Revs. G. Smith 
and Dr. Raffles. The cost of the 
chapel and appurtenances was 
,£6,525. The first minister was — 

1863. Rev. James Collier 
(from Huddersfield). He is the 
present minister. 



A large building, called the 
Public Hall, used as a theatre, was 
purchased by Messrs. M. Oldroyd 
and Sons, to whose property it 
was adjacent. It was suggested to 
Mr. Weeks, then on a visit, that 
he might resume in it his services 
at Dewsbury. As his health 
suffered from the air of Man- 
chester, he complied, and the Hall, 
after being properly adapted, was 
opened for public worship, July 
31, 1864, the Rev. E. H. Weeks 
then preaching his first sermons. 
A church was constituted, con- 
sisting of 61 members. The pre- 
sent number is 140. Mr. Weeks 
continues his ministry here, await- 
ing the erection of a suitable 

In 1856, a movement was made 
towards the gathering of a congre- 
gation in this village, and a chapel 
built in 1858, soon after which a 
church was formed. The first 
pastor was — 

1864. Rev. W. Dixon. He 
was much respected; ob. 1867. 

1866. Rev. W. Daniell, the 
present minister. 



The congregation at Dogley 

Lane arose out of a separation 

from the church at Shelley. A 

chapel was built, under the advice 

* Communicated by Rev. E. H. Weeks. 
f Aided by Rev. F. E. Henson. 

and guidance of Mr. John Senior 
and Mr. Joah Sugden, the land 
for it being given by Mr. Joseph 
Ibberson. The building was 
opened Jan. 1, 18 16, and the 
church formed Dec. 25, under the 
presidency of Rev. John Cockin. 
There is a minister's house and 
garden. The pastors have been — 

1820. Rev. William Lees 
(Rotherham Acy.). There were 
at this time 36 members. After 
a useful ministry, Mr. Lees ob. 
Aug. 13, 1 83 1, aet. 46. 

1832. Rev. George Ryan, 
afterwards D.D. (of Rotherham 
Coll., from Burlington). During 
his pastorate, 1832, the chapel 
was enlarged and school-rooms 
built. Mr. Ryan left for Beverley, 


1840. Rev. William Baines 
(Airedale Coll.). Ob. Feb. 14, 

1842. Rev. John Hughes 
(Blackburn Acy.). Ob. 1848. 

1850. Rev. William Inman 
(Rotherham Coll.). He removed 
to Wilsden, 1858. During his 
ministry, an organ -gallery and 
organ were erected. 

1859. Rev. Joseph Oddy. 
He left for Barnsley, 1862. 

Jan. 3, 1864. Rev. Francis 
Egglestone Henson (Rotherham 
Coll.). The present minister. 

263 members have been ad- 
mitted to the church from 181 6 — 
1866. The number of members 
in 1866 was 86. 



This church was probably 
originated about 1640, though 
Doncaster was not favourable for 
Nonconformity. At least, at this 
time a meeting-house was built. 
The first minister was Rev. 



Samuel Crompton, son of John 
Crompton, an ejected minister, 
born 1654, assistant afterwards to 
a congregation in Derbyshire, then 
married to a lady near Doncaster, 
in consequence of which con- 
nection he was invited to become 
pastor of the people there. Up to 
that time there was no chapel or 
suitable place for divine worship. 
Mr. Crompton fitted up two rooms 
in his own house, and his con- 
gregation was about 60. The 
severities which in his time were 
inflicted upon Nonconformists pro- 
duced on Mr. Crompton's mind 
the conviction that such practices 
were incompatible with personal 
religion. He died, Jan. 24, 1734, 
and was buried in Doncaster 
Church. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Laurence Holden, till 1750, 
when he removed to Maldon, 
Essex. Rev. — Davies succeeded. 
Then Rev. James Neile became 
pastor. Afterwards, Rev. — Skir- 
ven, then Rev. Andrew Scott, 
1770, a man of blameless life, who 
died Sept. 27, 1799, ^ 57> an< ^ 
was buried in the churchyard. In 
1794, he was on the Hewley List. 

1800. Rev. Richard Hodson 
(from Nantwich), till 1816. At 
this time Doncaster was united 
to Long Houghton. 

1 817. Rev. John Platts. The 
congregation had now become en- 
tirely Unitarian. 

Thomas Hollis, jun., Esq., left 
money for the support of this 
chapel, and for the payment of a 


A building was fitted up as an 
Independent chapel in Hall-gate, 

* Aided by Revs. S. Mc All, and E. S. 
Prout, M.A. 

1804. Previously to this time, a 
few persons had met, since 1798, 
for prayer and spiritual exercises 
at a private house. They were 
assisted by the Revs. James Boden 
(Sheffield), and Dr. Williams, who 
encouraged them and promoted the 
settlement of a minister. In 1799, 
Rev. Samuel Bradley (of Rother- 
ham Acy.), ordained Sept. 17, 
1 800. A church was formed, and 
steps were taken to build a more 
commodious chapel. Mr. Bradley 
left for Manchester, Sept. 1801. 

1802. Rev. William King. 
Soon after his accession, the pre- 
sent chapel in Hall-gate was 
opened, Oct. 1804. (The ground 
was purchased by J. Walker, Esq.) 
It would then accommodate 600 
persons. Mr. King resigned in 
June, 1 81 3, being at the head of a 
small secession, and took a chapel 
in Spring Gardens. 

1 8 14. Rev. Thomas Hicks 
(from Pocklington). He remained 
at Doncaster till 18 19. 

1822. Rev. John Woodwark. 
The congregation now increased 
greatly, and additional galleries 
were built. In 1826, ill-health 
compelled Mr. Woodwark to re- 
sign. He was afterwards settled 
at Northampton. 

1827. Rev. Richard Fletcher 
(from Highbury Coll.). His stay 
was short, not reaching a year. 

1828. Rev. E. L. Shadrach 
(of Rotherham Coll.). After a few 
months, he removed to Aberyst- 

1830. Rev. Samuel McAll (of 
Rotherham Coll.). His ministry 
was attended by much success. 
He removed to Nottingham, 1 843, 
and is now the respected President 
of Hackney College, London. 

Four members of this church 
have at different times entered the 
Christian ministry. 



1844. Rev. G. B. Johnson 
(Coward Coll. From East Retford). 
Mr. Johnson removed to Darwen. 

1 844. Rev. W. Harcus (Cotton 
End Acy.). From Loughborough ; 
left 1854; now at Liverpool. 

1856. Rev. Cornelius Curtis 
Tyte (Rotherham Coll. From 
Wellingboro). Professor at Rother- 
ham. Mr. Tyte removed, in 1 864, 
to take the pastoral charge at 
Howard Street, Sheffield. 

1864. Rev. Edward S. Prout, 
M.A., New College (of London 
Univ.). From Norwich. The pre- 
sent minister. 



An Independent chapel was 
built in Driffield in 1802. Gal- 
leries were attached in 1819. 

1806. Rev. B. Hobson, the 
first minister. He remained till 
1 813, then removed to Welford, 

1 8 14. Rev. C. Bartlett. He 
removed in 1 8 1 7. 

1 8 17. Rev. S. Watkinson. He 
removed to Selby, in 1824. The 
chapel then received the aid of 
students until — 

1830. Rev. W; Huds well. He 
left for Leeds in 1832. 

Circ. 1833. Rev. Robinson 
Pool (from Thornton). He re- 
signed 1 84 1. 

1842. Rev. H. Birch. Died 
Nov. 1856. 

1857. Rev. W. Mitchell (Ches- 
hunt Coll.). The present minister. 

A new school-room, with class- 
rooms, was built in 1864, at the 
cost of £750. 

A new chapel was built in 1867, 
at the cost (including site and 
organ) of ^2,000. 

Nafferton Chapel, in which was 

* By aid of Rev. W. Mitchell. 

a congregation of United Baptists 
and Independents, was, during the 
early part of the century, partially 
supplied by the Driffield ministers. 
It is now in the hands of the 
Wesleyan Reformers. 


A congregation has been re- 
cently gathered in this place under 
promising auspices, and a chapel is 
in progress for its accommodation. 
At present the services are mainly 
taken by students from Airedale 


The chapel here dates from 
1 8 14. The successive ministers 
have been — 

1 8 19. Rev. J. Newton. 

1 82 1. Rev. Thomas Slinger, 
who died in 1854. 

1842. Rev. John Sutcliffe 
(Pickering Acy.). Mr. Pickering 
died at Keyworth. 

1855. Rev. Edwin Webster 
(Rotherham Coll.). 

1859. ^ ev * H. Bower (New 
Coll.). Now at Totnes. 

1862. Rev. H. Humble, who 
went to the Nottingham Institution 
for farther training. 

1864. Rev. C. E. G. Smith 
(Cotton End Acy.). He removed 
to Desborough. 

1866. Rev. S. Jackson, who is 
the present minister. 

Shipton has been always con- 
nected with Easingwold, the same 
minister preaching in both places. 
It has been also often assisted by 
lay preachers from the church in 
Salem Chapel, York. 

* By aid of Rev. J. Parsons. 





Nonconformity first began at 
Eastwood in 1693, through the ear- 
nest labours of the Rev. M. Smith, 
of Mixenden. In 1699 a house was 
hired for a meeting-house, and 
several ministers were engaged as 
rotatory preachers, among whom 
were Smith, Wainman, Aldred, 
Stevenson, and others. 

In 1 71 2, Rev. Joshua Cording- 
ley was chosen the first pastor. 

In 1 719, a meeting-house, capa- 
ble of holding 200 or 300, was 
erected at Benthead,f and Mr. 
Cordingley preached here in con- 
nection with Rev. John Smith of 
Warley, son of Matthew Smith. 
When the latter removed to Mix- 
enden, to become his father's assist- 
ant, his successor, Rev. E. Stock, 
took his place at Eastwood. Mr. 
Cordingley died, much lamented, 

in 1734. Mr - Stock ( at Mr - C° r " 
dingley's dying request) continued 
to preach to them in conjunction 
with Rev. Robert Eden. Robert 
Eden came from Elland, 1724. He 
was probably a pupil of Matthew 
Smith. He settled at Eastwood 
seven years, and during that time 
exchanged pulpits alternately with 
Mr. Cordingley of Warley. 

Circ. 1739. Thomas Farrar 
succeeded for two and a half years. 
He exchanged with Mr. Stock, of 
Warley. Some dissensions arising 
between them and their several 
partisans, they both quitted their 

* Aided by Rev. B. Dale, M.A., and 
Rev. J. Read. 

f The old chapel is stilly in existence, 
with the old parsonage adjoining. Together 
they constitute four dwelling-houses, and 
have just been put into good condition. 
They are let at a low rent. 

respective places. Mr. Farrar re- 
moved to Elland.* 

1739. R ev * Robert Hesketh 
(Glasgow, from Bolton, Lanca- 
shire). He held the pastorate for 
five years, and in 1744 removed to 
Northowram. Ob. 1774. 

1744. Rev. Daniel Phillips 
(first settled at Ripley). The intro- 
duction of Methodism, together 
with the ravages of an unusual 
mortality, much diminished the 
congregation, and in 1753 Mr. 
Phillips removed to Sowerby. An 
interval of a year and a half now 
occurred, which was again dis- 

1754. Rev. Michael Maurice. 
He removed to Pudsey in 1770, 
and died three years after. 

1 77 1. Rev. David Lewis. He 
left for Peniston in 1777. 

1777. Rev. Thomas Roberts. 
A promising and useful man. He 
died July 4, 1779. Buried at 

1779. Rev. David Simpson. 
A Scotchman. He was educated at 
Newcastle ; was supposed to be an 
Arian, and was, after much agita- 
tion, compelled to retire. He re- 
moved to Holcomb, Lancashire. 

1784. Rev. Evan Matthias. 
His stay was also brief. He re- 
tired in 1786 to Newcombe, Lan- 

1787. Rev. William Maine. 
Left for Holcombe after one year. 
The Rev. Thomas Jeremy preached 
for a few months ; but his health 
was delicate and the climate un- 
favourable. He did not receive 
a call, and went to Uxbridge. 

1789. Rev. Thomas Fordyce, 
a man of considerable pulpit talent. 
He removed to Stand, 1 791. 

1792. Rev. James Henderson 
(Educated in Edinburgh). A diligent 

* Wilson's MSS. 

2 5 8 


pastor. He died Aug. 26, 1804. 
Buried at Eastwood. 

The church was now in a state 
of great depression; only four 
members remained. At this time 
the Rev. Joseph Cockin interested 
himself in the condition of the 
Eastwood congregation, and through 
him students from the Idle Academy 
began to preach. The congregation 
soon revived. 

1807. Rev. James Scott (Idle 
Acy.). After his invitation, and 
before he had completed his term 
of study, a new chapel was pro- 
jected, near to the present railway 
station, to be capable of accommo- 
dating 500 persons. It was erected 
and opened 1 807, Mr. Scott raising 
contributions with indefatigable zeal. 
He was ordained in September 
following. His ministry was most 
acceptable and useful ; he preached 
to crowded congregations. He re- 
moved to Cleckheaton, 1814. 

1 81 7. Rev. Robert Allatt. 
A state of discord now led to the 
church's dissolution. On its re- 
formation, out of 102 members 
only twenty returned. Mr. Allatt 
removed in 18 19 to Cannon Street, 
Manchester. Ob. 1834. 

1 82 1. Rev. Amos Blackburn. 
The congregation now again in- 
creased. In 1826 a minister's 
house was built. The former build- 
ing having been required for the rail- 
way, the present chapel was erected 
in its stead, and opened 1 840, with 
sermons by Revs. R. W. Hamilton, 
J. G. Miall, and W. Thorpe. 

Mr. Blackburn was a valued 
minister. In 1863 he was chair- 
man of the West Riding Congrega- 
tional Union. On January 28, 
1 864, he was accidentally killed by 
a railway train near to the East- 
wood station. His funeral sermons 
were preached by Revs. J. Parsons 
and D. Jones. 

1866. Rev. James Read — the 
present minister. 

Eastwood has an annuity of 
^■32 per annum by bequest from 
Mrs. Hutton. It has besides an 
endowment of £4 annually, payable 
from a farm in Stansfield. 


See Sheffield. 



This chapel was erected and 
opened in the year 1823. 

1826. Rev. Thomas Barker 
(Idle Acy.). Mr. Barker resigned 
his charge 1843, and after- 
wards conformed to the Established 

1 847. Rev. — Fox, from Old- 
ham. He returned to Oldham 

1 85 1. Rev. John Aston (Aire- 
dale College). Mr. Aston is the 
present minister. 



This congregation was originally 
united to Lidget, though when they 
were separated does not appear. 
Before 1700 a meeting-house was 
erected, chiefly through the agency 
of the Brooksbanks, one of whom, 
Joseph, then a citizen of London, 
endowed the chapel and a school 
for poor children. A funeral ser- 
mon for him was published by 
Rev. T. Dickenson, with a preface 
by Rev. N. Priestley. An ancestor, 
apparently, of Brooks bank, published 
" The Well-tuned Organ ; or, a 
Discussion of the Question whether 
or no Instrumental or Organic 



Music be lawful in Holy Publick 
Assemblies ? " Folio. London. 
1660. The ministers have been: — 

1691. Rev. John Lister. 

1699. Rev. Jeremiah Bairstow. 
In 1 7 17 he had 240 hearers. Ob. 
173 1, after thirty years' ministry; 
buried in the churchyard. 

Rev. Hananiah Elston, son of 
minister of TopclifFe. Ob. 1738. 
Buried near his predecessor. His 
tomb has a Latin inscription, by 
Crowther, a native of Elland, who 
afterwards conformed, and became 
vicar of Otley. 

1742. Rev. Thomas Farrar 
(from Eastwood). A member of 
the familv of Farrars, Elland Park. 
Ob. 1745. 

1745. Rev. William Eden. He 
preached alternately at Elland and 
Eastwood. The death of his son 
led to his resignation 1770. Ob. 


1 77 1. Rev. John Houghton 
(Doddridge's Acy., from Nant- 
wich). He remained till 1782, 
and died 1800. He published an 
English Grammar, &c. 

The congregation at length be- 
came Unitarian. In 1685 the old 
meeting-house was sold, and a new 
chapel (Gothic) was erected. 



Divine worship having for two 
or three years been held in a room 
in the New Street, about the year 
1822, it was resolved to purchase 
land for a building. The first stone 
was laid by Revs. E. Parsons (Hali- 
fax) and S. Rhodes. The chapel 
was opened July 9, 1823, by Revs. 
J. Parsons, J. A. Coombs, and John 
Ely, and a church was formed 

* From information by Rev. F. Bolton. 

December 2. The following have 
been the ministers : — 

1825. Rev. John Garbutt. 
His short ministry was very suc- 
cessful. Ob. April 29, 1826. 

1829. Rev. William Gothard. 
Engaged only for a year. After- 
wards at Knottingley. 

1 83 1. Rev. William Hague 
(from Rillington). " Having la- 
boured at Elland for eighteen 
months, without any apparent suc- 
cess, he resigned his charge Nov. 
25, 1832." 

1838. Rev. Samuel Oddie 
(Airedale College). After six years' 
prosperity he removed to Ossett, 

1 846. Rev. John Rheeder (from 
the English Reformed Church, 
Hamburgh). He removed Oct. 
31, 1854. 

In the year 1856 the chapel at 
Elland was rebuilt, Revs. E. Mellor 
and J. B. Paton preaching on the 
occasion. J. Crossley, Esq. and 
brothers contributed two hundred 

1857. Rev. James Hillyard 
(from Thorne). After six years' 
ministry, he resigned his charge 
Sept. 3, 1863. 

1865. Rev. Francis Bolton, 
B.A. (Springhill Coll.). He was 
ordained Sept. 14. Mr. Bolton is 
the present minister. 



The particulars which can be 
recovered respecting Ellenthorp, 
about a mile from Boroughbridge, 
are very interesting. 

John Brook, Esq., twice Lord 
Mayor of York (whose tutor was 
Mr. P. Williams), who died 1693, 
had a mansion at Ellenthorp, near 
Boroughbridge, which is still stand- 
ing. Near to Ellenthorp Hall, Lady 



Brook built a small chapel in the 
year 1658, of a somewhat orna- 
mental character. Afterwards the 
family left Ellenthorp for the neigh- 
bourhood of London. 

There is no accurate account of 
the first ministers at Ellenthorp. 
Rev. Richard Frankland is stated 
by Calamy * to have resided in Mr. 
Brook's family, and to have preached 
here for a short time, before his 
ejectment. After 1662, the Rev. 
Noah Ward, who lived at Askham, 
three miles from York (and was 
assistant to Rev. Ralph Ward, at 
York), apparently succeeded him, 
preaching in York, Selby, and 
Ellenthorp in rotation. Ellenthorp 
had the benefit of his services till 
1669. f 

Lady Brook gave .£500 for the 
support of " a preaching minister," 
probably on some arrangement 
similar to that at Bramhope (see 
page 243). The interest of this 
sum, .£20 per annum, was paid 
by Lord Grantley within the pre- 
sent century. 

1674. R ev - Cornelius Todd, 
eldest son of Rev. Robert Todd, 
of Leeds. He was a pupil, at 
Cambridge, of Rev. David Clark- 
son (see p. 243), and was ejected 
from Bilton. He had been one of 
the ministers at Mill Hill, Leeds. 
Before and after this he lived at 
Helaugh Manor, Tadcaster, through 
the kindness of Lord Wharton, who 
allowed him £8 per annum during 
life. He was seized whilst preach- 
ing at the house of John Disney, 
Esq., and sent to Pontefract, w T here 
close confinement put an end to his 
life June 29, 1696, aet. 65. 

Rev. James Taylor (Franklands 
Acy.). " He endeavoured," says 
Calamy, " to live his predecessor 

* VoJ. ii. p. 1 7 7. 

f Cop. Register, Vol. xiii. p. 125. 

over again in humility and thank- 
fulness." He died Feb. 11, 1743, 
ast. 73. His daughter was married 
to Rev. T. Gardner, of Low Row. 
He had eighty hearers in 171 5. 

Rev. Josiah Owen, from Roch- 
dale. " His powers of retort were 
very great, and he had ample use 
for them. He usually came off 
victorious in the contest. This 
talent procured for him the admi- 
ration of his own party, while it 
made him dreaded and avoided by 
the High Church. He was author 
of several works, religious and 
political."* He died 1755, aet. 44. 

Rev. — Brookesbank. 

Rev. Dr. Wood. He is said to 
have been previously a physician 
at Darlington. He removed to 

Rev. — Kemp. Though he was 
a pious and excellent man, his 
hearers were extremely few. He 
died shortly after his settlement. 

Rev. — Conyngham. During 
his residence the congregation pre- 
sented .ew signs of vitality. He 
preached irregularly at Knares- 
borough, then nominally united to 
Ellenthorp. He was at length in- 
capacitated by a lingering disorder. 
Before his death 

Rev. William Howell (Shrews- 
bury Acy.) settled at Knaresborough, 
and preached once a fortnight at 
Ellenthorp, the congregation of 
which was then in a state of great 
ignorance and deadness. After 
labouring unsuccessfully for a con- 
siderable time, he was about to 
retire from so discouraging a work, 
when suddenly a revival took place, 
and his prospects of usefulness here 
became bright. He appears to have 
relinquished Ellenthorp about 1 8 1 2. 

1 812. Rev. — Norris. He 

* On the authority of the late Rev. ]. 
I Allason, Low Row. 



was pastor here for thirty years, 
and died March 1, 1842. 

1842. Rev. George Cragg, as 
pastor of Boroughbridge, to which 
Ellenthorp was now united. 

Rev. George Dunn, in the same 

Rev. J. E. Cullen, in the same 

In the year 1857 the preaching 
at Ellenthorp was discontinued. 
The payment of the endowment 
has long ceased. The chapel is 
now in a state of ruin. 



This chapel was erected in 1858. 
It will seat about 300 persons. 
The ministers have been — 

1858. Rev. Alexander Scott. 

1859. Rev. C. T.Trigg, from 
Seaford, Sussex, the present minister. 
Eston receives aid from the trustees 
of Lady Hewley. Lazenby is united 
with Eston. 


(congregational. ) 

Congregation formed 1856. The 
present minister is Rev. G. Potter. 



There was a Mr. Shaw here in 
1697, to whom Mr. Stretton sent 
£2 half-yearly. 

Rev. Thomas Johnson, one of 
the ejected ministers, who lived at 
Painthorp, and preached at Idle, 
officiated here for some time, and 
his congregation received aid from 
the Presbyterian Fund, 1702. The 
w^hole, perhaps, was broken up at 
his death. 

So says Hunter (MSS.). There 

was, however, a chapel at Flock ton 
built by a Mr. Cudworth, of whom 
Thoresby (MSS.) gives the follow- 
ing information : — 

" Cudworth was born at Flockton 
of poor parents. At first he worked 
in the coal-pits, and saved money, 
his wife assisting him to draw coals, 
and his daughter guiding the horses 
when loaded. He purchased an 
estate, gave his daughter £i,yoo 
as her portion (she married a Mr. 
Rhodes, who built a family hall 
at Flockton). He also built a 
chapel ( with ceiled pews,' and 
maintained a preaching minister 
during his life, and then endowed 
it. He also built an almshouse for 
four poor widows. He died about 
seventeen years since. This account 
I received this 4th September, 1 706, 
from Widow Parker, and confirmed 
by Lydia Barber, our servant, who 
have both been in the said chape), 
which is a very curious one." 



About 1800, a few persons 
assembled here for prayer in the 
house of one of Mr. Toothill's 
members. A place was then 
licensed, and ministers were in- 
vited to preach. At length a 
chapel was built, which was 
opened 1802. A church was 
formed April 7, 1803. The 
following have been ministers : — 

1803. Rev. Joseph Kirby. 
Removed to Lewes about 1809. 

1 81 3. Rev. William Henry 

1821. Rev. John Edward 
Cullen, from Caistor. He re- 
mained three or four years. 

1825. Rev. Joseph Evans. He 
continued for two years. 

1833. Rev. John Sowerby. 



Messrs. Cockin, Ryan, Boothroyd, 
and Eccles took part in his ordina- 
tion (Sept. 11). Mr. Sowerby 
was minister during nearly twenty 

1 85 1. Rev. William Catton, 
from Malton. He remained four 
years. There is now no minister. 

(See Ossett.) 

(congregational. ) 

A chapel was built at Foston in 

This chapel is private property 
belonging to the family of Stotts, 
who have a burial-place in con- 
nection with it. It became after- 
wards associated with Frodingham, 
where a chapel was built in 1821. 
The ministers have been — 

Rev. William Drum. 

Rev. J. Moase. 

Rev. W. Oram. Here in 1821. 

Rev. William Hayden. Mr. 
Hayden emigrated to Canada. 

1839. Rev. S. J. Stirmey. 

1840. Rev. J. Protheroe. Left 
the same year for Bingley. 

Rev. D. Sunderland. 

Rev. D. Richardson. Left for 

1853. Rev. John Hutchin 
(Cotton End Acy.). The present 

Beeford is connected with Frod- 
ingham. A chapel was erected 
here in 18 10. 


(See Sedberg.) 


(See Dewsbury.) 

* Communicated by Rev. J. Hutchin. 



This place was one of those 
visited by O. Heywood. He 
mentions keeping a fast here 
Oct. 20, 1679, together with Mr. 
Dawson, Mr. Holdsworth, and 
many more. 

In the year 1826, some members 
of the Independent Church at Cleck- 
heaton, with others at Heckmond- 
wike, united to build a chapel at 
Gomersal on land given by Mr. 
James Burnley. The building cost 
upwards of ^1,300, but has since 
been enlarged and beautified. The 
original school-room, on part of 
the above land, the remainder of 
which forms the front burial-ground, 
was erected at the sole expense of 
Mr. J. B. Another piece of land 
adjoining was bought by the con- 
gregation, and on part of it a 
parsonage-house was subsequently 
erected, and the school-room in- 
creased to its present dimensions. 
The remainder of the land forms 
the back burial-ground ; and re- 
cently a valuable strip of land has 
been given by the family of the 
late Mr. Thomas Burnley, for 
widening the southern access to 
the chapel, &c. 

1827. Rev. John Hall Cooke 
(formerly assistant to Rev. J. Parsons, 
York). Mr. C. was the active and 
valued secretary of the West Riding 
Home Missionary Society; an office 
which he latterly held for a short 
time in conjunction with the late 
Rev. J. Ely till the death of Mr. 
Cooke, March 21, 1845. 

1845. Rev. Archibald McMil- 
lan (Rotherham Coll.). Mr. M. 
left for Taunton, 1856. 

1856. Rev. James Adolphus 

* Aided by information from Rev. J. A. 



Savage (Highbury Coll.) from 
Wilsden. Mr. Savage is secretary 
to Airedale College and the West 
Riding Provident Society, as also 
Acting-Trustee to Balme's Charity. 



The chapel at Goole was erected 
in the year 1 83 1, and opened 12th 
April, 1832. The pastors have 
been — 

December 28, 1828. Rev. H. 
Earl. Mr. E. was a missionary 
under the West Riding Missionary 
Society. He commenced his 
labours in a room of the Lowther 
Hotel. Mr. E died June 13, 

January 25, 
Hunt. ' Mr. H. 
became pastor. 
June 26, 1852. 
chapel is a re-erection 
opened March 14, 1847. 

May 25, 1854. Rev 
Gladstone, from Horncastle. 
G. is the present minister. 

846. Rev, E. 

was at first 

He afterwards 

He resigned 


it was 





This chapel originated in the 
efforts of the West Riding Itine- 
rant Society. It was opened in 
1 8 1 2. Many difficulties accom- 
panied the first movements of the 
congregation. These were, how- 
ever, surmounted, and the chapel 
is now free from encumbrance. 

The successive ministers have 
been — 

1 81 2. Rev. John Calvert (of 
Idle Acy.). Mr. Calvert was a 

* Communicated. 

very laborious and successful 
minister, and a considerable con- 
gregation was gathered under his 
ministry. After six years he left 
for Colne. 

1818. Rev. R. Aspinall. "His 
ministry was attended by a large 
share of the Divine blessing." He 
also removed to Colne. 

1822. Rev. R. Harper. "His 
preaching was distinguished for 
variety in the choice of subjects, 
and great power in the treatment 
of them. The attention of the 
people was arrested, and great 
good was the result." Mr. H. 
was seized on Sunday evening 
after service with a fit, and died 
in consequence. He was interred 
in the chapel. 

" Since his death, the chapel has 
been mainly supplied by students 
and others. Some ministers have 
been settled for a short time at 
intervals, but nothing has occurred 
calling for special remark." 



The chapel in this village was 
erected in 181 5. It was rebuilt in 
1865-6. For many years there 
was service only in the evening. 
Many of the people from the vil- 
lage came over on the Sabbath 
morning to Masbro', remained for 
the morning and afternoon service, 
and returning, took with them a 
student from the college to preach 
to them at night. Recently, how- 
ever, this practice has ceased, and 
now there are two services in the 

Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falding. 





The property at Great Hough- 
ton, in the parish of Darfield, 
belonged originally to the family of 
Rich. It afterwards descended to 
the family of Sir Edward Rodes. 
In the civil wars an attack was 
made upon his house (1642). He 
served the Parliament, and accom- 
panied Cromwell to Scotland. In 
1650 a domestic chapel was erected 
near the Hall. O. Heywood 
preached here 1673. After 1662 
the persecuted Nonconformists 
found an asylum at Sir Edward's 
house, and after his death in the 
house of Lady Rodes. Sir Ed- 
ward's daughter suffered from a 
singular disorder, which rendered 
her usually dumb. Lady H. died 
1 68 1, set 72, and her son set 50, 
immediately after. In 1709 died 
Godfrey Rodes, set. 22, "heir to a 
great estate." — North. Reg. 

Heywood mentions several visits 
to this mansion, which is yet stand- 
ing. We take one instance when he 
preached (June 30, 1674), in com- 
pany with Mr. Richardson. " I 
began concerning ' the root of the 
matter.' He went on from Coloss. 
1, 20, on ' fruitfulness in every 
good work.' God ordered our sub- 
jects as if we had purposely cast 
them into the same mould." 

1689. Rev. — Wearum. (See 
p. 118.) 

Rev. Thos. Johnson, M.A., who 
had heretofore been chaplain to 
Sir Edward Rodes, preached here 
monthly at one period after his 
ejection. Another regular preacher 
was Rev. N. Denton, ej. Bolton 
upon Dearn. He received regular 
aid from the Stretton fund, and 
resided at Hickleton. Milner is 
mentioned in the Northowram 

Register as the usual preacher. 
Ob. 1681. 

R. S. Milnes, Esq., ancestor of 
the present Lord Houghton, mar- 
ried Miss Bush, a niece of S. Rich. 
By her the property came into 
the possession of the Milneses of 
Pontefract, and from it Monkton 
Milnes, Esq., derives his present 
title of Lord Houghton. 

Great Houghton was for many 
years associated with the Uni- 
tarian chapel at Doncaster. 

The chapel at Great Houghton 
is now united to the Church of 
England. The mansion, with all 
the traces of former opulence, is 
now a road-side inn. 


united with green hammerton. 


The church was formed April 
20, 1800, of eight persons who 
had been members at Knares- 
borough, and five others. 

The ministers have been : — 

Nov. 5, 1 80 1. Rev. James 
Jackson. Mr. J. was a devoted 
and useful minister. He received 
an invitation to Heckmondwike, 
which he declined. In 1801 he 
began to preach in the street at 
Great Ouseburn, and soon after 
a house was opened and registered. 
A chapel was built here June 1 8, 
1 8 16. Several ministers went from 
this Society ; among them were 
Rev. J. Potter, Honley, and Rev. 
John Rheeder, Ossett. 

Rev. — Williams. Removed to 
Mallow, Ireland, 1858. 

1858. Rev. William Daniell. 
Left in 1866 for Gawthorpe. 

The pulpits are now vacant. 



(See Ripon.) 



Here is a school-room, used as a 
chapel, of old standing, and in- 
teresting, as it has been an object 
of contention between Churchmen 
and Dissenters for the ownership. 
Grenoside was the birth-place in 
1 716 of the Samuel Walker who 
founded the ironworks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rotherham, who built 
Masbro' Chapel at his own expense, 
and whose son Joshua Walker erected 
Rotherham College. The Walker 
family left an endowment, which 
is still paid to the School-house of 
Grenoside. In 1833, tne R ev * J* 
Robertson was minister at Greno- 
side and Ecclesfield. He was a 
man of singular ability, but of ex- 
treme modesty. Previously there 
had been ministers at Grenoside 
acting also as schoolmasters. There 
is a house for the master's residence, 
and some land. 


This congregation was formed in 

Lazenby was at one time united 
with it. Among the ministers have 
been — 

1826. Rev. S. Blair. 

1832. Rev. J. Gibson. 

1833. Rev. W. Hague (Hox- 
ton Acy.). 

Circ. 1857. Rev. D. W. Pur- 
don (Cotton End). 

1865. Rev. S. Trotman, the 
present minister. 

Hutton-Locras is a branch of 
this station. 

* Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falling, 


We have already spoken of the 
early religious history of Halifax, 
and of the lectures instituted there. 
At the Restoration, Eli Bentley 
(son of Richard Bentley, Sowerby, 
Dean of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge), a college-friend of Hey- 
wood, and at that time minister 
of the parish church, was removed 
from his position, before the passing 
of the Act of Uniformity. Bentley 
was driven by the Five-mile Act 
to Bingley (p. 230). He after- 
wards returned to Halifax, where 
he was licensed to preach at the 
house of Timothy Bentley, his 
brother. He also frequently offi- 
ciated at Sowerby, and elsewhere. 
He died. Aug. 2, 1675. Calamy, 
probably using Hey wood's words, 
characterizes him as "a man of 
good abilities, a solid, serious 
preacher, of a very humble beha- 
viour, very useful in his place, 
and much respected." His widow 
married Rev. Edmund Hough, 
M.A., Vicar of Halifax, 1679. 

After his death, his congregation 
appear to have met at Old Bank- 
top, though many of them regularly 
attended the ministry of Oliver 
Heywood. Heywood preached re- 
gularly at Bank-top on Sunday 
afternoons till 1688. Among 
Heywood's hearers at Northowram 
was John Brearcliffe, an apothecary 
of Halifax. He died 1682, and 
his funeral sermon was preached 
by the then vicar, Dr. Hooke, 
Heywood attending the funeral. 
Ultimately a chapel was erected at — 



It was opened in 1696. Hey- 

* Aided by communications from Rev. 
B. Dale, M.A. 



wood was invited to take part of 
the regular services in the new 
building. This he unwillingly de- 
clined, but preached at its opening. 
The Pastors of Northgate End have 
been — 

1696. Rev. Nathaniel Priest- 
ley. He was one of Frankland's 
pupils, and was ordained, according 
to the Presbyterian form, in 1694, 
at Little Horton, together with 
Jonathan Wright and Accepted 
Lister. He was a member of a 
family well known among the 
Nonconformists in Halifax. He 
is spoken of by Thoresby as "in- 
genious," and by Dunton as " a 
man of good parts and excellent 
abilities, an universal scholar," having 
"a good collection of books." He 
was doubtless a young man of con- 
siderable ministerial qualifications. 
He married a widow, Mrs. Four- 
ness, daughter of John Brearcliffe. 
In 17 1 5, the congregation is re- 
ported to have been in number 
600, sixteen of whom had votes 
for the county. 

When Heywood declined to take 
part with Priestley in the regular 
services at Halifax, Rev. Joseph 
Dawson, of Morley, was invited to 
the alternate duty ; he did not, 
however, consent, preferring to 
remain at Morley. But his son, 
Eli Dawson, of Horton, Bradford, 
undertook what his father had de- 
clined, and Priestley and Daw- 
son regularly exchanged pulpits. 
Priestley died Sept. 5, 1728, and 
was buried in Halifax Church. 
He is described in the Northowram 
Register as " a worthy, eminent 
minister, a great loss especially to 
the congregations at Halifax and 
Bradford." His funeral sermon was 
preached by Rev. T. Dickenson, 
who speaks of his character and 
influence in no common terms. 

After the death of Rev. T. 

Sharp, the congregation of Mill 
Hill, Leeds, had invited Priestley 
to become his successor. But he 
decided against their overtures, at 
the earnest remonstrance of the 
congregations at Halifax and Brad- 

1728. Rev. Eli Dawson suc- 
ceeded to the pastorate. He was 
sole minister till his death in 1 744. 
(see Bradford). A new meeting- 
house was probably erected in his 

1 744. Rev. Samuel Threlkeld, 
from Penrith (educated at Glasgow). 
The mother of Wordsworth, the 
poet, was niece to his wife. His 
daughter was married to Mr. W. 
Rawson (Halifax). Ob. 1766, and 
was buried in the meeting-house. 

1767. Rev. John Ralph, from 
Stamford (educated Hoxton Acy. 
under Dr. Jennings). His daughter 
married Mr. Stansfield (Halifax), 
father of the present M.P. Mr. 
Ralph died 1795, having been 
minister twenty-eight years. 

1795. Rev. Thomas Broadhurst 
(Hoxton Acy.). Removed to Bath 

1797. Rev. John Bickerton 
Dewhirst. His pastorate was 
very brief. 

1798. Rev. Dr. John Jones, 
author of Latin Grammar, and 
Greek and English Lexicon. He 
married a daughter of Dr. Rees. 

1804. Rev. John Williams, 
from Norton, Derbyshire. Re- 
moved 1 810 to Mansfield. 

1 812. Rev. Richard Astley, 
a York student. Removed to Glou- 
cester 1826. 

1827. Rev. Joseph Ashton. 

1828. Rev. William Turner. 
The congregation is now Uni- 



Among the converts of early 
Methodism was the Rev. Titus 
Knight. He laboured for a time 
under Wesley, but became at length 
dissatisfied with the doctrinal views 
he had hitherto preached. Lady 
Huntingdon offered to procure for 
him episcopal ordination, but as 
some friends remained attached to 
his ministry it was resolved to fit 
up two cottages for a chapel and 
the exercise of his ministry among 
them. Mr. Grimshaw, ofHaworth, 
undertook to beg for it, and 
obtained the name of Lady Hun- 
tingdon as his first subscriber. This 
building was in Chapel-fold, Gaol 
Lane. The lease^. bears the date of 
1763. Among his hearers was 
Mrs. Kershaw, whose husband 
attended the then Unitarian chapel 
at Northgate End. He frequently 
accompanied her to listen to Mr. 
Knight, and the opinions of both 
underwent a total change. The 
small chapel soon became crowded, 
and steps were taken by Mr. Ker- 
shaw for the erection of a more 
commodious edifice. Square Chapel 
was accordingly projected. Great 
interest was taken in its erection by 
Rev. H. Venn, then at Hudders- 
field, who raised a contribution in 
its behalf amounting to £ 1 70. The 
chapel was opened in May, 1772. 
Its cost was over ^2,000. The 
style of the building, so much sur- 
passing most chapels of its day, 
excited not a little remark, espe- 
cially among some of the London 
dissenters, who were solicited for 
aid. A letter from Ezekiel Off- 
wood, dated London, Jan. 24, 
1792, says : — " The Londoners are 
displeased at Mr. Knight's grand 

* Aided by Rev. B. Dale, M. A. 

meeting. One minister said to 
me, ' It was pride ;' the door-post 
and lintell, he was told, cost £50, 
and the pulpit ^100." In his 
memoirs of his father, Rev. John 
Cockin says : " The transition 
from the Conventicle in Jail Lane 
to the New Square Chapel was per- 
haps as great as minister and con- 
gregation ever made." 

The ministers have been : — 

1772. Rev. Titus Knight. He 
was a stirring, energetic, and useful 
preacher. He was much associated 
with Whitefield, at whose chapels 
he regularly preached during two 
months in each year. He wrote 
the epitaph on Whitefield's monu- 
ment in Tottenham Court Chapel, 
London. He was the author of 
several publications, among which 
were two volumes of sermons, 
"Dialogues on Important Subjects,'' 
&c. He resigned Sept. 13, 1791, 
and died at Halifax the following 
year, aged 74. 

Mr. Kershaw was, during Knight's 
ministry, deacon of the church. 
His coadjutor in that office was 
Mr. Hodgson, whose father was a 
prominent member of the congre- 
gation at Heckmondwike. 

1792. Rev. Joseph Cockin 
(Heckmondwike Acy.) from Thorn- 
ton. He was a fearless, zealous, 
able, and devoted minister. He 
preached annually at some of 
the large chapels in London, 
where his ministry was very 
acceptable and useful. He also 
preached before the London Mis- 
sionary Society in 1798, and was 
largely occupied in public ser- 
vices in his own county. He was, 
moreover, a most zealous itinerant 
(see p. 176.) Before his death a 
separation of part of his congrega- 
tion took place, and Sion Chapel 
was built for their accommodation. 

1828. Rev. John Barling (Hox 



ton Acy.), who had been assist- 
ant to Mr. Cockin since 1827, 
became his successor. He was a 
man of much talent and virtue, 
but, having ultimately adopted 
Unitarian sentiments, relinquished 
his charge, 1833. 

1 834. Rev. Alexander Ewing, 
M.A. On his accession several of 
the members withdrew, and formed 
a new congregation in Harrison 
Road. Mr. Ewing removed to Gos- 
port in 1846. He published in 
1839a volume of discourses. 

At this period the chapel was 
renovated and re-modelled, and day- 
schools were established. 

1848. Rev. Enoch Mellor, 
M.A. (Lancashire Coll., and Edin- 
burgh). During his ministry (1855) 
a new chapel, of large dimensions 
and considerable elegance, was 
erected, the old chapel being fitted 
up for school-rooms. It was 
opened July 15, 1855, ^ e tower 
and adornments being special gifts 
of some of the worshippers. After 
a successful pastorate Mr. M. re- 
moved to Great George Street, 
Liverpool, 1861, 

1862. Rev. Wm. Roberts (of 
Hackney College) from Southamp- 
ton. Mr. Roberts resigned in 1866, 
and became pastor of a church 
at Upper Holloway, London. 

1867. Rev. Enoch Mellor 
returned from Liverpool to his 
former charge, warmly welcomed 
by his congregation. He is the 
present minister. 

In 1852 Messrs. Crossley pur- 
chased a piece of ground, and built 
a school-room at Rangebank, and 
appointed Rev. John Hopkins, of 
RatclifFe Bridge, Lancashire, to 
preach here in 1855. On his 
leaving, he was followed by the 
Rev. B. Bond There is no church, 
but the place is a preaching station 
of Square Chapel. 



The flourishing and crowded state 
of the congregation at the Square 
Chapel led numerous members of 
the church to the conviction that 
an extension was eminently desi- 
rable; and in the year 18 15 pre- 
liminary measures were taken for 
that purpose. They were con- 
ducted, on the part of the seceders, 
in an eminently Christian spirit. 
Accordingly, with the consent of 
Mr. Cockin, Sion Chapel, which 
had been built by the friends of 
Mr. D. Barraclough, who had re- 
moved to Stainland, and was now 
unoccupied, was engaged for a 
period of two years. A church 
was formed consisting of twenty- 
two persons, Rev. E. Parsons, of 
Leeds, presiding, and Rev. W. 
Vint, of Idle, administered the 
Lord's Supper on the following 
Sunday. In 18 16 the chapel was 
purchased and re-modelled, sermons 
being preached by Revs. Joseph 
Fletcher, M.A., Blackburn, S. Brad- 
ley, Manchester, and Dr. Wardlaw- 
A call was then given to Rev. 
E. Parsons, jun., of Homerton 
College, who was ordained in 1 8 1 8. 
Under his ministry, which was ex- 
tremely popular, the congregation 
increased to such a degree that the 
erection of a new chapel was 
deemed essential. A new building 
was consequently resolved on, and 
on May 10, 18 19, the present 
commodious chapel was opened, by 
sermons from Revs. J. A. James, 
Joseph Cockin, and E. Parsons, 

Mr. E. Parsons continued to be 
the minister till 1826, when he 

* By aid of Rev. B. Dale, M.A. 



retired, and took the charge of 
the Weigh House, London. 

1829. Rev. James Pridie (from 
New Windsor, Manchester). Mr. 
Pridie's valuable and acceptable 
ministry continued during nearly 
thirty years. Many additions were 
made to the building during his 
pastorate, to meet the necessities 
which success and development 
occasioned. Vestries, day-schools, 
and enlargements indicated and 
accommodated the increase of the 
congregation. In 1855 Mr. Pridie, 
then advanced in years, was assisted 
by a co-pastor; and in 1858 re- 
signed to him the sole charge. 

1855. Rev. Charles Smith 
Sturrock, B.A. (Spring Hill Col- 
lege). At first co-pastor with 
Mr. Pridie, and afterwards sole 
pastor. Remained till March, 1 862, 
when he resigned, and two years 
afterwards died. 

1 863, Rev. Bryan Dale, M.A, 
(Western College, and London 
University), from Coggeshall, Essex, 
became pastor. He is the present 
minister. In 1866 a Jubilee Me- 
morial Sunday-school was erected, 
and considerable alterations made 
in the chapel. 

A Sunday-school with a preach- 
ing station at Southowram, opened 
1862, is connected with Sion 



In 1836, fifty-two members who 
had seceded from the church at 
Square Chapel were formed into 
a separate church, Aug. 15, by 
Rev. R. W. Hamilton, LL.D., 

* By aid of Rev. J. C. Gray. 

D.D., &c. They at first worshipped 
in the court-house, but resolved 
immediately on the erection of a 
chapel in Harrison Road, which 
was opened July 19, 1837, the offici- 
ating ministers being Rev. J. Pridie, 
Rev. R. W, Hamilton, LL.D., &c, 
Rev. John Harris (Epsom), Rev. 
John Cockin (Holmfirth). The 
pastors have been — 

Aug. 22, 1838. Rev. J. M. 
Obery, M.A. (of Glasgow Univer- 
sity). He retained his charge dur- 
ing eleven years, and removed Nov. 
21, 1849. 

1850. Rev. Peter Russell 
Willans (Lanes. Coll.). Con- 
tinued ill-health compelled him to 
resign his charge in May, 1855. 

1856. Rev. J C. McMichael, 
from Staleybridge. 

1858. Rcv.JamesComperGray 
(Rotherham Coll.), who is the pre- 
sent minister. 



The need of enlarged accommo- 
dation for the increasing population 
of Halifax, prompted the three 
Independent congregations (1864) 
to build, by an united effort, a new 
chapel near to the People's Park, 
Sir F. Crossley generously contri- 
buting ^1,000 towards its erection, 
and laying in 1867 the foundation- 
stone of the building. It is in- 
tended to seat nearly 1 ,000 persons. 
Its style will be the early geometrical 
Gothic. The cost will be about 
£g,ooo, exclusive of school-rooms 
to be added hereafter. It is not 
yet opened for public worship. 





The chapel at Ovenden was 
opened March 24, 1837, by ser- 
mons from Revs. J. Ely, R. W. 
Hamilton, and Jon. Glyde. 

The pastors have been — 

1837. Rev. Edward Leighton, 
from Wigton. He removed to 
Loughborough, Aug. 1840. 

1843. Rev. John Harrison 
(Rotherham Coll.). Removed to 
Douglas, Isle of Man, 1846, and 
afterwards conformed to the Church 
of England. 

1847. Rev. Samuel Shaw 
(Lanes. Coll.). Left for Middle- 
ton, 1855. 

1855. Rev. Timothy East, 
from Birmingham. Removed to 
London, 1857. 

i860. Rev. William Inman. 
Ob. Nov. 15, 1864, and was in- 
terred at Ovenden. 

1868. Rev. Robert Ingall 
Senior (Airedale Coll.). He began 
his ministry after finishing his 
college course. He is the present 



This congregation, an offset from 
Bingley, was formed in the year 
1838, when a chapel was built. 
The church was not, however, 
constituted till three years later. 
Rev. M. A. Wilkinson was for some 
time its pastor. The pulpit is now 


Rev. O. Heywood was an occa- 
sional preacher at Harrogate and 

* By aid of W. Howell, Esq. 

In more recent times, a room 
was engaged for preaching at the 
Hope Inn, High Harrogate, now 
Gascoigne's Hotel. The Rev. W. 
Howell, of Knaresborough, took the 
superintendence, and was assisted 
by students from Rotherham. The 
successive pastors were — 

Rev. T. Wildsmith. 

In 1 82 1 the Cross Chapel was 
built near the Dragon Inn. 

July 1 7, 1 823. Rev. W. Eltring- 
ham (Rotherham College) was or- 

1827. Rev. J. Whitridge. 

In 1 83 1, a new chapel was built 
in Central Harrogate, that being 
supposed to be the situation best 
adapted for a congregation, the 
materials being bought of the 
Episcopalians, who had previously 
purchased the Cross Chapel for a 
national school. After much dis- 
comfort the previous church dis- 
solved itself. 

Rev. H. C. O'Donnoghue. 

After this the chapel was supplied 
during many years by ministers in 
the summer, and by students in the 

The present chapel, which is a 
beautiful and well-placed edifice, 
was opened in 1862. 

1863. Rev. J. H. Gavin. After 
a brief but most effective ministry, 
Mr. G. died Jan., 1868. 


In 1 84 1, the neighbouring minis- 
ters began to preach in rotation at 
this place in a hired room. The 
Congregational Church was formed 
in May, 1843. In 1851 the pre- 
sent chapel was erected. The 
pastors have been — 

1843? Rev. William Palmer. 

* Aided by Rev. A. C. Wood. 



He left in the year 1845 for North- 

1845. Rev. J. W. Rolls (of 
Cotton End Acy.). He removed 
to Kirby-Moorside in 1852. 

1852. Rev. A. C. Wood (of 
Glasgow University), who is the 
present minister. 

Widdale and Bainbridge are two 
important out-stations. The con- 
gregation at the latter place was 
established in 1 8 5 1 as a branch of 
the church at Hawes, and receives 
preaching aid thence, and from the 
minister at West Burton. A chapel 
was built in 1864, with a school- 
room, " where are now gathered 
old and young from Sabbath to 
Sabbath, to hear the words of eternal 



The history of the Heckmond- 
wike congregation is very interest- 
ing. Among those who suffered at 
the ejection in 1662 was Josiah 
Holdsworth, jun.,f educated at 
Cambridge, ejected from Sutton, 
and afterwards chaplain to Sir 
Richard Houghton, of Houghton 
Tower, Lancashire, then an asylum 
for persecuted ministers. In the 
register of TopclifFe he is men- 
tioned as having been received into 
church fellowship in Dec. 1 661, 
so that he was probably ejected at 
the Restoration. It appears that 
about 1672, the time of the Indul- 
gence, he came to reside at Heck- 

His piety, learning, and talents 

* Aided by Rev. A. Mines, B.A., and 
J. B. Oldfield, Esq. 

f His father, Rev. Josiah H., was 
ejected from Poppleton, York. Ob. at 
Wakefield, 1677, aet. 75. 

were considered a blessing by many 
of the inhabitants both of this vil- 
lage and the neighbourhood in 
general. He preached here with 
great acceptance, and his word was 
with power. The people thus 
gathered together were anxious to 
enjoy the ministrations of Mr. 
Holdsworth as their pastor. On 
July 29, 1674, "some persons in 
the parishes of Birstall and Batley, 
and the adjacent parts thereabout," 
who attended " the ministry of Mr. 
Josiah Holdsworth, then resident in 
Heckmondwike, after some mature 
deliberations and seeking of God, 
resolved to enter into covenant 
with him and with one another, 
and to join in church fellowship, 
in that way called Congregational ; 
judging it, according to the light 
God had given them to be the 
most consonant to gospel institu- 
tions,* that they might have more 
close communion, and the enjoy- 
ment of all the ordinances of 
Christ," Mr. Holdsworth preached 
in a farm-house called "The 
Swash." Oliver Heywood visited 
here 1672. 

Nov. 5, 1674. Rev. Josiah 
Holdsworth was set apart as the 
first pastor. He was dismissed 
from TopclifFe, Aug. 24^ 1674^ 
but he often preached at the old 
place when it was without a pastor. 
In 1682 the congregation was only 
able to meet at night. Mr. Holds- 
worth died in 1685, aet. 46. 
Calamy speaks of him as " a man of 

* Marsden (Topcliffe), Bailey (Morley), 
"Whitehurst (Horton), were present at these 

•f- The following entries appear about 
this time: — "'Given to Ab. NaiJor towards 
his charge at Sessions, 00. 05. o. o.,' 5s.; 
paid down for releasing the pastor from 
the hands of Mr. Ashburne, £i 6s. 8d. ; 
laid out for meat on the fast-day, is. id. ; 
laid out at the ordination of Mr. Noble, 
9s. 8d. j for an hour-glass, is." 



great piety, sincerity, strictness, 
and industry for the good of souls, 
and blessed with abundance of 
success. He was much beloved, 
and is still spoken of with great 
respect." He was buried at Top- 
cliffe, but the tombstone exists no 

1686. Rev. David Noble. This 
minister was a Scotchman, born at 
Inverness. His classical attain- 
ments were considerable. He be- 
came a member of the church at 
Topcliffe April 8, 1688, where his 
name occurs as a subscriber of 
2s. 6d., and he opened a school in 
Morley. Among his pupils were 
the two sons of Oliver Heywood, 
who boarded in the house of 
Thomas Dawson, probably father 
of the Morley minister. To this 
seminary Joseph Lister sent his 
son David (1673). Noble after- 
wards became chaplain to 

Woolhouse, Esq., of Glapwell, 
Derbyshire, and he preached there 
and at Sutton. In 1681, after the 
ordination at Sheffield of Rev. 
Timothy Jollie, the ministers pre- 
sent were requested to examine 
the credentials of Mr. David Noble, 
with a view to the ministry. He 
prayed and preached " very pro- 
fitably," and was afterwards ordained 
by two ministers, Reynolds and 
Whitehouse, Nottingham. Five 
years after he was invited by the 
church at Heckmondwike to the 
vacant pulpit, and was dismissed 
from Topcliffe Jan. 19, 1686. A 
second chapel was now built in 
Chapel-fold. The success of Mr. 
Noble rendered the erection of a 
third requisite, opened Nov. 9, 
1 701, on a part of the present site. 
Noble was a great student of pro- 
phecy. He published " The Visions 
and Prophecies of Daniel Ex- 
plained, 1 700," and left behind him 
a large treatise in MSS. on similar 

subjects. He died Nov. 26, 1709, 
and was buried at Dewsbury.* 

1710. Rev. John Kirkby. He 
was admitted to the church and 
chosen its pastor July 5, and was 
soon after ordained. He is men- 
tioned as a recipient of £3 from 
the Hewley fund in 1728 and 1 729. 
He had a school in White Lee, 
Heckmondwike, to which Joseph, 
afterwards Dr. Priestley, the son of 
one of his members, and grandson 
of one of his deacons, Joseph Priest- 
ley, of Fieldhead, was sent. This 
youth, after the death of his mother 
in 1 840, was taken up by his aunt, 
Mrs. Keighley, belonging also to 
the church at Heckmondwike. Her 
husband was distinguished " for his 
zeal for religion and for his public 
spirit;" but he died soon after. 
Dr. Priestley speaks favourably of 
his tutor's abilities, and bears this 
honourable testimony to the state 
of things at Heckmondwike : — 
" Though I saw reason to change 
my opinions, and found myself in- 
commoded by the rigour of the 
congregation with which I was 
connected, I shall always acknow- 
ledge with gratitude that I owe 
much to it. The business of re- 
ligion was effectually attended to 
in it. We were all catechised in 
public till we were grown up, 
servants as well as others ; the 
minister always expounded the 
Scriptures with as much regularity 
as he preached, and there was 
hardly a day in the week in which 
there was not some meeting of one 
or another part of the congregation. 
On one evening there was a meet- 

* The Northowram Register contains 
the following entry : — " Mr. Atkinson, a 
schoolmaster in Heckmondwyke, (died) 
Nov. 19 (1706), aged 83. An old dis- 
ciple, and cast on the town some months 
before $ had 20s. from our people a few 
weeks before his death." 



ing of the young men for conver- 
sation and prayer. This I con- 
stantly attended, praying extempore 
with others called upon. At my 
aunt's there was a monthly meeting 
for women, who acquitted them- 
selves in prayer as well as any of 
the men belonging to the congrega- 
tion. The Lord's Day was kept 
with peculiar strictness. No vic- 
tuals were dressed on that day in 
any family ; no member of it was 
permitted to walk out for recrea- 
tion, but the whole of the day was 
spent at the public meeting, or at 
home in reading, meditation, and 
prayer, in the family or the closet." 
The tombstones of the Priestley 
family still exist at the upper 

The following extract is from 
Rev. T. Scales' MS. life of Rev. 
James Scott : — 

Speaking of Mr. Kirkby's inca- 
pacity through increasing infirmities, 
Mr. S. proceeds — " The church, 
finding it difficult to obtain suitable 
supplies for the pulpits, appointed 
six of its own members, esteemed 
for their piety, knowledge, and 
experience, to conduct the public 
worship of God's house, by prayer 
and the reading of the Holy Scrip- 
tures. This was done so efficiently 
and satisfactorily, that the congre- 
gation was kept together for more 
than a year, and increased rather 
than diminished during that period. 
They obtained the occasional ser- 
vices of ministers known to be 
evangelical ; amongst whom was 
the Rev. John Pye, of Sheffield, 
the maternal grandfather of the 
late Rev. John Pye Smith, so justly 
celebrated for his extraordinary 
attainments and skill in Biblical 
literature and criticism. On one 
of these occasional Sabbaths the 
congregation was favoured with 
the services of Rev. Alvery Jack- 

son, an excellent minister of the 
Baptist denomination, and pastor 
of a church at Barnoldswick, in 
Craven. He was a friend of Mr. 
Kirkby, their minister, and had 
learned from him their destitution 
as a church, and felt much con- 
cerned on their behalf. He selected 
for his text Rev. xiv. 6, " And I 
saw another angel," &c. When he 
had concluded his sermon, Mr. Jack- 
son said to the congregation that he 
had good news for them ; that he 
knew a faithful minister who would 
suit them, and that he was the only 
minister he had met for many years 
who was well qualified to minister 
to such a people. He alluded to 
Mr. Scott, then at Tockholes, 
whose neighbour and friend he 
had been during the whole period 
of his ministry in Horton, and 
whose worth he had the best 
opportunities of knowing and 
appreciating. They had lived on 
very intimate terms, often visiting 
each other, and preaching for each 
other — " par no bile fratrum." It 
was such an introduction and com- 
mendation as Paul might have 
given to his son Timothy, of to 
his brother and companion-in- 
labour and fellow-soldier, Epaphro- 
ditus. (See Phil. ii. 19 — 25.) 
Under the impression produced 
by the testimony of Mr. Jackson, 
the people selected two of their 
brethren, and sent them over to 
Tockholes, where Mr. Scott was 
then settled, that they might hear 
his preaching, and by free conver- 
sation with him in private, form 
an opinion of his character, his 
doctrinal sentiments, and mini- 
sterial qualifications, and, if satisfied, 
might give him an invitation to 
visit Heckmondwike, and spend 
a Sabbath among them. The 
messengers deputed on this service 
were highly gratified with all they 




heard, and invited Mr. S. as they 
had been authorized. This appears 
to have been Nov. 12, 1752. His 
text was Acts x. 29 : " Therefore 
I came to you without gainsaying, 
as soon as I was sent for ; I ask, 
therefore, for what intent ye have 
sent for me." In this sermon he 
made known what they must ex- 
pect from him should he become 
their minister. ' He did not ob- 
trude himself; he was sent for; 
their application appeared to justify 
his undertaking the journey ; he 
came without gainsaying. The 
purposes were important, and he 
accordingly laid before them the 
duties he should hold himself 
bound to discharge.' The sermon 
made a powerful impression. 

Nothing, however, was done 
hastily. A correspondence ensued 
between Mr. Scott and Mr. Priest- 
ley, one of the deacons. Mr. S. 
seems to have regarded the public 
exhortations of the "gifted breth- 
ren " with some uneasiness. But 
the mention of difficulties only in- 
creased the eagerness of the people 
to obtain him, and at a church 
meeting Feb. 5, 1753, he was 
unanimously invited to become 
their minister. The next day Mr. 
Kirkby, the enfeebled pastor, 
signed an earnest request that 
Mr. Scott would be deterred by 
no difficulties arising out of the 
lay agency, and bearing testimony 
to the readiness of the people to 
promote the comfort of their 
minister. But Scott still hesitated, 
and the people employed the advo- 
cacy of Rev. E. Hitchin, of White 
Row, London (whose relatives re- 
sided near) and Rev. J. Pye, of 
Sheffield, to represent their case, 
and to urge the acceptance of the 
invitation. But not until a letter 
arrived from Thomas Armitage, a 
ruling elder, one of " the gifted 

brethren " who constituted his diffi- 
culty, did Scott see his way clear 
to accept the invitation. This he 
did about the beginning of 1754. 
On Feb. 14, the aged Mr. Kirkby 
died, and was buried near the meet- 
ing house, aet. 77. He was pastor 
nearly forty-four years. He had 
seven sons and six daughters. His 
sentiments were probably a little 
Arianised. Mr. Scott removed 
from Tockholes on May 29, and 
the 30th was set apart as a day of 
fasting and prayer, in acknowledg- 
ment of the new relationship. 
The whole affair had been sixteen 
months in agitation. So earnest, 
faithful, and experienced a pastor 
as Mr. Scott was a great gain to 
any church, especially when Evan- 
gelical preachers were extremely 

1754. Rev. James Scott. His 
recognition took place June 30. 
His ministry was well received, 
and soon proved abundantly useful. 
(Of his Academy we have spoken 
elsewhere.) " As a faithful mini- 
ster of Christ," says Rev. H. Bean, 
tl he was instant in. "season and out 
of season; and he saw that the 
pleasure of the Lord prospered in 
his hands. The church increased 
and the congregation enlarged, until 
the chapel, built for Mr. Noble, 
could not contain the anxious and 
listening multitudes who came to 
hear Mr. Scott, for he was beloved 
by those who knew him, but he 
lived in the affections of his own 

Mr. Scott, however, did not 
arrive at this happy conclusion 
without many severe struggles. 
His apprehensions from " the 
gifted brethren " turned out true, 
and two of them rendered his 
ministry, soon after its commence- 
ment, a bed of thorns. The Sande- 
manian heresy greatly troubled the 



members, till at a church gathering 
held Nov. 5, 1759, four of the mem- 
bers withdrew, and set up a meeting 
in the village of Ossett, with Thomas 
Armitage as their preacher. After 
six years, their congregation was 

On Nov. 29, 1 76 1, a new and 
more commodious chapel was 
erected. This was subsequently 
enlarged by additional galleries 
or "lofts," as they were then 

Mrs. Scott, who was a woman 
of some property, died 1763, aet. 
63, and was buried in the chapel- 

Mr. Scott is said not to have 
been a man of extensive erudi- 
tion, but a profound divine and a 
masterly expositor. His addresses 
at the Lord's Supper were un- 
usually powerful. Till his last 
illness, his health was extraor- 
dinarily good, and he had never 
during his ministry been suspended 
from preaching by illness. At 
length he entirely lost all appetite 
for solid food. He died Jan. 1 1, 
1783, in the thirtieth year of his 
pastorate. His funeral sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Jon. Toothill 
(Hopton), his pupil and friend, and 
was published (see p. 279). Mr. 
Scott's residence was at Southfield. 

1785. Rev. William Booker. 
His course was short. On April 1 2, 
1786, "he left the pulpit before 
the sermon, and never preached 
again as the pastor of the church." 
A. division took place, and the 
Lower Chapel was built for his 

1786. Rev. Obadiah Bennett. 
He continued five years and a half, 
and resigned April, 1792. 

1794. Rev. Thomas Hale 
(Oswestry Acy.), from Greenacres. 
"I have often heard," says Rev. 
H. Bean, " that during his life he 

felt discouraged because his labours 
were not followed with a greater 
amount of success. For a long 
time after his death, seldom were 
persons received into this church 
who did not make honourable 
mention of his name, while most 
of them acknowledged that they 
had either received their first re- 
ligious impressions, or had derived 
spiritual advantage from his mini- 
stry; thus proving that the extent 
of a minister's usefulness is not 
known to him in this life." After 
a pastorate of twenty-seven years, 
Mr. Hale died May 17, 1821. 
Rev. J. Jackson (of Green Ham- 
merton) was next invited, but de- 

1822. Rev. Henry Bean (Idle 
Acy.). Ordained Sept. 1, 1824. 
Revs. Messrs. Waterhouse, Vint, 
Hudswell (Morley), Parsons (Leeds), 
Jos. Cockin, and Jas. Parsons being 
engaged in the services. During 
thirty-eight years Mr. Bean was 
the faithful, laborious, and earnest 
minister of an increasing congre- 
gation, where, as Mr. Parsons said 
in his funeral sermon, he made no 
enemies and lost no friends. 

A new and greatly enlarged 
chapel was erected in the year 
1844, the foundation-stone being 
laid by Miss Parsons, of StainclifFe 
Hall. To this were added new 
day and Sunday-schools, 1858. 

Mr. Bean died 1862. For two 
years the church was without a 

1864. Rev. Allan Mines, B.A, 
(London Univ. and Springhill 
Coll.), the present minister. 

In the early part of Mr. Scott's 
ministry, and, it is probable, in 
imitation of the " prophesyings " 
and " exercises " which had been 
familiar to our Puritan forefathers, 
the " Heckmondwike Lecture " 
had been established. This insti- 
T % 



tution was ostensibly associated with 
the anniversary of Mr. Scott's Aca- 
demy, of which we have spoken 
elsewhere, and was the occasion of 
gathering together the ministers of 
the vicinity for mutual intercourse 
and conference. A double lecture 
was part of the programme, and 
sermons were preached by men of 
eminence in the adjacent districts. 
At a time when such gatherings 
were rare, the opportunity was one 
of considerable importance. The 
sermons were usually of peculiar 
excellence, and at the dinner which 
followed matters were discussed 
which involved the interests of the 
Congregational body. In process 
of time, a minister was scarcely 
accredited until he had passed the 
ordeal of preaching the Heckmond- 
wike Lecture. So great was the 
interest excited in the neighbour- 
hood, that at length a " wake," or 
"fair," was originated, and still 
continues. The lapse of time, and 
the more frequent gatherings of 
modern times, have somewhat 
diminished the glory of the great 
occasion. But it still continues to 
be an interesting convocation, no 
longer confined, indeed, to one 
congregation, but divided among 
the bodies which have sprung from 
the parent stock. 




This chapel was built in the 
year 1786, and was calculated to 
seat 800 persons. It originated 
with Rev. W. Booker (see p. 275). 
The following have been pastors — 

1786. Rev. Wm. Booker, from 
the Upper Chapel. He left in 

After a vacancy of several years, 

1 797. Rev. Joseph Kerby, from 
Lady Huntingdon's Connexion. He 
was afterwards at Wigan. In 1802, 
Mr. K. removed to Flockton, and 
afterwards to Lewes. 

1802. Rev. William Honey- 
wood. He resigned his charge in 
1 8 14, though he continued to re- 
side at Heckmondwike till his death 
in 1820. 

1 8 14. Rev. Spedding Curwen 
(of Rotherham College). He re- 
moved to Cottingham in 18 19, and 
thence to London. 

1 820. Rev. Joseph Mather (of 
Homerton College). Unpleasant 
circumstances in the congregation 
caused him to resign his charge in 
1825. He accepted an invitation 
to Cockermouth. 

1827. Rev. Robert Martin (of 
Idle Academy), from Ripon. He 
was minister for twenty-five years 
till his melancholy death in 1852. 

1854. Rev. David Horne, B.A. 
(Airedale). He removed to Sun- 
derland 1856. 

1856. Rev. Mark Howard 
(Airedale), who is the present 

A new chapel, Westgate, was 
built 1865-6 on the site of the 
former Lower Chapel. It has 
1,000 sittings, with new school- 
room and class-room, and accom- 
modation for 600 children. 


Opened April 6, 1855. En- 
larged and re-opened on the 21st 
January, 1863. Will seat about 
1,000 to 1,100. 

Sept. i860. Rev. R. Bowman 
(Airedale Coll.), from Melbourne, 
Australia. Mr. B. died Sept. 4, 

There is now no minister. 





This congregation had its origin 
in 1766. It is now connected 
with the Lancashire Union. 

Rev. Benj. Sowden was for 
some time minister, and was buried 

Rev. John Gawler. 

18 1 5. Rev. H. Driver. Ord. 
1 817. He was minister for forty- 
three years. Died June 14, i860. 



The congregation at Holmfirth 
was one of the consequences of the 
seed sown by Rev. H. Venn. 
Many hearers from the neighbour- 
hood attended his ministry ; but 
the distance was inconvenient, and 
there was a natural desire to have 
the preaching of the gospel within 
an easier reach. 

As the Calvinists were, how- 
ever, few in number, and the 
Methodists in the neighbourhood 
were the same, an union was formed 
between them, and a place for wor- 
ship was opened at Netherthong, 
at which each party preached on 
alternate Sundays. But this ar- 
rangement " proved unsatisfactory. 
The diversities of doctrine led to 
unpleasant conflicts ; and at length 
the Independents relinquished their 
position, and held worship in a 
cottage, until, after many difficul- 
ties, a chapel was erected in Holm- 
firth in 1778, and a Congregational 
Church formed. 

The following have been the 
pastors : — 

1779. ^ ev ' Robert Galland 

* Information incomplete. 
f Aided by Rev. J. Colville. 

(of Heckmondwike Acy.), from Il- 
keston. He was pastor upwards 
of twenty years, and was compelled 
at length to retire from failing 
health. He died Jan. 12, 1801, 
set. 62. 

1800. Rev. Thomas Burton 
(Rotherham Acy.). He was warmly 
received, but his course was brief. 
He died Jan. 26, 1801, on 
the day that Rev. Mr. Toothill 
preached the funeral sermon of his 

1802. Rev. John Hammond 
(Rotherham Acy.). As the call 
was not unanimous, his settlement 
was unpropitious. After three 
years he removed to Handsworth, 
where he still lives. 

1806. Rev. John Cockin (Idle 
Acy.). He was minister during 
forty-three years, and was well 
known in the Riding as an active 
and Evangelical expounder of truth. 
He was frequently employed on 
public occasions, and was an ener- 
getic itinerant in the district. Du- 
ring his ministry the chapel was 
twice enlarged, the chapel-house 
improved, two school-rooms were 
built, and additional burial-ground 
bought, the whole at a cost of 
£1500. Mr. Cockin's defective 
person rendered him unable to 
walk much, or even to sit steadily 
on horseback ; he is said to have 
fallen 200 times from his horse, yet 
he never sustained serious injury. 
During some years he was a 
preacher annually at Hoxton Chapel, 
London, where his services were 
much esteemed. He had a great 
love for literature, in some branches 
of which he was well read. He 
published a life of his father, Joseph 
Cockin, and a work entitled, " Re- 
flections after Reading," which has 
considerable merit. He died at 
Halifax, being then a retired mini' 
ster, Oct. 17, 1 861, aet. 78. 



1849. Rev. James Macfarlane 
(Glasgow Univ.), from White- 
haven. During his pastorate the 
chapel-house was rebuilt, and a 
school-room erected at Burnlee, at 
a cost of about ^600. He removed 
in February, 1855, to Windsor. 

1856. Rev. Robert Willan. 
Many improvements in the pre- 
mises were made during his mini- 
stry, costing £500. In 1 86 1 he be- 
came pastor of the church at Egham, 
Surrey, where he still remains. 

1862. Rev. James Macfarlane. 
Having through ill-health resigned 
his ministry at Windsor, he was 
invited to resume his pastorate at 
Holmnrth. In 1865, however, his 
health again failed, and in 1866 he 
resigned, and soon after died at 
Blackness, Scotland. 

1866. Rev. John Colville 
(Lancashire Coll.), the present 


(now congregational.) 

The removal from Huddersfield 
of the Rev. H. Venn, especially 
when he was followed by a suc- 
cessor so unlike himself, was the 
cause of grievous distress to all who 
had attended on his ministry, and 
ultimately led to the formation of 
many societies, who obtained the 
aid of occasional preachers. Such 
was the origin of the congregation 
at Honley. 

Honley had enjoyed, before 
1662, the ministry of Rev. David 
Drury, a man (as Calamy says) 
ft eminent for piety and for his gift 
in prayer." His successor in the 
church was a man who in his dying 
hours confessed himself to be desti- 
tute of all religion. This acknow- 
ledgment was made to O. Hey wood, 

* By aid of Rev, H, Hustwick. 

under whose former preaching at 
Honley this clergyman had been 
much impressed, and he now 
lamented that he had taken up the 
ministry for a livelihood, and was 
an unconverted and debauched 
man. Heywood spoke to him ear- 
nestly and prayed with him, out 
with the conviction that " profane 
preachers are the most unlikely to 
be wrought upon." He then left 
him ; he had travelled eight miles 
over bad roads to visit him. Before 
he could repeat his visit the man 
had died, without sign of penitence. 

After Venn's removal, the pious 
people of Honley worshipped for 
a time under the ministry of the 
Rev. W. Moorhouse, of Hudders- 
field. About 1795, however, the 
Rev. George Richardson, having 
then resigned his charge at Peniston, 
was invited to Honley, and preached 
during the feast-week at the house 
of Mr. Benj. Littlewood. A con- 
gregation was thus begun, and 
soon a chapel arose on a site pre- 
sented by Mr. L. It was opened 
July 31, 1795, w i tn sermons by 
Revs. E. Parsons (Leeds), and 
Joseph Cockin (who was a native 
of Honley, and had taken great 
interest in the preliminary move- 
ments). The chapel was at first 
open to all denominations ; but the 
arrangement proved unsatisfactory, 
and a majority at length assigned it 
to the Independents upon the pay- 
ment by them of an adjudicated 
sum. This was in 1798. The 
ministers have been — 

1795. Rev. George Richard- 
son, from Peniston. In 1799 he 
removed to Chowbank, Lanes. 

1800. Rev. John Hampshire. 
He remained seven years, and re- 
moved in 1807 to Padfield, Lanes. 

1808. Rev. Robinson Pool 
(Idle Acy.). During his useful 
ministry a gallery was erected, and 



the debt on the chapel liquidated. 
Mr. Pool left for Kipping 1 8 1 7. 

1 8 1 8. Rev. James Potter (Ro- 
therham Acy.). A chapel-house 
was erected 18 19; an enlargement 
of the burial-place was made in 1830, 
and in 1839 a g°°d school-room 
was added. Mr. Potter was the 
acceptable and faithful pastor of his 
flock during thirty-four years. He 
resigned in 1852, and still survives. 

1855. Rev. George Eustace, 
from Nuneaton. He removed 
1857, and conformed to the Esta- 
blished Church, and is now incum- 
bent at Hepstonstall. 

1858. Rev. Edward Potter 
(Oberlin Coll., U. S.) He left 
May, i860, and resides at Tod- 
morden, without pastoral charge. 

1862. Rev. Henry Hustwick, 
from Great Ayton, Cleveland. In 
1864 the chapel was remodelled 
and greatly improved. Mr. H. is 
the present minister. 



The congregation at Hopton 
arose out of the labours of the Rev. 
Richd. Thorp, who, during the 
rule of Cromwell, resided at 
Hopton Hall, and was a man of 
considerable property. Heywood 
visited him very frequently. He 
refused to conform at the Restora- 
tion, but maintained Divine service 
in his own house till his death, 
which took place on the 6th of Jan., 
1 7 16, at Lees Hall, near Thornhill, 
which he had recently purchased. 
In 1 716 the worshippers were 
sixty persons. Service was con- 
tinued by his son, Rev. Daniel 
Thorp, after the death of his 
father. He died suddenly, March 

* Aided by Rev. J. Cameron. 

11, 1 719, and was buried at 
Mirfield. Mr. Winn and Mr. 
Holdsworth, two young ministers, 
preached for a short time at Hop- 
ton after his removal. They were 
succeeded by Rev. Elkanah Berry, 
who died 1721 ; then by Mr. 
White. A legacy of £5 per 
annum had been left by Mrs. Hut- 
ton, daughter of Richard Thorp, 
and wife of Richard Hutton, Pud- 
sey, to maintain the ministry at 
Hopton. As this legacy required 
residence, and Mr. White was not 
able to comply with the condition, 
he removed. His place was sup- 
plied by Rev. Nathaniel Makeant, 
who preached for some time. But 
after the death of Rev. Richard 
Thorp, the Lord's Supper ceased to 
be administered, and there was no 
regular chapel. 

In 1732, worship having been 
discontinued at Hopton, and notice 
having been given by the trustees 
that in default of its resumption 
Mrs. Hutton's * legacy would 
be forfeited, a Mr. Dawson, 
formerly a deacon at Heckmond- 
wike, commenced a movement for 
a chapel, himself giving two guineas 
as a subscription. The case was 
laid before neighbouring congrega- 
tions, and was afterwards sent to 
London. The petition represented 
that this ancient church had been 
reduced to great weakness ; that the 
congregation worshipped in a house, 
and that, could a chapel be secured, 
there was a prospect of obtaining 
both a minister and a congregation. 
It was addressed to Christians of 
the Presbyterian and Congrega- 
tional bodies, and was signed by 
Jonathan Firth, Samuel Hirst, Luke 
Sheard, William Dawson (after- 

* Mrs. Hutton's bequests were made 
to TopclifTe, Heckmondwike, Bingley, 
Kipping, Sowerby, Idle, and deck- 



wards deacon), Joseph Sheard 
(afterwards deacon), John Turton, 
John Simm, Edward Ledgard, 
Richard Lee, Isaac Farrer, and 
John Oxley. The wife of Richard 
Lee was extremely zealous in 
promoting this movement, which 
was attended by gratifying success. 
The Rev. Mr. Boyes, Presbyterian 
minister, of Leather Lane, son of a 
Yorkshireman, and who had been 
himself a student of Frankland's, 
was the first giver of four guineas. 
Dr. Watts, and his assistant, Mr. 
Price, a student of Jollie, followed, 
succeeded by Dr. Wright, Dr. 
Harris, Dr. Hatfield, Mr. Wood, 
and Dr. Guyse. The London con- 
tributions amounted to ^52 8s. 6d. 
Collections were made in the neigh- 
bourhood, which realized the sum 
of ^35 4s. 3-ld, which, with 
£17 1 8s. 6d. at Hopton, made the 
total of £105 us. 3^-d. The 
expenses of the erection were 
£115 16s. 8d. 

The chapel being now built 
(1733), the next movement was to 
form a church on Congregational 
principles, the old Presbyterian 
elements having died out. This 
was done on the 3rd October, the 
first pastor being — 

1733. Rev. John Towers, 
from Greenhowhill, near Pateley 
Bridge He had been previously 
ordained. At that time only 
Jonathan Firth and John Turton 
(afterwards deacon) survived of the 
original Presbyterian church. Wm. 
Dawson was the first deacon, 
having formerly sustained that office 
in the church at Heckmondwike. 

"Mr. Towers appears to have 
been a most worthy and devoted 
man, and his ministry was very 
useful and blessed." He died June 
3, ] 74.5, having been pastor nearly 
thirteen years. His remains were 
interred in the chapel. 

1746. Rev. George Hagger- 
ston, from Keighley. Mr. H. was 
a scholar, but held some views 
regarded as questionable, though 
he afterwards modified them. Mr. 
H.'s income was very small, and 
rendered it necessary for him to 
keep a school. Dr. Priestley was 
one of his pupils. Mr. H. re- 
moved to Ossett, 1765. 

The pulpit was now occupied 
by various ministers. 

1766. Rev. Luke Prattman 
(Heckmondwike Acy.). He re- 
mained two years, and removed to 
Cotherstone, and afterwards to Bar- 
nard Castle, Durham. Hediedi8o4. 

1768. Rev. Jonathan Toot- 
hill (Heckmondwike). When Mr. 
T. accepted the invitation to Heck- 
mondwike he took a step contrary 
to all his previous inclinations. 
" The chapel was cold and damp. 
The hearers were few. The yard 
was overgrown with grass. In fact, 
the whole aspect of the place was 
uninviting to a young man. But 
so acceptable did Mr. T.'s services 
prove, that his settlement was 
marked by a great revival of the 
spirits of the people, and his 
faithful and zealous labours for 
the space of fifty-seven years 
were largely followed by the 
Divine blessing." His manner of 
preaching was peculiar, and was 
frequently characterized by hu- 
morous and amusing illustrations. 
Many and various were the plans 
he adopted to attract and instruct, 
and many an amusing anecdote is 
still current of the way in which 
he adapted his discourses to the con- 
sciences and the circumstances of 
his people. By them he was greatly 
honoured and beloved. He had a 
happy, genial disposition, and in 
private as in public he won the 
good-will of all around him by his 
kind and cheerful manner. 


" The course of Mr. Toothill was 
tolerably even. The wife of his 
youth trode along with him the 
quiet walk of life, and was removed 
from him by death only one year 
before his own departure. They 
had been nursed at the same breast,* 
rocked in the same cradle, and at 
length they were laid in the same 
grave. They had only one child, 
who survived them — a daughter, 
who married Mr. Laird, of Pudsey, 
by whom she had several children. 
One of them married the Rev. 
Mr. Hutton, late of Allerton. As 
his end approached, Mr. Toothill, 
looking back on his life's work, 
said : * I have never seen the place, 
or town, or country, I should pre- 
fer to Hopton. Indeed, it has been 
to me an earthly Paradise. I could 
adopt the language of Queen Mary 
respecting Calais : " If I be dis- 
sected, you will find its name 
written on my heart." Shortly 
before his death, he said : ' I have 
no fear with regard to passing 
Jordan, but I long for more of the 
grapes of Eshcol.' And again, 
amidst his restlessness and pain, 
* I can find no rest for my body, 
but I can for my soul, in the 
invitation: "Come unto me, and 
I will give you rest." Death, that 
brings terror to many, is to me the 
harbinger of liberty, of light, and 
of eternal life.' f Thus did he fall 
asleep in Jesus on the 1st of June, 
1826, at the advanced age of 83 
years, and in the fifty-eighth year 
of his pastorate at Hopton." His 
funeral sermon was preached by the 
Rev. Benjamin Boothroyd. 

Rev. Charles Ely, minister of 
Bury, was sent out from this 
church during Mr. Toothill's pasto- 
rate. He had an excellent library, 

* Mrs. T.'s mother having been his 

-f Rev. J. Cameron. 

which by his will he directed to 
be divided between the colleges of 
Rotherham and Idle. 

1826. Rev. William Eccles, 
from Camden Chapel, London. 
(See White Chapel, Leeds.) 

"During his ministry the old 
chapel was felt to be inconveniently 
small ; and as for some time past 
thoughts had been entertained of 
erecting another, the people resolved 
to * perform the doing of it.' — 
Accordingly, the present commo- 
dious and substantial chapel was 
built at Mirfield, and dedicated 
to the service of God on the 18 th 
Sept., 1829. It was opened en- 
tirely free from debt, no collection 
being made on the occasion. Va- 
rious circumstances, over which he 
had no control, combined to weaken 
Mr. Eccles' hands, and cast down 
his spirits. At length, his health 
failing, he resigned his charge in 
1844. He never sought another 
charge, but resided at various 
places until his decease, at Ilfra- 
combe, on the 18th of July, 1861. 
In the words of his biographer, in 
the * Evangelical Magazine :' ' He 
was a good, faithful, and very 
acceptable preacher, and maintained 
with great dignity the Christian 
and ministerial character.'" 

Feb., 1846. Rev. Christian 
Henry Bateman, from the Mo- 
ravians. Removed to Reading, 
March, 1855. 

Oct., 1855. Rev. James Cameron 
(Glasgow Un.), from Colchester. 
Mr. C. is the present minister. 



The chapel in Northgate, Hor- 
bury, was purchased in 1838 from 

* Aided by Rev. J. Dixon. 



the New Connexion Methodists. 
Mr. Kilner laboured there for some 
time after its first erection. 

The following is the list of the 
ministers : — 

1845. ^ ev - J- P- Lazarus. 
Mr. L. had a claim on the chapel 
property, which occasioned much 
uneasiness. By the exertions of 
the West Riding Home Missionary 
Society and the liberality of some 
of its constituents, the building was 
redeemed. After painful occur- 
rences, Mr. Lazarus left Horbury 
in 184.7. 

1847. Rev. H. Bake. 

Rev. — Dear. 

Rev. J. Buckley (Airedale Coll.). 
He removed to Stockport, 1854. 

1854. R ev * Valentine Ward 
(New Coll.). Mr. W. left for 
Canterbury, 1861. 

1 86 1. Rev. G. Gladstone. 
He resigned in 1862, and is now 
at Leiston. 

1863. Rev. J. Dixon, the pre- 
sent minister. 


A chapel was built in Hornsea 
in the year 1808. It will seat 
between 300 and 400. The debt 
was wiped out in i860; land was 
purchased in the last year (1866) 
for a new church and a manse. 
The latter is already erected. 

The ministers have been — 

1802. Rev. Henry Earle. He 
left Hornsea in 18 16. 

1 81 8. Rev. James Sykes (Rother- 
ham Acy.). He resigned in 1845. 

1845. Rev. Thomas Poole 
(Cotton End Acy.). He was or- 
dained in 1 846. He is the present 

* Communicated by Rev. T. Poole. 

Skipsea is associated with Horn- 
sea under one pastorate. A chapel, 
which will seat about 130, was 
built here in 1801. Land has 
been recently purchased for the 
enlargement or re-erection of the 



The church at Howden claims 
to have arisen under the preaching 
of Rev. Stephen Arlush, M.A., 
"an excellent preacher, and of a 
very public spirit." "He had 
a good estate, and did good to 
many with it."t He afterwards 
removed to York, where he died 

About 1700, Rev. Mr. Gould 
officiated in a building in the street 
leading to Booth Ferry, and his 
congregation was considerable. 
Not long after, Joshua Jefferson, 
Esq., of Hook, made a bequest, 
by will, of j£ioo for the erection 
of a chapel, and ^400 for the 
support of a minister. The money, 
however, was ill appropriated, 
though a chapel was built in 1722. 
At that time Rev. James Mallison 
was the pastor. He was a re- 
cipient of the Hewley fund in 
1727 and 1728. In 171 5 his 
congregation is reported as 100. 
At this time Gould must have 
been living, for he, too, is men- 
tioned in the accounts. He married 
Dorcas Almond, of York. Rev. 
— Brown succeeded and died here. 
There was in his time a good con- 

* Scales' MSS., aided by Rev. J. G. 

•j- Calamy writes Holden instead of How- 
den. That the latter is the true place, the 
grave of his wife in Howden distinctly 



gregation. He was followed by- 

an Unitarian, and writer in the. 
" Theological Repository." The 
numbers then decreased. At 
length the chapel was shut up. 
There were, however, at this time 
in Howden a considerable number 
who eagerly desired Gospel ordi- 
nances. These persons united, 
and applied to Rev. J. Scott (Heck- 
mondwike), who sent preachers, 
and their efforts were, attended 
with encouraging success. As there 
was little probability that the old 
chapel would be recovered, a barn 
was fitted up for public worship, 
and an invitation given to Rev. 
Joshua Wilkinson, who accepted 
it 1 78 1. Mr. Fouljambe had now 
left off preaching. But some of 
his former flock, with the aid of 
Lady Hewley's trustees (at that 
time Unitarian), caused the chapel 
to be repaired, and service was 
resumed. This occasioned a ques- 
tion as to the place in which the 
deeds of the chapel were deposited. 
A copy was at length obtained, 
and the whole case was laid before 
the ministers in London. By their 
advice the people endeavoured to 
ascertain who was the heir of 
the last surviving trustee, and to 
obtain his nomination of fresh 
trustees, with a new trust-deed. 
Means were now taken to secure 
a legal possession of the property 
which remained. Mr. Fouljambe 
died in 1795. A new chapel was 
erected in the same year, and 
opened for public worship. 

During the occupation of the 
barn, great annoyance was expe- 
rienced from some Sandemanians 
in the congregation, but they at 
length withdrew, and formed a 
separate society. 

A vigorous effort was now 
made to liquidate the debt on the 

new chapel, and by the assistance 
of neighbouring congregations, 
seconded by the Board in London, 
this was at length accomplished. 

Another separation took place 
(for a time) of that part of the 
church which assembled at the 
village of Asselby, but this soon 
came to nothing. 

Afterwards the course of things 
at Howden became flourishing. 
Galleries were added to the chapel, 
and a new school-room was erected 
on part of the premises. 

Mr. Wilkinson died Jan. 12, 
1833, a f ter a useful ministry of 
fifty-one years, ast. 81. A tablet 
erected to his memory by "his 
affectionate people " bears the 
motto — " Mark the perfect man, 
and behold the upright, for the 
end of that man is peace." 

May, 1834.. Rev. James Bruce. 
After a ministry of twelve years, 
he removed to Bamford, July, 

Dec, 1846. Rev. Henry Roe- 
buck. He remained till Nov., 

Jan., 1850. Rev. Geo. Richards 
(Airedale Coll.), from Alnwick. 
Mr. R. removed to Beverley, 
Oct., 1862. 

Jan., 1863. Rev. J. G. Roberts 
(Airedale Coll.), from Liverpool. 


One of the Tempests, residing 
at Bracewell, a Papist, squandered 
his money in extravagance, and 
after taking refuge in France, du- 
ring twenty-one years, returned to 
England, and was imprisoned for 
debt. For the sum of ^2000, to 
be given to his only daughter, he 
made over to a Puritan, believed to 

* By aid of Mr. Jos. Williamson. 


be Mr. Thompson, the Bracewell 
estate. As this estate included- a 
church, a Puritan minister, whose 
name is unknown, was appointed 
to preach in it. Thence arose the 
congregation of Independents at 
Pasture House, and of Baptists at 

Pasture House is in the township 
of Horton, entirely shut in by hills. 
Here the Nonconformists of Craven 
met for worship before the passing 
of the Toleration Act. Tradition 
says that Mrs. Lambert (see p. 55) 
came from Caltonhall to Divine 
service at this place, frequently on 
foot, a distance of ten miles, to 
give a good example to her de- 
pendents. The building still re- 
mains, part of it being used as 
a cottage, and part as a hay-loft. 
She left ,£200 to the minister of 
Horton, on condition that he 
preached eight sermons at Winter- 
burn, and another ^200 to 
Horton, which was near her former 
maiden residence at Arnoldsbiggin 
(now Gisburn Park). 

Soon after 1688 a chapel and a 
minister's house were built at 
Horton, by Richard Hargraves, a 
London merchant. He endowed 
the chapel with three small fields. 
He was a native of Todber, 
whence he had gone to London, 
and had there learned the prin- 
ciples of Protestant Dissent. He 
died A.D. 171 8. A tablet to his 
memory is erected in the chapel. 

The ministers of whom a record 
has been preserved, are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Rev. — Collins. He left Hor- 
ton for Kendal. 

1 741. Rev. James Scott. Mr. 
Scott (Edinburgh Un.) removed 
hither from Stainton. Whilst at 
Horton he acquired considerable 
respect and esteem. He appears 
to have preached almost equally at 

Stainton, Horton, and Keighley. 
He removed to Tockholes in 175 1. 

Circ. 1760. Rev. Robert Gal- 
land (Heckmondwike Acy.). 

Mr. G. removed to Ilkeston 
about 1770. 

1770. Rev. John Clegg (Heck- 
mondwike Acy.). 

He removed to Sunderland. 

Rev. Benjamin Sowden, from 
Kipping. Ob. 1 81 3. 

Mr. S. preached at Horton, 
Holden, Sandysike, and Winter- 
burn. The congregation at Sandy- 
sike originated in his labours and 
those of an itinerant. He was plain 
and evangelical, and his ministry 
was very successful. " Many gave 
themselves to the Lord and to his 
people in the latter part of his 
ministry, who were pillars in the 
church, till they had in many 
instances lived considerably beyond 
their threescore years and ten. He 
fully expected to be the minister at 
Tosside, but another was chosen. 
As soon as he heard of it he fell 
sick, and died after a few days' ill- 
ness. He was buried at Holden. 
A stone to his memory marks the 
place where he lies."* 

1 8 14. Rev. Adam Bray, from 
the church at Holmfirth. He 
laboured diligently for more than 
twenty years, much respected. He 
was buried in the chapel-yard at 
Horton, 1838. 

Soon after Mr. Bray's settlement 
a new chapel was built at Horton, 
and the £400 left by Lady Lam- 
bert was appropriated to its erec- 
tion. The misappropriation of this 
money, to the injury of Winter- 
burn, caused much just complaint 
and ill-feeling. The old chapel 
was converted into a minister's 
house, and since then one of the 
fields exchanged for two cottages. 

* Mr. Jos. Williamson. 


Rev. Joseph Williamson. Re- 
moved in 1859. 

1859. Rev. John Redhead. 
Died March 28, 1863, get. 38. 

1865. Rev. B. Wilkinson 
(Cavendish Coll.), from Partington, 
the present minister. 


The Rev. Edward Hill, M.A., 
was during some time Vicar of 
Huddersfield. He afterwards be- 
came Rector of Crofton, whence 
he was ejected in 1662. See p. 86. 

During many subsequent years 
Evangelical religion seems to have 
become extinct. 

We have already (p. 149) made 
reference to the circumstances 
under which the first Independent 
chapel at Huddersfield arose after 
the cessation of the evangelical 
ministry of the Rev. Henry Venn 
(1770). His separation from his 
attached flock was extremely painful 
to him and to them. After his re- 
moval, the parish church no longer 
supplied the evangelical doctrine 
to which the parishioners had lis- 
tened with so much eagerness, and 
a dispersion of the lovers of truth 
took place in all directions. Some 
of them at length determined to 
erect a chapel, and to possess a 
pastor of their own choice. This 
step met with Mr. Venn's sanction, 
and he took an active part in pro- 
moting the movement, becoming 
himself a subscriber of ^20. His 
desire was that the liturgy should 
be used ; but in this he was dis- 
appointed, such not being the wish 
of the people. After a time another 
vicar of evangelical principles was 
appointed to the living. But the 
flock had now acquired a taste for 

* Aided by Rev. R, Bruce, M.A. 

their free worship, and few of them 

The chapel was erected in 1771, 
and opened Jan. 1, 1772. The 
people then proceeded to the choice 
of a minister. There were three 
candidates, Mr. Dawson, Mr. 
Crossley, and Mr. Moorhouse ; 
and the last was chosen by the 
majority of a single vote. The 
result was, however, a happy settle- 
ment. The congregation became 
very numerous, and the chapel soon 
required enlargement. Mr. M.'s 
character was high, his style sen- 
tentious, and his usefulness great. 

The following is the order of 
pastors — 

1772. Rev. William Moor- 
house. Mr. M. was a most active 
and. energetic man, deeply interested 
in all the religious movements of 
the Riding. He took the lead in 
the formation of Rotherham College, 
and drew up the letter on that sub- 
ject addressed to the Independent 
churches of Yorkshire. During his 
pastorate a house was built for the 
minister (1774), and in 1791 the 
chapel was enlarged. Mr. Moor- 
house published a sermon preached 
at the double lecture, Heckmond- 
wike, 1778, the subject being 
"Faith and Good Works." He 
died July 29, 1823, aet. 80. 

1823. Rev. Benjamin Booth- 
royd, from Pontefract, for four or five 
years assistant to Mr. Moorhouse, 
succeeded him (see Pontefract). 
" He was, as a scholar, more sound 
and deep than nice and fastidious ; 
as a divine, more simple and scrip- 
tural than bold and speculative; 
as a preacher, more textual, faithful, 
and experimental than ingenious 
and metaphysical. His aim was 
usefulness, and all his studies, re- 
searches, and writings were directed 
to that end, and stamped with that 
impress ; and few of his contem- 



poraries have left more decisive 
memorials of their piety and dili- 
gence, or richer legacies to the 
generation following." * 

Dr. Boothroyd died Sept. 8, 
1836, set. 68. 

1838. Rev. John Glendenning 
(Airedale Coll.). 

In the year 1844, a new an< ^ 
handsome chapel was opened, with 
all the necessary apparatus for the 
accommodation of the congregation, 
and for Sunday-school instruction. 
In the latter department Highfield 
Chapel has been eminently distin- 

In 1853 Mr. G. removed to 
Uxbridge, and subsequently to the 
Tabernacle, Bristol. 

1854. Rev. Robert Bruce, M. A. 
(Lancashire Coll., and Aberdeen 
Un.). During his ministry a 
valuable organ has been set up, 
built by Walker, London, at an 
expense of ^850. A new school- 
room has been also erected at 
Paddock (cost £1100), and the 
school-rooms at Highfield have been 
rebuilt at an expense of £4000. 

Mr. Bruce is the present 



Ramsden Street Chapel was 
opened Dec. 28, 1825, Revs. J. 
Parsons, John Thorpe, and Dr. 
Bennett being the preachers. It is 
a noble and spacious building, capa- 
ble of containing about 1400 per- 
sons. The collections at the 
opening amounted to ^530. 
The pastors have been — 
1827. Rev. John Eagleton, 
from Birmingham. Mr. E. was a 

* Scales' funeral sermon MSS. 

* Aided by Rev. R. Skinner. 

native of Coventry, and was at first 
a local preacher among the Wes- 
leyans; but his doctrinal senti- 
ments became Calvinistic. He 
was afterwards at Birmingham, 
whence he removed to Hudders- 
field. " Mr. E. was endowed, with 
no ordinary qualifications for the 
Christian ministry. He possessed 
an original and vigorous mind, and 
had the ability of giving full force 
to his thoughts and feelings by the 
use of nervous and expressive lan- 
guage. Distinguished by argumen- 
tative and impassioned eloquence, 
he laid hold on the conscience with 
an iron grasp, shaking one world 
with the thunders of the next, yet 
sometimes combining a melting 
tenderness that touched and swayed 
the finer affections of the heart." 
One of his able daughters published 
a brief memoir of her father. Mr. 
E. died 1832, set. 47. 

Sept. 18, 1833. R- ev - John 
Thorpe (son of Rev. W. Thorpe, 
Bristol), from Chester. Mr. T. re- 
signed his charge at Huddersfield in 
1836, and was afterwards settled at 
Mount Zion Chapel, Sheffield. He 
was the author of a work entitled 
"Sidney Morecamb." 

1837. Rev. William Hurn- 
dall (Cheshunt Coll.). Mr. H. 
was a useful and laborious pastor, 
but he suffered much from ill- 
health. He left for Bishop's-Stort- 
ford May, 1843, and is now living, 
without a charge, at Clifton, Bristol. 
1845. Rev. Richard Skinner, 
from Hadleigh. During his mini- 
stry, South Street Meeting-house was 
built for the accommodation of the 
people gathered by the successful 
labours of Mr. Dugdale, the Con- 
gregational missionary ; and the 
Guildhall premises were bought 
for the accommodation of the 
Ramsden Street Sunday-school. 
Mr. S. is the present minister. 




(congregational. ) 

This new church owes its origin 
to no division or misunderstanding 
in the old churches, but to a pure 
desire to extend religion in this 
populous suburb, where there was 
no place of worship. The late 
W. Willans, Esq., J.P., commenced 
the movement with earnest advo- 
cacy and liberal contribution, but 
died before the foundation-stone 
was laid. The churches of High- 
field and Ramsden Street jointly 
undertook the work, and by their 
cordial and liberal support, the 
chapel was opened, Feb., 1865, 
free of debt. Rev. T. Jones, Bed- 
ford Chapel, London, preached on 
the occasion. In 1867, large and 
elegant school premises in the same 
style of architecture were attached 
to the chapel. 

The pastors have been — 

Oct. 1865. Rev. W. W. 
Chaffey (CheshuntColl.). After 
entering on his ministry with much 
promise of success, his health failed, 
and consumption necessitated his 
resignation May 31, 1866. Ob. at 
Chard, his native place, Aug. 21, 
aet. 29. 

1866. Rev. W. Braden (Ches- 
hunt Coll.), from St Alban's. His 
recognition took place Jan. 15,1 867. 
He is the present minister. 



The origin of this church is 
most remarkable. A Christian 
lady, who modestly preserves the 
secret of her name, having observed 

the spiritual destitution of the dis- 
tricts of Mold Green and Dal ton, and 
watched the great usefulness of Mr. 
Hotchkiss's labours at South Street 
Mission, in the failure to obtain a 
suitable missionary, induced Mr. H. 
to settle here, and engaged to pay 
his salary for five years, at the same 
time promising .£1,300 for a new 
chapel. The churches of High- 
field and Ramsden Street recog- 
nising a special Providence in the 
matter, have entered cordially into 
the undertaking, and have agreed to 
raise the remainder of the funds for 
the chapel and school-rooms. The 
latter have been for some time 
completed, and the chapel will be 
opened in a few months. 



This church owes its origin to 
the labours of the Rev. J. H. 
Rutherford, and other ministers of 
the Evangelical Union of Scotland ; 
and though Independent in its prin- 
ciples, is not formally connected 
with the Congregational churches 
of the town or Riding. 

The pastors have been — 

Rev. S. Chisholm (Glasgow 
E. U.), from Scotland. He re- 
moved to Chapel Street, Salford. 

Rev. R. Stainton, from Winder- 
mere. He removed to Garden 
Street, Sheffield. 

Rev. W. Halliday (Edin. Un.) 
occupied the pulpit for a few 
months in 1866. 

1868. Rev. D. Black, from 
Middlesborough, has recently ac- 
cepted a call to the pastorate. 



Afterwards Dagger Lane, 

Among the most earnest and 
zealous promoters of Congregational 
worship in this town, was Rev. 
John Canne, who was driven as a 
separatist, with other Protestants, 
to Holland, where he was chosen 
pastor of the Brownist congregation 
at Amsterdam, of which Ainsworth 
had heretofore been minister. To 
sustain himself, he engaged in the 
trade of a printer. He preached 
and wrote much in defence of the 
principles of Independency. He 
was a man of great learning and 
ability, though sometimes prone 
to heat and enthusiasm. About 
the year 1640 he returned to Hull 
on a visit, and during his stay in 
England assisted to constitute the 
Christian Baptist Church at Broad- 
mead, Bristol. 

He seems to have ultimately 
returned to his native town about 
1652* (having adopted Baptist and 
Fifth-monarchy sentiments), where 
he preached as a Congregationalist 
to the soldiers. They were much 
enamoured of him, and called him 
" our own preacher ;" and they 
petitioned Government to allow 
the chancel of the Holy Trinity 
Church — one of the largest paro- 
chial edifices in the kingdom — to be 
granted to him for his services, the 
other part being already used by 
the Presbyterians. Notwithstand- 
ing the objection of the parishioners, 
the request was granted. " The 
arches between the church and the 
chancel were walled up, that the 
one congregation might not disturb 
the other. The entry into the 
church was by two doors through 

* Wilson says that great ambiguity hangs 
over the dates given of this man's life. 

two old chantries, the one on the 
north, the other on the south side ; 
and thus did the church continue 
for some years divided between the 
Presbyterians and Independents, 
not, perhaps, to the satisfaction of 
either." (Tickells, Hull.) 

It would appear that when Canne 
returned in 1 640 to Hull, he was 
accompanied by Philip Nye, and 
that the latter was for some time 
pastor of a church in that town ; 
for in the records of the Dagger 
Lane Church we read — " The first 
constitution of the church was 
formed by seven members, who 
first entered into a church state 
by confession of faith and solemn 
covenant with God and one 
another in the presence of that 
church whereof Mr. Nye was (qy. 
had been ?) pastor, upon the 22nd 
day of the 5th month (May), being 
a day of solemn fasting and prayer, 
in the year 1643." Soon after that 
date (June 12, 1643), however, 
Philip Nye was chosen one of the 
assessors of the Assembly of Divines 
as representative of Kimbolton, to 
which living he had been presented 
by the Earl of Manchester. In the 
same year he was appointed, with 
Rev. Stephen Marshall, his father- 
in-law, and others, commissioners 
from the Parliament to procure the 
assistance of the Scots, and to pro- 
mote the "solemn league and cove- 
nant" which constituted one of 
the terms of the union. He arrived 
in Scotland Aug. 9, 1643. Yet 
we find in the record of the 
Dagger Lane Church — " 1643, July 
22. Mr. Nye chosen pastor, and 
in same year Mr. Robert Ludding- 
ton chosen pastor." Could it be 
that this was another Nye than 
Philip ? The Westminster Assem- 
bly included " Mr. Henry Nye, of 
Clapham." Had he ever been at 
Hull ? Or was Philip Nye "chosen 


pastor" to a charge which he 
afterwards declined? These are 
questions already engaging laborious 
attention on the part of Revs. H. 
Ollerenshaw and A. Dodgson. The 
pastors of Dagger Lane, so far as 
ascertained, have been — 

1643. Rev. Robert Ludding- 
ton. He died (according to the 
church record) Feb. 20, 1662, 
having held the office nineteen 
years. Calamy speaks of him as 
dying 1667 (a mistake) and says, 
"He lived at Hull. Being much 
afflicted with the stone, he was at 
length unable to go to Cowscotts" 
(qy. Sculcoates ?) " and used to 
preach at his own house." 

Hunter speaks of Canne as having 
at this time succeeded to Ludding- 
ton. But the church record says — 
"The officers and members con- 
tinued in their relation, waiting 
for another pastor to go before 
them in the Lord till" 

1669. Rev. Richard Astley * 
(Hunter says Ashley), ej. Black- 
rode, "an excellent preacher," 
became pastor. 

When, in 1681, the Earl of 
Plymouth was appointed Governor 
of Hull, one of the first things he 
told the Corporation was, " that he 
was credibly informed there were 
at that time two conventicles in 
the town contrary (as he said) to 
the laws both of God and man, 
and in which, under the pretence 
of religion, faction and rebellion 
were disseminated." Two con- 
venticles were accordingly indicted, 
of which Mr. Astley and Mr. 
Charles were the respective mini- 
sters, and constables were sent to 
apprehend them. In the end, Mr. 
Charles was taken, but Astley con- 

* There was a William Ashley ejected 
from Raistrick, who was also about this 
time (Calamy iii. p. 445) an associate of 
Mr. Charles. (See p. 245.) 

trived to escape. Mr. Astley died 
in 1696, having been pastor twenty- 
seven years, set. 56. 

In 1 67 1, Lady Norcliffe, of 
Lambton Hall (daughter of Sir T. 
Fairfax) gave ^40 to the congre- 
gation, she being a member of the 
church ; and her daughter, Lady 
Wentworth, ^20.* 

In 1682, the following note 
occurs in the church book — " Paid 
for the enlargement of John Kirkis 
out of captivity, ^27." 

1697. Rev. Jeremiah Gill, 
previously assistant at Sheffield to 
Rev. T. Jollie. In the next year 
a new meeting-house was built, 

* It is to this lady that the following 
letter (once in Upcott's collection), written 
from Mr. Joseph Jackson to Thoresby, 
refers: — "The account my wife gives of 
what she can say of Dorothea (illeg.). 
She was Lord Thomas Fairfax's daughter. 
Her first husband was Lord Ingram's 
brother $ her second husband Sir Thomas 
(illeg.). She was pious, liberal, and boun- 
tiful to all. She gave £50 per annum to 
the pastor of Lambton, where she lived, 
and £20 per annum to the pastor of the 
Congregational Church at Hull, where 
she was in fellowship, and £10 per annum 
to Mr. Oliver, her chaplain, that preached 
in her house at Lambton Hall, where he 
lived and kept him his horse, put his 
children to school, paid school wages, 
found them books, &c. Paid (illeg.) that 
went to several towns about them. In 
the year 1663, when York Castle was 
filled with prisoners (Nonconformist mini- 
sters and others were taken up and ac- 
cused about the Farnley Wood plot) she en- 
gaged friends to inquire after the neces;i- 
tous persons, and sent weekly and monthly 
monies to be distributed for their com- 
fortable support and supplies. She im- 
proved interest for whom she could, in 
order to obtaining their liberty. Got Mr. 
Edward Atkinson, elder of the church at 
Hull, out of prison at the Castle, to be 
prisoner at her house, who lived with her 
and died in her family. The lady died in 
June, 1687, about 65 or 66 years of her 
life. Had six daughters, who were all 
virtuous ladies, eminent in grace and all 
goodness ; two only alive at present, 
shining lights in (illeg.). Her son was 
deaf and dumb." 



and Mr. Gill ordained. There 
were then 113 members. The 
ground was given by Mr. Watson, 
a tobacconist.* 

Mr. Gill was a minister of 
eminent qualifications and un- 
wearied labours. He died 1709, 
ast. 40. 

1709. Rev. Joseph Sutton 
(from Jollie's Acy.), for some years 
assistant to Rev. T. Whitaker, 
Leeds. He was ordained at Swan- 
land. The Northowram Register 
speaks of him as " a man of 
rare parts, and a great loss to the 
congregation, his wife, and chil- 
dren." Ob. 17 1 2, aet. 32. 

1 7 1 4. Rev. Thomas Fletcher, 
from Mansfield. His son was mini- 
ster of Bradfield, near Sheffield. 
Mr. F. died 1733. 

1733. Rev. Ebenezer Gill. 
His salary is recorded to have been 
j£55 per annum. He died 1734, 
the year of his ordination. 

1735-6. Rev. W. Martin, 
assistant-preacher. He died 1745. 

1736. Rev. Tobias Wildbore, 
from Soham, Cambridgesh. There 
were now 114 members. A Mr. 
Wiseman gave, in 1737 and 1738, 
^200 for the use of the minister. 
And in 1744, Mr. Howsom left 
^100 for the same purpose. Revs. 
Wm. Martin, Meredith Town- 
send, and James Cunningham 
assistants. Mr. Wildbore was laid 
aside by paralysis some years be- 
fore his death, in 1759. 

1759. ^ ev * J AMES Cunningham, 
who had been for a time co-pastor, 
succeeded. He removed to Ellen- 
thorp, 1762. 

1764. Rev. Rest Knipe. He 
resigned in 1766. 

1767. Rev. John Burnett, 
from Witham, Essex. In his day, 

* A very high character will be found 
of him in Whitaker' s Sermons. 

from his suspected Arianism, a con- 
siderable rent took place, and several 
of the members seceded, and built 
a chapel in Blanket Row, after- 
wards Fish Street. 

1783. Rev. Robert Green. 
He embraced the views of the 
Swedenborgians, and remodelled 
the church. "A short time prior 
to this," says the church register, 
" the house and garden belonging 
to the minister of this place for the 
time being, was let upon lease to 
the Freemasons for a term of years 
upon a building lease for ^50 per 
year. Afterwards the vestry, &c, 
was disposed of to the Minerva 
Lodge of the same fraternity. The 
place of worship was much altered 
and new galleries erected, &c. 

Rev. — Nicholson, a Sweden- 
borgian ; who receiving notice to 
quit from the trustees, seized the 
keys of the meeting-house and ex- 
cluded them. A law-suit followed, 
and Mr. Nicholson was removed. 
He afterwards conformed. 

Rev. — Brandt, who was also 
driven away by the trustees. 

Rev. Thos. Wallworth. He 
afterwards followed the profession 
of a surgeon, and died Dec. 2, 


" The property was thrown into 
Chancery by the adherents of the 
original tenets of Presbyterians, 
and has since been recovered by 
the trustees for the use of the pre- 
sent possessors. The Rev. James 
Little Rorne, of the U. P. Church, 
is now the minister." 



After the taking of York by the 
Parliamentary party, Lord Fairfax 
gave to the Rev. John Shawe, 


2 9 : 

M.A.,* the living of Sherringham, 
near York, whence he was invited 
to Hu]l,f ministering first in the 
Low, and afterwards in the High, 
Church of that town (see p. 43). 
Shawe preached in York Cathedral 
at the taking of the solemn league 
and covenant (1644). He was 
afterwards appointed master of the 
Charter House (1653). He was 
a prominent minister in the political 
movements of the period, both in 
York and London, where he fre- 
quently preached before the Lord 
Protector. After the Restora- 
tion, though he was chaplain to 
Charles II., he was removed from 
his pulpit in the Trinity Church 
at Hull, without any reason being 
assigned. He continued, however, 
to preach at the Charter House, 
and the inhabitants flocked in crowds 
to hear him, so that the other 
churches were deserted. As, how- 
ever, this became after a while in- 
terdicted, and his entrance into the 
town was forbidden, Mr. Shawe 
removed from Hull to Rotherham 
(1662), of which place he had been 
heretofore vicar. The congregation 
at Bowl Alley may have thus arisen. 

Joseph Wilson was minister here, 
1672. A native of Chesterfield. 

Circ. 1673. The Rev. Samuel 
Charles, M.A. (of Corpus Christi 
Coll., Cambridge), ejected from 
Mickleover, settled after 1662 in 
Hull, where he lived and laboured 
for many years. But, after the 
Earl of Plymouth was appointed 
governor, Charles was exposed to 
severe persecutions. Being brought 

* There is a MS. volume of Shaw's 
Sermons in excellent preservation in the 
valuable Theological Library in the Vestry 
of Bowl Alley Lane Chapel. The sermons 
are full of Evangelical truth and holy 

■f- Shaw published two sermons before 
the Judges, 164.8, and a memoir of his 
wife, entitled, "The Saint's Tombstone." 

before the magistrates, he behaved 
with much spirit, but was ordered 
to prison, where he remained for 
six months. On recovering his 
liberty, he resumed his preaching, 
which he continued till the day 
of his death.* He probably 
preached in Bowl Alley, the date 
of the erection of which is un- 

Circ. 1696. Rev. John Billings- 
ley. He was son to the ejected 
minister of Chesterfield. (Trin. 
Coll., Camb., afterwards Frankland.) 
In 1700, he is mentioned as having 
been present with M. Henry at an 
ordination in Macclesfield. He re- 
moved to London, to become as- 
sistant to Dr. W. Harris, in 1706. 
He died 1721. 

1705. Rev. John Whitter, 
who was a faithful pastor for fifty 
years. He died 1755. His assist- 
ants were Rev. Jos. Dawson (son 
of Rev. Eli Dawson of Bradford), 
who afterwards conformed, and 
became Vicar of Paul, near Hull ; 
and Rev. J. Root, afterwards of 

In 1 7 14, Rev. Leonard Cham- 
berlayne bequeathed to the chapel a 
valuable library. He was probably 
related to Mr. Chamberlayne, a 
draper of Hull, who left a 
considerable endowment to the 

1756. Rev. Titus Cordingley 
(educated at Kendal Acy.), who 
became pastor, and died 1758. 

1757. Rev. John Beverley 
(from Kendal Acy.), who had been 
for a short time assistant to Mr. 
Cordingley. As the Rev. W. 
Graham, of Mixenden, a well- 
known Unitarian, preached at his 
ordination, it is probable that Mr. 
B.'s sentiments were Unitarian. 

* "Mr. Charles died at Hull in 1703/ 
— "Hist, of Hull." 

u 2 



A new chapel was erected in 1802. 

From this time Bowl Alley be- 
came entirely Unitarian. 



In 1769, some persons withdrew 
from Dagger Lane, and purchased 
a piece of ground in Blanket Row, 
on which they proceeded to build 
a small chapel, which was opened 
for Divine worship April 9, 1769, 
the preachers being Rev. T. Knight, 
Halifax (whose sermon was pub- 
lished), and Mr, Lambert, who was 
then a probationer for the pasto- 
rate. Soon after (May 21, 1769), 
a church was formed, Josiah Jones, 
Edward Riddel], Daniel Tong, 
Thomas Hutton, William Bain, 
William Robinson, Andrew Gray, 
Mary Beaumont, Barbara Bain, 
Ann Key, and Margaret Robinson 
being the first members. These 
stood, according to the usual cus- 
tom, in a circle with hands clasped, 
professing their faith in Jesus and 
attachment to each other, whilst 
Mr. Lambert, then a member of the 
church at Heckmondwike, attended 
as a witness and offered prayer. 

The pastors of Blanket Row 
and Fish Street have been the fol- 
lowing : — 

1769. Rev. George Lambert 
(Heckmondwike Acy.) ; ordained 
March 14, 1770, over a church of 
eleven members. In 1773, the in- 
crease of the congregation demanded 
the enlargement of the chapel; but 
this not sufficing, a plot of ground 
was purchased in Fish Street, and 
a new building was erected (1782), 
for which an appeal was made to 
the public. In 1802, the chapel 

was extended so as to accommodate 
1047 persons. 

In 1803, some of the deacons 
and members visited several places 
in Holderness, then destitute of the 
Gospel. Mr. H. Earl was about 
this time engaged as a stated mis- 
sionary, and regular services were 
instituted at Skipsea, Beeford, Long 
Riston, Leven, Patrington, and 
several other places. In many of 
these chapels were erected. 

Under Mr. Lambert's useful and 
earnest ministry, the congregation 
continued to increase, and became 
settled and powerful. Mr. Lam- 
bert published two volumes of ser- 
mons, besides occasional discourses. 
He was widely known and greatly 
esteemed till his death, in 18 16.* 
He was minister forty-six years. 
In the latter part of his life Rev. 
George Brown was his assistant. 

1 8 17. Rev. Joseph Gilbert, 
from Nether Chapel, Sheffield. 
He published an address at the 
funeral of his predecessor, and in 
1825, a memoir of Rev. E.Williams, 
D.D. The impaired state of his 
health caused him to leave Hull 
for Nottingham in Nov., 1825. 
He afterwards published a volume 
of Congregational Lectures on " the 
Doctrine of the Atonement." 

1827. Rev. Joseph Fox, from 

Mr. Fox left Fish Street for 
Sheffield, 1 83 1. 

1 83 1 . Rev. Thomas Stratten 
(Hoxton College), from Sunderland. 
Mr. S. was an able and valuable 
minister, and was the author of 
several well-written tracts and ser- 
mons ; besides an able work entitled 
"The Book of the Priesthood." 
There was also another volume on 

* He was among the " Fathers and 
Founders" of the London Missionary 
Society, and preached one of the first 
sermons " before the Society " in London. 



"Tithes." He took part in a 
vigorous controversy which raged 
in Hull on the subject of ecclesias- 
tical establishments about the year 
1834, and published a "Review 
of the Hull Ecclesiastical Contro- 

A secession from his congrega- 
tion took place in 1841, and Albion 
Chapel was erected for their accom- 
modation. Mr. Stratten died at 
Hull, 1854. 

1854. Rev. Robert Bowman 
(Airedale Coll.), from Chelmsford. 
Mr. B. removed to Heckmondwike 

1858. Rev. Edward Jukes 
(of Highbury Coll.), from Orange 
Street, London. Mr. Jukes left 
Hull for Uxbridge, 1867. 

1867. Rev. G. T. Coster, 
(New Coll.), from Barnstaple, the 
present pastor. 


This chapel was erected in 1797 
by some friends of Rev. Samuel 
Barnard, who had been for some 
time minister of New Dagger Lane 
Chapel, in Lady Huntingdon's Con- 
nexion. Mr. Barnard published 
many separate sermons, and en- 
gaged in a controversy on Baptism. 
He resigned in 1800, and removed 
to Sheffield. 

(After Mr. B. left Hull, the 
pulpit at New Dagger Lane was 
occupied by Rev. Josiah J. 
Richards, an energetic preacher. 
He removed to London, and died 
at Bath. He was succeeded by 
Rev. J. Spry and Rev. Samuel 
Lane. The chapel was then sold 
to the Episcopalians, and the 
Mariners' Church now stands on 
its site.) 

* Aided by Rev. J. Sibree. 

1 80 1. Rev. John Morley. 
Mr. M. was baptized by Rev. A. 
Kinsman, in the Tabernacle House 
Moorfields, London, 1770. He 
entered the ministry under the 
sanction of Lady Huntingdon, and 
preached for some time in her 
chapels. He was ordained as an 
Independent at Alfrid (Lincolns.), 
in 1797. He removed, on account 
of health, to Thorngumbald, a 
village about six miles from Hull. 
In 1 801 he accepted an invitation 
to Hope Street, where he continued 
to preach till 1850. He died 
1 864, at the advanced age of 94. 

1855. R ev - Henry Olleren- 
shaw, from Idle, the present 

A chapel was opened in Holder- 
ness Road in 1 841, of which Rev. 
Ebenezer Morley was the pastor. 
He left Hull for Brentford in 1843, 
when the use of the chapel was 
discontinued by Congregationalists. 
He died in London, 1862. 


This congregation was begun to 
be gathered in the year 1832. 
Ten persons, members of the church 
of Fish Street, were formed into a 
Christian church, by the Rev. 
Thos. Scales, of Leeds. After wor- 
shiping some months in a small 
chapel in Nile Street, " Salem 
Chapel" was erected and opened 
July 3, 1833, by the Rev. Dr. 
Leifchild, of London, and the Rev. 
John Sibree, of Coventry. 

1832. Rev. James Sibree, stu- 
dent of Highbury College, London, 
was ordained pastor in Fish Street 
Chapel, July 1832. The Revs. 
Messrs. Gilbert, Scales, Stratten, 

* Aided by Rev. J. Sibree. 



John and Peter Sibree, took part in 
the service 


This chapel, erected by several 
members of the church assembling 
at Fish Street, was opened for 
public worship April 20, 1842. 

1 841. Rev. Newman Hall 
(LL.B., Highbury and London 
Univ.). He was ordained on July 
13, 1843. His ministry was highly 
popular, and the church continued 
to increase till his removal to 
London (Surrey Chapel), 1852. 

1853. Rev. R. A. Redford, 
M.A., LL.B. (Springhill Coll. and 
Lond. Univ.), the present minister. 


This place of worship was erected 
in 1826, by the minister and pro- 
prietor, the Rev. Sam. Lane, who 
was formerly the pastor of the flock 
assembling in New Dagger Lane 
Chapel, immediately before that 
place came into the possession of 
the Episcopalians. In consequence 
of some pecuniary difficulties, Mr. 
L. disposed of his interest in the 
Tabernacle to the Warrenites, or 
Free Church Methodists, by whom 
it has been occupied for several 
years, having for their pastor the 
Rev. Aquila Dodgson. In 1 866, 
Mr. Dodgson was admitted a mem- 
ber of the "Hull and E. Riding 
Association of Congregational 
Ministers and Churches ;" and du- 
ring the present year (1867) the 
church has become Congregational, 
and has been received into the 
same fellowship. 



This chapel was erected in 1865, 
by Mr. Nightingale, near to his 
own residence. It has a Sunday- 
school numbering thirty scholars. 
The church was formed by Rev. 
J. C. Potter, June, 1865. The 
little chapel is well attended. 

1865. Rev. J. S. Nightingale, 
the first pastor. 

He is the present minister. 



Calamy makes mention of Rev. 
Thomas Smallwood, who was at 
one time chaplain to Lord Fairfax, 
and afterwards to Major-General 
Lambert. At the Restoration he 
was removed from the living of 
Batley, but preached afterwards at 
Idle Chapel, till the year 1662. He 
is said to have been " a moderate 
Congregationalist" bold and active, 
peculiarly skilful in arousing sin- 
ners, and very successful." The 
Five-mile Act drove him to Flan- 
shaw House, near Wakefield, where 
he died, Nov. 24, 1667, ast. 60. 
After the ejectment, however, the 
pulpit of the (now) Episcopal 
Chapel, at Idle, was sometimes 
occupied by Nonconformist mini- 
sters. Heywood records his 
preaching there in 1688 and 1689, 
to numerous and excited congrega- 
tions, and mentions with great 
praise Catherine Ledgard, belonging 
probably to a Nonconformist family 
in the village. The Rev. Thomas 
Johnson, of Painthorp (Wakefield), 
occupied the pulpit during two years. 

* By aid of Rev. J. S. Nightingale. 
f Aided by Rev. S. Dyson. 


2 95 

Hunter says, "he laid the founda- 
tion of the Dissenting interest in 
this place." A meeting-house ap- 
pears to have been adapted for 
worship soon after the Revolution, 
at which Mr. Johnson officiated. 
Accepted Lister (usually called 
Ceppy Lister) frequently preached 
here. A regular chapel was after- 
wards erected ( 1 7 1 7), and two fields 
were presented for the maintenance 
of a minister. 

17 1 5. Rev. John Buck became 
pastor. He was in 1728 and 1729 
a recipient of the Hewley fund. 
He removed to Bolton, Lancashire, 
1729. In 1716 there were eighty 

He was succeeded by Rev. 
Nicholas Beale, whose tombstone 
was discovered on the floor of the 
chapel beneath the pews. He died 
Sept. 26, 1734, xt ' 2 %- 

1729. Rev. J. Huthwaite, 
from Warley. He died at Idle, 
June 25, 1766, aet. yy, as appears 
from a monument in the chapel. 
He left the congregation in a state 
of great declension. 

1765. Rev. Joseph Dawson, 
from Daventry Academy, after- 
wards at Glasgow University (not 
related to Dawsons, Morley.) To 
increase his income (£40 perann.), 
he maintained a school, which 
gained considerable repute. He 
practised medicine for the benefit 
of the inhabitants. After a mini- 
stry of several years he became the 
manager of extensive iron-works, 
having, in conjunction with several 
others, purchased the estate of 
Royds Hall, Bradford, now Low- 
Moor. He was a man of great 
liberality and kindness, though an 
Arian in sentiment. He relin- 
quished the congregation at Idle in 

1790. Rev. William Vint, 
from Northowram Academy. Soon 

after his coming, the two fields 
above mentioned were discovered 
to abound in stone, and were 
sold for £1300, thus increasing 
the minister's income. The 
congregation advanced, and a new 
chapel arose in 1794. Mr. Vint 
was a man of talent and edu- 
cation, with a commanding pre- 
sence and good address. He 
laboured with much zeal and 
fidelity for forty years. Of the 
Idle Academy, which was under 
Mr. Vint's presidency, we have 
spoken elsewhere (see p. 187). 
Before the academy was removed to 
Bradford, in 1832, it was intended 
that Mr. Vint should remove with 
it. This wish, was, however, 
never fulfilled. At the time of the 
opening of the college Mr. Vint 
was laid aside by sickness. He 
died March 13, 1834, aet. 66. He 
was buried in the old chapel, having 
been minister forty-four years. A 
tablet was erected by ministers 
educated under his care, " as a 
feeble testimony of their esteem 
for his character, their admiration 
of his piety and talents, and their 
gratitude for his paternal and un- 
varying solicitude for their wel- 

1830. Rev. Joseph Stringer 
(Idle Acy.). He married a daugh- 
ter of Mr. Vint, became his 
assistant, and afterwards succeeded 
him. He was a useful and ac- 
ceptable minister. He was secre- 
tary to Airedale College, on its 
removal. After a ministry of seven- 
teen years he died, much lamented, 
Dec. 20, 1847, aet. 46. 

1 848. Rev. William Atherton, 
from Bingley. During the pre- 
ceding ministry the chapel had 
been crowded. In Mr. A.'s time 
a small school-room, and afterwards 
a new chapel, were erected, ca- 
pable of accommodating nearly 1000 



persons. The chapel was opened 
March, 1850. But at the end of 
three Sundays after its opening, 
Mr. A. was seized with a fatal ill- 
ness, and died July 16, 1850, 
set. 34. 

1 85 1. Rev. Henry Olleren- 
shaw, from Oakengates. His 
preaching proved extremely attrac- 
tive, and the church increased in 
numbers. A chapel was erected 
during his ministry, in Windhill. 
Mr. O. removed to Hull, Dec. 

Sept. 1856. Rev. Simeon Dyson, 
the present minister. During his 
pastorate a debt of ^400 has been 
removed. On the 10th June the 
foundation-stone of new day and 
Sunday-schools was laid, and it is 
intended forthwith to erect a new 
parsonage. The present position 
of the church at Idle is not un- 
worthy of its past history. Peace 
and progress have marked the 
period of Mr. Dyson's ministry. 



A church was formed here at 
the beginning of 1700 by a number 
of friends then belonging to the 
church at Bingley. They first met 
in a barn belonging to Mr. Leach, 
whose house was afterwards the 
site of the new chapel. 

1742, The first minister was 
Rev. Thos. Thorburn, from 
Northumberland. He entered 

upon his work in 1742. In 
1744, he removed to Sowerby. 

An invitation was now given 
to Rev. James Scott, then of 

* Aided by Rev. J. Tattersfield, 

Horton, afterwards of Heckmond- 
wike, which he thought proper 
to decline. It was signed by 
thirty-four persons. 

1745. Rev. George Hagger- 
ston. He removed from Keighley 
to Hopton in the same year. He 
was a scholar, but probably an 

An interval now occurs during 
which it appears that Rev. James 
Scott frequently visited Keighley, 
and preached there. He was in- 
vited repeatedly to settle as their 
minister, but declined. He intro- 
duced to them the next minister. 

1 749. The Rev. James Smith, 
from London. This was, however, 
an unhappy connection, and was 
painfully dissolved. Smith pub- 
lished a sermon against Antino- 
mianism. He calls it " The Poor 
and Imperfect Address of a Poor 
and Imperfect Man." 

Rev. Thomas Muschett, from 
Scotland. After a stay of two or 
three years, he removed to Thorn- 
ton (1757). He was a great cate- 
chiser, and took much pains with 
the religious education of the young. 

1756. Rev. Joshua Neil. Mr. 
Neil was a young man who, having 
offended his Presbytery by marry- 
ing whilst at college, and having 
been expelled in consequence, had 
come from Scotland with views 
not favourable to Presbyterianism. 
He was ordained according to the 
Congregational pattern, and the 
congregation became united to the 
Independents. Whilst he was 
minister, the barn in which he 
had preached fell to the ground 
one Sunday evening after service. 
This led to the purchase by the 
congregation of Mr. Leach's pro- 
perty, and a more commodious 
house for worship was erected. 
Though a man of diligence and 
success, the smallness of his income 



at length compelled Mr. N. to 
retire from Keighley and to return 
to Scotland (1770). He afterwards 
dedicated to the Keighley people a 
volume of sermons. 

1 77 1. Rev. Thomas Halliday, 
classical tutor, of Daventry. His 
stay was very short. He left for 
Norton Hall, 1772. He is spoken 
of as " both original and eloquent," 
but he had a taste for speculation 
in business which ultimately ruined 

1773. Rev. Samuel Phillips, 
from Wales. He was a Presby- 
terian. He had a school for boys, 
and by means of it, and some pro- 
perty he possessed, he lived in com- 
fort. But circumstances of a nature 
deeply affecting his religious charac- 
ter peremptorily demanded his re- 
tirement, and Mr. P. was required 
to withdraw. He retreated to Leeds, 
and soon after died. On the Hew- 
ley list, 1774. 

1787. Rev. Thomas Laird, from 
the Academy at Northowram. He 
had been for a short time at Skipton 
before coming to Keighley. His 
stay was short, and in 1792 he re- 
moved to Pudsey. 

1793. Rev. William Stirret, 
from Northowram Acy. After 
preaching for eight months, the 
day was fixed for his ordination. 
But on that very day he died. 

1794. Rev. David Dewhirst, 
also from Northowram. During 
his stay many changes occurred, 
all of them unfavourable to the 
interests of the congregation. He 
resigned his charge in 1821. In 
his time a considerable secession 
took place ; a Baptist chapel was 
erected, and a new Independent 
chapel was commenced. He was 
on the Hewley list, 1795. 

1 822. Rev. Henry Birch, from 

* " Monthly Repository," 1825. 

the Academy at Blackburn. In his 
time school-rooms were erected on 
the chapel premises. In Jan., 1826, 
Mr. Birch retired to Bradford, 
where he vainly endeavoured to 
form a new Independent congrega- 

1826. Rev. William Tyler. 
Mr. T. had been for a time assist- 
ant to Rev. T. Taylor, Bradford. 
Mr. T. left for Ossett, 1833. 

1834. ^ ev ' Joseph Tatters- 
field (Idle and Airedale Colls.). 
He was ordained Oct. 8 of the 
same year. During his ministry, 
a new large and beautiful chapel, 
with schools and a parsonage-house, 
have been erected, and a new 
Sabbath school-room at Utley. The 
church has been greatly multiplied, 
and success and progress have 
marked the period. The old 
chapel is rented to the Total 
Abstinence Society, and now bears 
the name of " The Temperance 
Hall." Mr. T. has just (1868) 
resigned from ill-health, and the 
pulpit is now vacant. 



" Keld Chapel " is mentioned by 
Lelandin the year 1540. In 1695 
a churchwarden's account is pre- 
served, which contains the following 
item — "For walling up Keld Chapel 
door, £0 1 s. od." The chapel was 
in ruin about the year 1706. It 
was rebuilt as an Independent 
chapel in 1789, with a contiguous 
dwelling-house. The ministers 
have been — 

1789. Rev. Edward Stillman. 
He was minister for forty-eight 

* By aid of Rev. J. Waddington. 



years. He did much for the im- 
provement of affairs among his 
people. He had been a Moravian, 
and retained some of the peculiari- 
ties of that body. 

The chapel was enlarged about 
the year 1820, and two small 
graiths were then purchased behind 

1837. Rev. William Sedgwick. 
He remained only one year. 

1838. Rev. James Wilkinson. 
His ministry extended over twenty- 
eight years. 

In 1 842, a new school-room was 
built ; the ground was walled, and 
a new burial-ground added in 1 847-8 
at the cost of £38 16s. o^d. In 
1853-4 tne dwelling-house was 
enlarged. A Mutual Improvement 
Society was formed in one of the 
rooms in 1854. In 1861, the 
chapel was rebuilt and enlarged 
at a cost of £306 10s. In the 
same year the Literary Institute 
was built at a cost of £1 19. After 
a laborious and most useful ministry, 
Mr. Wilkinson's health failed. He 
died at Southport, Dec. 3, 1866. 



The chapel here was erected in 
1792, but it was long before a 
church was formed. 

The Rev. J. H. Browning 
preached alternately in this chapel 
and in that at Helmsley, together 
with other ministers of Lady 
Huntingdon's and the Independent 
bodies. Mr. Browning left for 
Wrington, Somerset. 

In 1 8 1 3, a church was formed of 
twenty-nine members, who invited 
Rev. W. Eastmead to become their 

* Communicated by Rev. John Abbs. 

pastor. He was a true and zealous 
minister. He published a topo- 
graphical account of the town and 
district, which is regarded as of 
much value. He removed to Hull 
in 1826. 

Rev. W. Brewis. He left for 
Gainsborough in 1830. 

Then occurred a period of con- 
fusion and anarchy. During part 
of this time there was no regular 
service. Rev. H. C. O'Donnoghue 
preached for a year or two, with 
little success. 

1836. Rev. W. Macdonnel. 
During his useful ministry, a chapel 
was erected at Hutton. He re- 
signed in 1 844. 

1846. Rev. James Hardman. 
"A pious, useful man, and much 
beloved." He removed to Hartle- 
pool, 1848. 

1849. Rev. James Jameson. 
" A very holy man, fervent in 
piety, and unwearied in efTort. ,, 
His spirit was, however, broken by 
many trials, and in 1 8 5 2 he resigned, 
and removed to Robin Hood's Bay, 
where he died. 

1852. Rev. J. W. Rolls (now 
of Roxton, Beds.). In his time the 
chapel was re-seated. 

Rev. Anthony Macgill. "A 
faithful and worthy minister." He 
removed to Australia, where he now 

1853. Rev. G. W. Harris. 
He resigned in 1861. 

1 862. Rev. John Abbs, formerly 
missionary in South Travancore, 
India. He is the present minister. 



The original chapel at Knares- 
borough, situated in Windsor Lane, 


2 99 

was founded by Lady Hewley, 
who possessed from her husband, 
Sir J. Hewley, an estate in the 
vicinity, Hay Park, afterwards be- 
queathed as part of her munificent 
charity. She died 1 7 10. 

The first minister was Rev. Wm. 
Benson, who married a daughter of 
Rev. R. Ward (York). 

171 5. Rev. Ralph Hill. In 
1 7 16 he had sixty hearers. Died 
1720. He was a pensioner on the 
Hewley fund. Succeeded by 

Circ 1720. Rev. Caius Thomp- 
son. Named on the Hewley fund 
1728 and 1729. 

The chapel was shut up for 
many years. Towards the close of 
the eighteenth century, however, 
it was occasionally visited, in an 
uncertain manner, by Rev. — Cun- 
ningham, of Ellenthorp. 

The revival of the congregation 
at Knaresborough is mainly due to 
the exertions of Mrs. Thornton, 
wife of John Thornton, Esq., of 
Clapham. She was accustomed 
annually to visit Harrogate, and 
being a firm Congregationalist, fre- 
quently went to the old chapel at 
Knaresborough. The preaching 
there was, however, so irregular, as 
greatly to excite her desire for a 
better adjustment of affairs, and 
a more commodious place for wor- 
ship. She was at length induced 
to write to the Rev. Mr. Gentle- 
man, who presided over a small 
dissenting academy at Shrewsbury, 
and to request him to send a student 
to Harrogate, with a view of preach- 
ing for a short time at Knares- 
borough. The student so sent was 
the Rev. William Howell (1778). 
So encouraging was the attention 
awakened in Knaresborough by his 
visit, that a new chapel was at once 
resolved on, it being understood 
that Mr. Howell was willing to 
become for three years its minister. 

A chapel was accordingly built 
(1779), capable of accommodating 
260 hearers. But progress was 
difficult ; the numbers were at first 
few, not more than twelve or 
thirteen having remained as adhe- 
rents of the old congregation, and 
the seat rents did not exceed for 
several years the sum of ^10 per 
annum. Mrs. Thornton added £5, 
and Lady Hewley's trustees £24, 
the total being about £50. A gra- 
dual improvement, however, took 
place in 1782, and Mr. Howell was 
ordained over a church of twelve 
members. The death of Mrs. 
Thornton, soon after, seemed cala- 
mitous, but the preaching of her 
funeral sermon drew many to hear 
it, and created a more favourable 
impression towards the new sanc- 
tuary. Soon after, Mr. Cunning- 
ham, of Ellenthorp, died, and 
Mr. Howell succeeded him, preach- 
ing there one sermon in a fortnight. 
By this means his resources were 
improved. A state of great spiritual 
prosperity followed. Three gal- 
leries were successively built. Mr. 
Howell was incessant in his exer- 
tions in the localities around, and 
saw before his death six chapels arise 
in the places where he had been 
accustomed to preach. In 18 17, 
the Knaresborough chapel was con- 
siderably enlarged. At that time 
the church consisted of 110 mem- 
bers. Several considerations, added 
to the visitation of a nervous fever, 
at last led Mr. Howell to yield 
up Ellenthorp to the Rev. Mr. 
Norris, of Boroughbridge. 

The following is from the pen 
of Mr. Howell's son, W. Howell, 
Esq., Starbeck : " My father was 
chosen by the London Missionary 
Society as the Superintendent of 
the Mission to the South Seas, in 
the second voyage of the ' Duff.' 
They sailed at the close of 1799. 



The 'Duff' was captured by a 
French privateer, and all the mis-' 
sionaries were carried to Monte 
Video. After a delay of some 
months they bought a brig, and set 
sail for England. They were next 
captured by a Portuguese fleet, and 
taken to Lisbon. From thence 
they sailed for England, and arrived 
at Falmouth about the end of the 
year. My father at once resumed 
his charge of the church at Windsor 
Lane, after an absence of nearly 
a year. He continued to hold the 
pastorate till 1833, when he par- 
tially resigned his charge, but 
preached once every Sunday until 
1835, when he resigned entirely." 

1835. Rev. John Glendenning. 
Died at Knaresborough, 1839. 

1839. ^ ev * J- Robertson, from 
Selby. Removed 1852 to Meva- 

1 854. Rev. George Gladstone, 
from Hull. He left Knaresborough 

i860. Rev. Richard Redman. 
Removed to Blackpool, 1 864. 

1864. Rev. E. Corbold (Ches- 
hunt), from St. Petersburg, the 
present minister. 



The Rev. B. Boothroyd, when 
at Pontefract, began to preach 
in this village occasionally, and 
was aided by J. Clapham, Esq., 
Leeds. A chapel was erected in 
1807. Many unfavourable circum- 
stances, however, marked the early 
history of the congregation. The 
pastors have been — 

* Aided by Rev. W. Sanders. 

1 8 1 1 . Rev. J . Chalmers (Aber- 
deen Univ.). Removed to Stafford. 

1 8 16. Rev. William Lees 
(Rotherham Acy.). During his 
ministry galleries were erected. 
Removed 18 19 to Dogley Lane. 

1820. Rev. J. E. Millson, from 
Hatfield. Resigned from ill-health 
1827, and removed to Thorne. 

1 83 1 . Rev. William Gothard, 
from Balderstone. Removed 1834. 

1845. Rev. J. Denniston, from 
Huddersfield. Ob. i860. Much 

Brotherton,* Fairburn, and Knot- 
tingley were united in the year 
1865. The pastor has been — 

1865. Rev. W. Sanders (Ro- 
therham Coll.), the present minister. 


The town of Leeds was early 
known as a centre of Evangeli- 
cal Christianity and Independent 
opinion. After the death of Rev. 
W. Styles, the desire of the 
parishioners had been to have the 
Rev. E. Bowles as their vicar. 
But the events of the Restoration 
disappointed this desire, and Dr. 
Lake was appointed. Robert Todd 
and Christopher Nesse were suc- 
cessively Evangelical lecturers. 

The Rev. Leonard Scurr was 
ejected from Beeston, Leeds. He 
was a man of property, some of 
which was at Pontefract, but is said 
by Calamy (a rare accusation in 
those times !) to have been of in- 
different character. His house at 
Beeston was broken into by ruffians 
(1680), who murdered him, his 

* The chapel at Brotherton was erected 
1838. The ministers before its union with 
Knottingley have been, Rev. D. Senior, 
Rev. H. F. Rusted (1855), Rev. G. B. 
Scott (1859), Rev. W. H. Dickenson. 



aged mother, and the maid-servant, 
and then set fire to the place. One 
of the murderers was afterwards 
executed on Holbeck Moor. — 
(Thoresby's Diary, vol. i„ p. 35). 
Boothroyd («« Hist, of Pontefract ") 
mistook the park at Beeston for the 
park at Pontefract, and half sus- 
pected that he had done so. 
Thoresby, in a MS. letter, says 
of Scurr: "He was somewhat con- 
tentious as to lawsuits, but other- 
wise no ill man that ever I could 
learn, though some, from the dis- 
tinguishing calamity which befell 
him, have been led to suspect some 
enormous guilt." 

St. John's Church was built in 
1634, and Robert Todd was ap- 
pointed incumbent, having James 
Sale for assistant. When the 
plague raged at Leeds, Todd was 
most earnest and constant in his 
labours. " But what the plague 
could not effect was accomplished 
by the Act of Uniformity, which 
drove the holy man from the post 
he had filled so successfully, and 
doomed him to silence, or to preach 
privately and with much peril in 
his own house to the few who had 
courage enough to attend him 
there."* During his last illness, 
being solicited to send for a phy- 
sician, he said, " No ; there is 
but one in England who can do 
me good, and that is King Charles, 
by giving me liberty to preach." 
He died in 1664, and was buried 
in the chancel of St. John's. 



The history of the Mill Hill 
Presbyterian congregation is ex- 
tremely interesting, though we 

* Scales' MSS. 

can only give a brief abstract of 
its earlier periods. The chapel 
was built after the Declaration 
of Indulgence in 1672, and had 
originally, it is stated, four mini- 
sters,* Stretton, Sharp, Todd, and 

Rev. Richard Stretton had been 
ejected from Petworth, and was after- 
wards chaplain to Lord Fairfax, on 
whose death he became minister of 
the new chapel, f After six or 
seven years' residence, he removed 
to London. Cornelius Todd (ej. 
Helaugh) was the son of Rev. 
Robert Todd (ej. St. John's, 
Leeds). After some time at 
Leeds, he withdrew to Ellen- 
thorp (see p. 259). Of Thomas 
Sharp, M.A., an account has been 
already given (see p. 234). James 
Sale had been formerly minister 
of the New Church, Leeds. After 
his ejectment, he usually resided 
at Pudsey. He died of a palsy, 
after being incapacitated for several 
years, April 17, 1769, and was 
buried at Calverley. On the re- 
moval to London of Rev. Richard 
Stretton — 

1677. Rev. Thomas Sharp, 
M.A., became sole pastor. He 
was twice married, his second 
wife being Sale's daughter. He 
resided at Horton, Bradford, usually 
riding over on Sunday morning, 
preaching twice, and returning in 
the evening. At length he took 
a house at Leeds, though he did 
not relinquish his residence at 
Bradford. He declined the con- 
tributions of his poorer flock, 
having property" of his own, nor 
would he receive money for occa- 
sional services. He wrote verses, 
which were much esteemed by his 

* Calamy. 

f Wilson's " Dissenting Churches," 
vol. iii. p. 129. 



friends. He was a man of con- 
siderable pulpit power, and was 
much admired by his flock, one 
of whom (Thoresby) speaks of him 
as " incomparable." His death at 
Leeds is recorded by his friend and 
executor, Thoresby, and must have 
been very aiFecting. Sharp was 
succeeded by 

Rev. Timothy Manlove, M.D. 
He had settled at Pontefract, 
whence he with difficulty re- 
moved. He was a man of ability, 
education and piety, though some- 
what severe in temper. He did 
not long remain at Leeds,* but left 
for Newcastle (1698) where he 
died soon after. His successor 
was — 

1698. Rev. Peter Peters, spoken 
of in the Northowram Register as 
" a choice young man, of excellent 
parts and usefulness." His ministry 
lasted from 1698 to 1705. After 
him came — 

Rev. William Pendlebury, 
M.A. (Frankland's Acy.), from 
Kendal, who had studied in Scot- 
land. He died Nov. 12, 17 10. 
He was followed by — 

Rev. Joseph Cappe. Whether 
in his time the doctrines preached 
in the chapel verged towards 
Unitarianism is uncertain, but there 
is no doubt that during the mini- 
stry of his successor — 

1748. Rev. Thomas Walker, 
M.A., they did so. Mr. W.'s 
ministry extended from 1748 to 

1763. Rev. Nathaniel White 
followed, 1 763 to 1 766. He was 
in turn succeeded by 

1767. Rev. Joseph Priestley, 

* During his ministry, Thoresby mani- 
fested those tendencies which ultimately 
led him into conformity. Manlove sharply 
rebuked him ; whether with judgment, it 
is now impossible to decide. 

LL.D., 1767 to 1773. Of him 
we have spoken elsewhere (p. 43). 
The congregation was now become 
altogether Unitarian. 


We have elsewhere stated some 
of the occurrences which affected 
the religious character of Leeds 
before the year 1662. In that year 
the Rev. Christopher Nesse, M.A., 
was ejected from the parish 

Nesse was born at N. Cave 
(E. Riding), and educated at Cam- 
bridge. He was afterwards a most 
useful minister at Cottingham, near 
Hull. Thence he came to Leeds, 
as lecturer at the parish church. 
He remained here during the vica- 
riate of Rev. William Styles till 1 660, 
and subsequently during that of Dr. 
Lake, afterwards Bishop of Chi- 
chester, with whose High Church 
opinions Nesse by no means agreed. 
He was avowedly an Independent 
in principle, having joined the 
Congregational Church at Topcliffe 
in the year 1661 ; and the differ- 
ence between his own teachings 
and that of Dr. Lake became very 
marked and notorious. The Duke 
of Buckingham attempted to flatter 
him into conformity after 1662, 
but Nesse was too high-minded to 
be thus cajoled. When the Five- 
mile Act was passed he retreated 
to Clayton, and afterwards preached 
for a time at Morley, though that 
place was within the prohibited 

* Rev. — Cudworth was, in old age, 
ejected from Beeston, and died not long 
after. Rev. Thomas Hawksworth was 
also ejected from Hunslet ; Rev. T. Sharp 
from Adel. 



distance. He then returned to 
his own house at Hunslet, where 
he instructed pupils and preached 
privately. Several Christian people, 
probably the adherents of his 
ministry, had long desired to form 
a Congregational church, but the 
perils of the times deterred them. 
At length, when the year 1672 
afforded a respite from persecution, 
Nesse instigated them to form 
themselves into a religious society, 
and they agreed " to meet every 
Friday afternoon to ' try the spirits' 
of each other, intermixing the 
weekly meetings with days of 
humiliation, spending the time 
allotted in prayer, and answering 
soul cases, or questions from 
Scripture." * 

When this measure had been 
taken, information of it was con- 
veyed to the two Independent 
congregations in the vicinity of the 
church ; to Woodchurch, of which 
Mr. Nesse had become a member 
in 1 66 1 ; and to Bradford-Dale 
(Kipping). These sent messengers 
to congratulate the Leeds Christians 
on the course they had taken, 
recognising at the same time their 
independent action. The deputa- 
tion from Woodchurch consisted of 
Brethren Gledhill and Hargreave ; 
that from Bradford-Dale, of George 
Wade. Mr. Nesse was chosen the 
first pastor. One of the first mea- 
sures was to choose a suitable place 
for public worship. They fixed 
on a building in Water Lane, which 
bore the name of ' the Main Riding- 
house.' But when the persecution, 
which had been intermitted, was 
revived, Nesse became especially 
the object of attack. Seeing no 
probability of tranquillity, he re- 

* Record of proceedings at CalJ Lane 
Chapel, Leeds j quoted by Rev. T. Scales 
in the " Congregational Register for the 
West Riding," 1857. 

moved to London in the year 1675, 
where he preached to a congrega- 
tion in Salisbury Court, Fleet 
Street.* He was the author of 
several works, especially " The 
History and Mystery of the Old 
and New Testaments," in 4 vols., 
folio; "Divine Legacy bequeathed 
to all Mankind," 1700; "Com- 
plete and Compendious Church 
History," 1680; "A Christian's 
Walk and Work on Earth," 
1678. Nesse was succeeded by — 
1675. Rev. Thomas Whitaker. 
He was a native of Lancashire, 
and had preached there for some 
time when he received an invita- 
tion to Leeds. He found the con- 
gregation much divided, in conse- 
quence of the removal of their 
former pastor. But he overcame 
all difficulties, and remained pastor 
for thirty-four years. In the latter 
part of the reign of Charles II. he 
was imprisoned for Nonconformity 

* It seems, however, that Nesse's fre- 
quent absences from his congregation ex- 
cited not a little dissatisfaction among 
them. The Call Lane record states that 
this subject was considered at one of the 
church meetings, and that the result was 
a resolution that Mr. Nesse should be re- 
garded as having withdrawn from them, 
and having broken the relation between 
them. This resolution was accordingly 
ordered to be conveyed to Mr. Nesse. 
Nesse, however, gives a different ac- 
count: — "I was forced from my pulpit 
at Leeds (which God had so blessed) for 
preaching this doctrine — That all Divine 
worship must have a Divine warrant; 
preaching privately ever after thereabout, 
where God opened a door. This likewise 
so enraged the adversary, as to get me ex- 
communicated three times, and the fourth 
time a writ De Excommunicando capiendo 
was issued out to take me, and another to 
take Mr. Awkland (born in Leeds), who 
was taken, and died in prison. But my 
Lord, having more work for me to do in 
this world, moved one of the spiritual 
court to give me timely notice, so that I 
made my escape to London." — Thoresby, 
Corresp. ii. p. 131. 



in York Castle,* having Heywood, 
his intimate friend, for his fellow- 
sufferer. During this period of 
eighteen months, he regularly wrote 
out and sent to his flock the 
sermons he would otherwise have 
preached ; and his people in return 
administered to his necessities. 

In 1 69 1, after the passing of 
the Toleration Act, the congrega- 
tion erected in Call Lane what 
was in those days described as 
',' a stately chapel or meeting-house, 
with a turret on the leaded roof." 
Here Mr. Whitaker continued 
his ministry, esteemed and beloved 
by all, till his death in 17 10. 
Some of his sermons, "On the 
Unclean Spirit," were afterwards 
published, with a preface by 
Rev. Thos. Bradbury (afterwards 
of London), who lived for some 
time under his roof, and occa- 
sionally preached for him.f In 
the same volume with Whitaker's 
sermons are two discourses preached 
by Bradbury to the congregation at 
Call Lane on the occasion of his 

Whitaker was succeeded by Rev. 
Wm. Moult, a pupil of Mr. 
Jollie, Attercliffe, afterwards settled 
in Derbyshire. He married a 
daughter of Crompton, of Don- 
caster, 17 1 7. During his mini- 
stry, in 171 5, the number of 
hearers is stated to have been 
800. His influence among the 

* What rendered this trial more severe 
was the death of his wife during his im- 
prisonment. The informer against him 
was Kirkshaw, whose estate Thomas 
Whitaker, jun., afterwards purchased, 
and relieved Kirkshaw's descendants from 
the penury caused by the vices of their 
parent. — On the authority of Dr. Toul- 
min, Scales' MSS. 

f Bradbury was a native of Wakefield. 
He was a pupil of Mr. Dickenson, North- 
owram. He afterwards studied at Jollie's 

Nonconformists of his neighbour- 
hood appears to have been great. 
He died Sept. 15, 1727. "A 
very great loss," says Dickenson, 
of Northowram, "to that congre- 
gation and the Church of God." 

1727. Rev. Thomas Whitaker, 
son to the first pastor. He is re- 
ported to have been a " plain, 
serious, practical preacher;" but 
as he sedulously avoided all points 
of controversy at a time when 
some of the most essential doc- 
trines of the Gospel were denied, 
his love for those doctrines may 
be regarded as questionable. A 
considerable number of his hearers 
were at least suspicious on the 
subject, and left him to attend . 
the preaching of Mr. Edwards. 
Whitaker was minister at Call 
Lane during more than half a 
century. In his latter years he 
was assisted by his son, Rev. Wm. 
Whitaker (Daventry Acy.), whose 
opinions probably resembled those 
of his father. He died (after 
preaching two sermons at Morley 
on sudden death) from the rupture 
of a blood-vessel, consigning the 
MS. of the sermons for publica- 
tion to Rev. S. Palmer, of London, 
so that a copy might reach each 
of his people. 

The congregation now ceased to 
be identified with Evangelical Con- 
gregationalism, and the chapel, after 
sundry changes, is now used by the 
General Baptists, though, as Mr. 
Scales says, " it is to all intents and 
purposes an Independent founda- 
tion, and belongs legitimately to 
that body." 

WHITE CHAPEL, afterwards 

Among the early preachers in 



Wesley's connexion was the Rev. 
John Edwards, born at Shrewsbury, 
but convened under the preaching 
of the Rev. George Whitefield. He 
was located for a time at Leeds, 
where the Society was much di- 
vided, and their discords were a 
subject of deep complaint from 
Wesley himself. As Edwards's 
views more resembled those of 
Whitefield than Wesley, he and 
many others withdrew themselves, 
and formed a separate congregation, 
much increased by defections from 
Call Lane. For them a chapel was 
erected, called White, or Whitehall 
Chapel. Mr. Scales says of his 
predecessor : " He was a good and 
holy man, a faithful preacher, and 
an earnest advocate of the doctrines 
of grace. Some, indeed, who were 
not well-affected to those doctrines, 
represented his preaching as licen- 
tious in its tendency But 

the good man's holy life and labours 
did far more than all beside to 
silence all such injurious aspersions, 
and to prove his to be the doctrine 
which is according to godliness." 
In his day the maintainers of evan- 
gelical doctrine were comparatively 
few; but those few were highly 
esteemed. Some persons came even 
from Bradford to profit by Mr. 
E.'s ministry. His chapel soon 
became too small to accommodate 
his hearers, and was enlarged. In 
the latter years of his life* the 
Rev. Edward Parsons (Trevecca 

* In the memoir of Rev. S. Bradburn, 
a preacher among the early Methodists, he 
states that when he was sent to Bradford in 
the year 1 781, the then new Independent 
pulpit was offered to him, which he de- 
clined. Also that Mr. Edwards's congre- 
gation repeatedly and pressingly urged him 
to become co-pastor with Mr. E., and that 
Mr. E. himself joined in the request. He 
refused, however, to leave the Methodist 

Academy) became his assistant. He 
died Feb. 17, 1785, ast. 70. 

He was the editor of a " Vindi- 
cation of Doctrine of Justification," 
by Traill. 1753. 

On his death, Rev. Edward 
Parsons succeeded him. After a 
few years a new chapel appeared 
desirable. Salem Chapel was ac- 
cordingly built, near to the place of 
the former sanctuary. But some 
were still attached to the old 
locality, and they invited Rev. 
George Wilson, from Durham, 
to be their minister (1792). After 
a few years he resigned his office 


1806. Rev. William Eccles, 
from Rotherham Academy. Mr. 
Eccles was a man of sincere piety, 
and the congregation increased 
under his ministry. He became sec- 
retary to the West Riding Auxiliary 
Missionary Society, in which de- 
partment his labours were very 
effective. In 181 8 he accepted 
the charge of a chapel in Camber- 
well, London, after a twelve years' 
ministry at Leeds. — (See Hopton.) 

1 8 19. Rev. Thomas Scales, 
from Wolverhampton. 

The mention of his name in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire will 
always be attended with strong 
expressions of esteem and respect. 
As a minister of Christ he was 
eminent for devotedness and zeal. 
These excellencies were by no 
means confined to his own pasto- 
ral circle, but were widely and 
beneficially extended wherever need 
might be. The various public insti- 
tutions were largely and beneficially 
indebted to the labours of one who, 
though intelligently attached to the 
principles of his own denomination, 
was catholic in his views, and 
most efficient as a worker. Among 
other most important services the 
establishment and maintenance of 



Silcoates School for the education 
of the children of Independent 
ministers and missionaries, will be 
remembered with peculiar grati- 

In such a work as this, it is in- 
cumbent to record that much of 
the varied information therein con- 
tained, is due to the research and 
assiduity with which Mr. Scales 
treasured up information relative 
to the Congregational body. Had 
he been permitted to complete his 
materials, for which his very busy 
life afforded little leisure, the result 
would have been doubtless a pro- 
duction more worthy of the body 
of which it is a memorial. 

Mr. Scales was a native of Leeds, 
and was educated for the ministry 
at Hoxton Academy. He married, 
as his first wife, the daughter of his 
esteemed tutor, the Rev. Dr. 

In 1825, the necessity of in- 
creased accommodation for the con- 
gregation rendered the erection of 
a new chapel necessary. The 
locality was altered to Oueen Street, 
and the chapel, then the largest in 
the Riding, was opened April 27, 


When, in 1849, increase of 
years and infirmities rendered Mr. 
Scales's retirement necessary, he be- 
came chaplain (for a time) of Sil- 
coates School, and then retired to 
Gomersal till his death, 1 860. 

1850. Rev. William Guest. 
Mr. Guest's ministry was ardent 
and active. After ten years' pas- 
torate, however, he was compelled 
to retire, and he left Leeds for 
Taunton, i860. 

1 86 1. Rev. William Thomas 
(Rotherham Acy.), from Bradford. 
The present minister. 



We have spoken of the erection 
of this chapel during the ministry 
of Rev. Edward Parsons. Mr. P. 
was a student at Trevecca, and had 
preached much to congregations in 
Lady Huntingdon's connexion. Mr. 
Scales describes him as " a man of 
great energy of character, of very 
superior mental powers, of a mas- 
culine eloquence, decidedly evan- 
gelical in his views of the gospel, 
yet practical and experimental in 
presenting and enforcing them. He 
was justly popular, not only in his 
own and neighbouring congrega- 
tions, but also in the metropolis, 
where, at the Tabernacle and 
Tottenham Court Chapels, he 
preached as one of the annual sup- 
plies for a long series of years. He 
was frequently called to preach at 
the opening of chapels and the 
ordination of ministers, and several 
of the sermons delivered on these 
occasions, and also at funerals, 
were printed, and are very judicious 
and valuable. Besides these, he 
published new editions of the works 
of Watts, Edwards, and Charnock ; 
of "Neal's History of the Puritans," 
and Simpson's " Plea for the Divinity 
of Christ;" the two former of these 
valuable works were prepared for 
the press, in conjunction with the 
Rev. Dr. Williams. In an early 
part of his ministry he published a 
small selection of hymns for the 
use of the congregation at Salem 
Chapel, and afterwards joined his 
brethren, Hamilton and Scales, in 
preparing another and larger selec- 
tion, which, in its turn, has been 
superseded by the one now in use." 
Mr. Parsons's pastorate extended 
over forty-one years. At the age 
of 70 he resigned, with an ade- 
quate provision from his former 



flock.- He survived for a very- 
brief period, falling a victim to 
cholera in the Isle of Man, July 29, 

Aug. 21, 1833. Rev. John 
Ely (Hoxton Academy). Mr. G. 
had fulfilled a pastorate of nine- 
teen years at Rochdale, where 
his eloquence and untiring labours 
had been more than ordinarily 
conspicuous. Great expectations 
were formed of his removal to 
the West Riding, and they were 
abundantly fulfilled. He was 
widely engaged in public services, 
and sustained the cause of religion 
by his life and labours, whether 
the occasion were one of contro- 
versy or of general religious action. 
The increase of the hearers rendered 
a new sanctuary necessary. The con- 
gregation removed in 1841 to East 
Parade Chapel. 

On the vacation of Salem Chapel, 
it was taken by the congregation 
which had hitherto worshipped at 
Bethel Chapel, George's Street,* 
and was restored and improved. 

1 841. Rev. W. Hudswell 
(Idle Acy.), from Great Driffield 
and George's Street. No mini- 
ster was ever more esteemed for 
pastoral excellency and substan- 
tial worth. After a long struggle 
with failing health, he retired from 
the ministry (1867) amidst substan- 
tial tokens of public approbation. 
He still survives. 

1 868. Rev. H. Tarrant, from 
Sheffield, the present minister. 

* Bethel Chapel, George's Street, was 
purchased by the Independents (1802). 
Its first minister was Rev. W. Bennett. 
1806, Rev. W. Farmer. In 1816, he 
removed to Shelton. 18 16, Rev. Thomas 
Garrard. He retired in infirm health to 
Halesworth, where he died. Rev. Ro- 
bert Harper, from Northowram. 1826, 
Rev. Samuel Bellamy. Removed to 
Buckingham, 1828. 1832, Rev. William 



This chapel, which is a large 
and stately edifice of the Doric 
order, was built for the accommo- 
dation of the church heretofore 
assembling in Salem Chapel. It 
was opened Jan. 6, 1841. Its 
pastors have been, 

1 84 1. Rev. John Ely, whose 
ministry here was abundantly suc- 
cessful. Mr. Ely was the author 
of several works — " Winter Lec- 
tures," " Memoir of an Only Sister," 
and several single sermons, besides 
pamphlets on several current topics 
of the day. He died Oct. 9, 1847, 
aet. 54. His memoir, a beautiful 
piece of able and affectionate bio- 
graphy, was prefixed to a volume 
of his sermons by his fellow- 
student and earnest friend, Rev. 
Dr. Hamilton. (See p. 195.) 

1849. Rev. Henry Robert 
Reynolds, B.A. (from Coward 
Coll. and the London Univ., and 
afterwards of Halstead, Essex). 
Mr. R. was a worthy successor of 
the eminent men who had pre- 
ceded him. He was greatly be- 
loved. Failing health, however, 
cut short his pastoral course, and 
the hope that a short residence 
abroad might be the means of 
recovering his health, proved 
vain. He resigned in i860, and 
took the Presidency of Cheshunt 

1862. Rev. Eustace R. Conder, 
M.A. (Spring Hill and Lond. 
Univ.), from Poole. Mr. C. is 
the present minister. 

x 2 

3 o8 



A single Congregational pastorate 
has rendered the name of Albion 
Chapel distinguished, not only in 
Leeds, but throughout the denomi- 

About the year 1814, the chapel 
fell into the hands of a private indi- 
vidual, who invited Rev. Richard 
Winter Hamilton, then a student 
at Hoxton, to become its minister. 
His first services were attended by 
an extraordinary excitement, under 
the influence of which Mr. Hamil- 
ton, though he had been previously 
reluctant to form such an engage- 
ment, consented to become the 
pastor, after a church had been 
formed and the chapel placed in 
trust. Overflowing congregations 
evinced the popularity of the 
young preacher, who speedily at- 
tained a foremost place among pulpit 
orators. But this first impression, 
however strong, was evanescent. 
"Just then," says Mr. Scales, "a 
sermon on a public occasion, which 
he was persuaded to publish, and 
had committed hastily to the press, 
exposed him to the most severe and 
disparaging criticism, which exerted 
the most disastrous influence on his 
popularity, and greatly diminished 
the numbers of his admirers and 
followers. There is no doubt that 
in many respects the remarks of 
his critics were unduly severe, and 
their spirit culpably cruel. The 
eifect for a while was very dis- 
couraging, but the ardent spirit 
and vigorous powers of the youth- 
ful pastor enabled him to brave 
this untoward opposition, and 
gradually to overcome its influence, 
and to establish a still higher repu- 
tation on a firmer basis." 

Albion Chapel soon became too 
small for its numerous and increasing 

congregation, and it was resolved 
in 1835 to erect a more com- 
modious sanctuary. Accordingly 
measures were taken with the 
utmost energy and liberality, and 
Belgrave Chapel arose. It was 
opened Jan. 6, 1836, by sermons 
from the Rev. R. S. McAll, LL.D. 
(afterwards published), Rev. Dr. 
Newton, LL.D., and Rev. T. 
Raffles, D.D., LL.D. 

In 1 841 , " Nugae Literariae " was 
published; a volume which dis- 
played the excursiveness and power 
of Mr. H.'s highly gifted mind. 
Not long after he received from 
the University of Glasgow the 
diploma of LL.D., and from the 
Council of the University of New 
York that of D.D. 

Dr. Hamilton's publications were 
very numerous ; too numerous to be 
catalogued here. Among them his 
work on " Missions ;" the Essay 
on Education, which in 1 844 ob- 
tained the Manchester prize ; the 
Congregational Lecture on"Rewards 
and Punishments," the treatise on 
the Sabbath, and that on Prayer, 
besides two volumes of mis- 
cellaneous sermons, may be men- 
tioned as illustrating the industry and 
power with which he upheld the 
great principles of Christian truth. 
He had scarcely completed the 
almost perfect biographical sketch 
of his friend Ely, introductory to 
a volume of posthumous sermons, 
when he was called to follow him. 
At the age of fifty-four an attack 
of erysipelas supervening on a 
state of exhaustion from excessive 
labour, terminated his course. He 
died July 19, 1848, and was in- 
terred close to the remains of his 
beloved coadjutor, leaving a memory 
which will be long cherished by his 
brethren and the inhabitants of the 
town in which he lived. (See 
p. 1 79, et seq.) 



1848. Rev. George William 
Conder (of Highbury Coll.), from 
Ryde, Isle of Wight. Mr. C. left 
Leeds for Manchester, 1 864. 

1865. Rev. Robert McAll 
(of Rotherham Coll.), from Hanley, 
the present minister. 



A chapel was opened in this village 
in 1787, with the intention of 
connecting it with the Established 
Church. But the question of pre- 
sentation, claimed by the vicar, 
frustrated the design, and it fell 
into the hands of the Dissenters. 
The lord of the manor (J. Smyth, 
Esq.), who had given the land, 
closed it against them for some years. 
It was afterwards licensed, and at 
length became the property of 
the Congregationalists at Leeds. A 
church was formed in 18 10. The 
title of the Independents was, how- 
ever, resisted, and in 1813 it was 
consecrated for Episcopal worship. 

The congregation erected a 
chapel, which was opened May 1 2, 
181 5. The lirst pastor (18 16) was 
Rev. H. Hart, from Sandysike. 
He removed in 1 8 1 8 to Paisley. 

1 819. Rev. W. Eltringham 
(from Rotherham Acy.). In 1820, 
he left for Harrogate. 

1826. Rev. Robert Leslie 
Armstrong (from Idle Acy.). He 
was during twenty-five years an 
earnest and faithful minister. He 
resigned 1 85 1 , and died 1856. 

1 85 1. Rev. Samuel M.Bell, 
under the aid of the West Riding 
Home Mission. Removed 1856 
to Newton. 

1859. Rev. B. E. Wood (Aire- 
dale Coll.), the present minister. 


(congre gational.) 

A chapel was erected here in 
1837. The pastors have been 

1837. Rev. John Wilcock. 
His ministry began well ; but after 
a time the scene was clouded, and 
the place became forsaken. 

Latterly the ministers have been — 

1857. Rev. Joseph Fowler. 
Left in 1861. Now at Little 

1864. Rev. H. G. Parrish, 
B.A. (London Univ. and Lanes. 
Coll.). Now at Sittingbourne. 

1867. Rev. J. W. Atkinson 
(Richmond College, the present 



By the exertions of the late Rev. 
John Ely, a chapel was erected in 
1836, and opened in the year fol- 
lowing. In 1838 a church was 
formed. The following have been 
pastors — 

April 11, 1839. Rev. John 
Cummins, formerly missionary at 
Madagascar. He laboured with 
much earnestness, and removed in 
1844 to Stubbin. 

Sept. 12, 1844. Rev. James 
Hugh es Morgan (of Airedale Coll.), 
He has been for many years the 
active secretary of the West Riding 
Home Mission, and Congregational 
Union. He is the present minister. 



A secession from Queen Street 
during the ministry of Rev. T. 
Scales purchased the chapel in 
Byron Street, where a church was 

3 io 


formed, receiving at first the aid of 
neighbouring ministers, and at length 
inviting as pastor, 

1838. Rev. Edward Jukes (of 
Highbury Coll.). After the mini- 
stry of a few years, he removed to 
Blackburn, and the chapel was sub- 
sequently closed. 



An Italian style of architecture 
has been here adopted. The chapel 
will accommodate about 700 per- 
sons, and the cost has been mainly 
borne by the congregations at East 
Parade and Queen Street Chapels. 

1867. Rev. Alfred Holden 
Byles, B.A. (of Lanes. Coll. and 
Berlin), is the first and present 


"The Congregational chapel at 
Leyburn was built in 1793, partly 
at the expense of Mr. W. Hartley, 
a lay preacher, and partly by indi- 
vidual effort and gratuitous labour." 
During the first few years the ser- 
vices were conducted by lay agents, 
among whom were Mr. Hartley 
and Mr. Brotherton. A student, 
named Rose, preached for some 
time, but died before ordination. 

181 1. Rev. George Brooks, 
(Hoxton Coll.), became the pastor. 
He remained for thirty-two years, 
and retired in 1843. 

1843. Rev. George Cragg. 
This respected pastor remained till 
1847, when he retired to Harro- 

1857. Rev. John Harland, 
from Seaham, the present pastor. 



This place, of which mention is 
made ins Heywood's memoirs, was 
licensed about 1673. Hey wood 
preached in it on March, 1695. 
Lidget is not mentioned in Neat's 

Rev. — . Andrews. 

1766. Rev. Joseph Marshall. 
Died after forty-eight years' mini- 
stry, 18 14. Chapel rebuilt 1768. 

1 8 14. Jeremiah Donnoghue 
succeeded. He was originally a 
Catholic priest. The chapel is now 



There was early preaching in 
LightclifFe. The early minister 
was Rev. Jonathan Wright, who 
was ordained in Horton, Bradford, 
in 1694. He married a widow of 
Rev. W. Courlass,* rector of Mars- 
ton. He received aid from the 
Stretton fund. After Mr. Wright's 
death, the preaching, which seems 
to have been in a private house, 
was discontinued. He was pro- 
bably related to Joshua Wright, 
O. Heywood's friend. 

A chapel, erected in 1823, by a 
body of Primitive Methodists, was 
purchased by the Independents. 
The services were conducted by 

* Dorothy, daughter of Bryan Dixon, 
of Hunslet Lane, Leeds, was born 1665. 
Her memory was extraordinary. She 
could bring home the greatest part of a 
sermon she had heard, as well as if it 
had been written in short-hand. This 
recommended her, it seems, greatly to 
ministers, by whom she was much sought 
after. She married for her first husband 
Rev. Wm. Courlass, Rector of Marston. 
— Thoresby's Leeds, 6iz. 



students for several years. The 
ministers have been — 

Circ. 1830. Rev. Andrew 
Sawyer. About 1840 the chapel 
was closed for a year. 

1.841. Rev. Hanley Pickers- 

1844. Rev. George Swann. 

Rev. Edward G. Cecil. Mr. 
C. left for Surrey Chapel, London, 

1855. Rev. Joseph Hoyle, 
B.A. (Airedale Coll.), from Pick- 
ering. He removed to Staindrop, 
Jan., 1863. 

1864. Rev. John Thomson 
(Edinburgh and Glasgow), from 
Beaminster, who is the present 




chapel was erected in 1828. 


successive ministers have 

been — 

Rev. John Raine. 


Rev. James Bruce. In 

the beginning of Mr. Bruce's minis- 
try a church was formed 


Rev. B. Longley. 


Rev. John Ramsay. 


Rev. J. E. Evans. 
Rev. N. Woodcock. 


Rev. E. Reeve. 


Rev. F. Laurie, the 

present minister. 


(See Sheffield.) 



Preaching was begun among this 
increasing population in 1851, by 
the conjoint ministers of Booth, 

Sowerby, and Sowei by Bridge. At 
length Messrs. Whitworth, whose 
factory is near, resolved to build a 
chapel and dwelling-house, which, 
with all appurtenances, cost be- 
tween .£5000 and £6000. The 
chapel was opened April 22, 1859, 
and a church was formed. 

1859. Rev. Arthur Hall (New 
Coll.) was the first pastor. His 
ministry was very energetic and 
active. He removed to London 

1864. Rev. S. D. Hillman, 
(New Coll.), the present minister. 



About the year 1690, or earlier, 
Philip Lord Wharton fitted up a 
shooting-box, called "Smarber Hall," 
situated near Low-row, five miles 
distant from the parish church at 
Grinton, to be used as a place of 
worship for "Protestant Dissen- 
ters." His lordship also gave 
two parcels of land in the county 
of Westmoreland, the rents of 
which were to be paid to the 
minister. One of these pieces of 
land is situated in the parish of 
Ravenstonedale, — the other in the 
township of Nateby, in the parish 
of Kirkby Stephen, and both are 
freehold. As fir as can be ascer- 
tained, the following have been 
pastors of this chapel : — 

1690. Rev. J. Holland, of 
Frankland's Academy. He left 
Low-row in 1694, for Norton, near 
Sheffield, and died in 1701. 

Rev. James Taylor, of Frank- 
land's Academy. Buried 171 3. 

1 71 2. Rev. J. Burgess. He 
removed 1725 to Darwen. 

* Communicated by Rev. J. Boyd. — 
Scales' Scott, vol. i. p. 56. 



1725. Rev. Timothy Gard- 
ner, a pupil of Rev. Dr. Dixon, 
Whitehaven, from St. Helen's. He 
died in 1765, aet. 73. Probably 
an Arian. 

1766. Rev. James Benn, (of 
Kendal Academy), from Blakley. 
Died May 2, 1782, aet. 57. He 
was son-in-law to Mr. Gardner. 

1782. Rev. Ashley Meanley, 
(of Warrington and Daventry 
Academies), from Nantwich. He 
left, Nov. 1786, for Hucklow, 
and died at Stannington, near 

1787. Rev. David Simpson, 
(of the Universities of St. Andrew's 
and Edinburgh), from Holcomb. 
He died March 22, 1808, aet. 69. 

1807. Rev. John Allason, (of 
Homerton Academy), from Up- 
pingham. He was at first assistant 
to Mr. Simpson, whom he suc- 
ceeded. He died in 1836. 

In 1809 a new , chapel was 
erected, the site being given by 
Rev. T. Smith, then lord of the 

1836. Rev. Daniel Davis, (of 
Rotherham College). He remained 
only one year and six months. 

1838. Rev. John Boyd, (of the 
University of Edinburgh), from 
Appleton-wiske. He still survives. 

" The land is now held in trust 
as follows : — Mr. Boyd is to let and 
receive the rents so long as he 
remains the minister of the chapel, 
and at his retirement or death the 
trustees are to have the letting of 
said land, and to receive the rents, 
which they are to pay to the 
minister of Low-row Congrega- 
tional Chapel, as his salary in all 
time to come. On the death of 
any of the trustees, the appoint- 
ment of new trustees to fill up 
vacancies rests entirely with the 
members of the church and seat- 
holders, male and female ; but none 

can be elected a trustee in future 
unless he is a member of a Con- 
gregational church in England. 
The new trustees who are put in 
trust for the minister's house, 
Smarber Hall Chapel, the land in 
Westmoreland, and the present 
chapel at Low-row, are the follow- 
ing : — viz., Edward Broderick, of 
Summer Lodge, Swaledale, gentle- 
man; John Knowles, of Gorton 
Lodge, Low-row, gentleman, (who 
were the two surviving trustees of 
the chapel); James Knowles, of 
Paradise, Low-row, gentleman ; 
James Law, Esq. ; Silas Scott, 
Esq. ; and J. A. Clapham, Esq. ; 
all of Bradford; Wm. H. Con- 
yers, Esq. ; Thos. D. Yates, 
Esq. ; and G. Scotson, Esq. ; all 
of Leeds ; John Louis Crossley, 
Esq., of Halifax ; Titus Salt (the 
younger), Esq., of Saltaire ; Richard 
C. Allen, of Hawes, in the parish 
of Aysgarth, gentleman ; and Tho- 
mas Hunt, of Whitaside, in Swale- 
dale, yeoman. 

The present chapel being in 
great need of a thorough renova- 
tion, it is now proposed to make 
an effort to have it put in good 
repair, and rendered more com- 
fortable, and also, if possible, to 
have the burying-ground attached 
to the chapel enlarged, which it is 
earnestly hoped may soon be accom- 

The following notice respecting 
Low Row is found among the 
Scales' MSS. :— 

" The endowment left by Lord 
Wharton to Smarber Hall Chapel 
was in great danger of being lost, 
but was secured by passing succes- 
sively through the hands of three 
ministers. Mr. Taylor's only 
daughter married Mr. Gardner. 
His only daughter married Mr. 
Benn, who, on his father-in-law's 
death, left Blakley for the express 



purpose, and settled in Swaledale, 
when having just completed an un- 
disputed possession of sixty years 
through Taylor, his daughter, and 
granddaughter, he died, in 1782. 
His daughter, afterwards Mrs. 
Stewart, of Low Row, most 
honourably fulfilled her father's 
intentions by making over the 
estate in trust to the Trustees 
of Lady Hewley's Fund, to be 
managed for the benefit of the 



Among the ministers have been 
the following — 

In I730,ReV.HANANIAH Elston. 

In 1773, Rev. — Thompson. 

In 1786, a new meeting-house 
was built, the previous one having 
been shut up for eighty years or 

Rev. — Bartlett, assisted by 
Presbyterian and Independent funds. 

The place ultimately became 


Congregational dissent had its 
origin in Malton in the year 1773. 
In this year a chapel was erected, 
at the opening of which Rev. — 
Bottomley, Scarborough, preached. 
He took much interest in these 
early movements. 

The following is the list of 
pastors — 

Rev. — Meldrum, from Scot- 
land, the first pastor. 

* By aid of Rev. D. Senior. Rillington, 
Ryton and Norton have been branches of 
the congregation at Malton. 

Rev. — Suggit. 

Rev. — Bartlett. After several 
years' ministry, he adopted Unitarian 
sentiments. In consequence of this 
change, a new chapel was built, 
principally at the expense of Mr. 
J. Ryder, corn merchant. In this 
chapel the first minister was, 

1 81 5. Rev. W. Greenwood, 
from Idle Acy. He resigned his 
charge in 1827. 

1830. Rev. E. Gatley, from 
Brigg, educated at Rotherham. 

1843. Rev. G. Schofield. 

Oct. 11, 1857. Rev. D. Senior, 
from Selby. During the pastorate 
of Mr. S,, the chapel, which was 
out of repair, was restored at an 
expense of ^550. It was altered 
and entirely reconstructed to gain a 
school-room, without decreasing the 
chapel accommodation. This altera- 
tion was stimulated by J. Crossley, 
Esq., who behaved with his usual 

Mr. Senior retired from the 
pastorship July II, 1867, and is 
now living at Ovenden. On his 
removal a purse of gold was 
presented to him by friends of 
different denominations — a mark of 
their esteem and love. The num- 
ber of church members at Malton 
is 47. 



The congregation here originated 
in the efforts of several neighbour- 
ing ministers — Tapp, Kershaw 
(Baptist), Mitchinson (Church of 
England), and others. It was 
afterwards carried on by local 
preachers from Fish Street, Hull. 
The chapel was erected in 1808, 
and galleries were afterwards 
added. The pastors have been — 

1809. Rev. Thomas Hicks (of 
Hackney Acy.), the first pastor. 



He united Market Weighton with 
Pocklington, where he lived. He 
left for Doncaster, 1814. 

1 8 14. Rev. — Gray (of 
Rotherham Coll.). He remained 
only a year, and then resigned 
his ministry. 

Students from Rotherham now 
preached during some time. 

1815. R ev « Thomas Stott (of 
Rotherham Coll.), from Reeth. 
His ministry was brief, and he 
removed to Holderness. 

The chapel was now partially 
closed, and the congregation almost 
ruined. A new church was how- 
ever formed, who invited — 

1818. Rev. George Flogker. 
Mr. F. laboured blamelessly for 
twenty-eight years, and died April, 

1 847. Rev. John George. He 
remained four years, and left for 
Delph in Nov., 1851. 

After some months' interval, the 
Home Missionary Society sent — 

1852. Rev. F. W. Cox. He 
remained till May, 1857, when he 
accepted a call from the Colonial 
Missionary Society to Adelaide, 
South Australia. 

1857. Rev. E. H. Davies. 
In 1 86 1, he left for Tipton, and 
is now at Birstall. 

1 86 1. Rev. S. Jones (Cotton 
End Acy.). He removed to Gos- 
port, 1866. 

The pulpit is now vacant. 

(congregational .) 

Of the early history of the con- 
gregation here, we possess no 
authentic information. 

The following names of pastors 
are ascertained — 

1798. Rev. Silvanus Shaw. 

Mr. S. died May 29, 1824. Dur- 
ing his ministry a chapel was 
erected (1805) capable of contain- 
ing 320 hearers. 

1825. Rev. James Bond, from 
Clayton West. Mr. Bond died 
March 25, .1856. Mr. B. was on 
the Hewley Fund. 

1856. Rev. Hanley Pickers- 
gill, from Lightcliffe. Mr. P. 
left for Wrexham, 1 860. 

1862. Rev. F. Wilson. Re- 
moved to Haslingden, 1862. 

1864. Rev. Thomas W. 
Holmes, from the Methodist Free 
Church, the present minister. 

In the course of the year 1867 
a neat and commodious parsonage 
house was erected. 


This congregation had its origin 
in the house of M. Trowsdale, 
Esq., of Ugthorpe, a neighbouring 
village, where, in 1803, Rev. J. 
Arundel, then minister of Silver 
Street Chapel, Whitby, held occa- 
sional religious services. It was 
resolved to engage a suitable person 
to preach, and to evangelize the 
surrounding villages. The Rev. M. 
Docker was employed for that 
purpose in 1809, and his services 
were greatly blessed. The foun- 
dation of the present chapel was 
laid in 1 8 1 1 . The ministers have 
been — - 

1 81 3. Rev. — Maitland. 
During his residence a Sunday- 
school was commenced. 

Rev. — Sugden. *' A man of 
missionary spirit." 

Rev. J. Haigh. Herein 1824. 

Rev. — Aiden. He continued 
three or four years. 

* By aid of Rev. J. Jefferson. 



Rev. W. Hackett. His minis- 
try lasted for ten years. 

Rev. W. Bearpark, who preached 
for eleven years. 

1 86 1. Rev. R. S. Lewis. He 
removed in 1865 to Nantwich. 

No minister was appointed for 
two years. 

1867. Rev. J. Jefferson. The 
present minister. 

There are several neighbouring 
villages under pastoral inspection. 


This congregation was begun 
1 81 6. The church was formed 
August 1 1 . 

The pastors have been — 

1837. Rev. Robert Abram. 
Came to Martintop the 26th day 
of October, was ordained the 3rd 
day of July, 1838, and left Martin- 
top in May, 1843. 

1843. Rev. Ebenezer Sloane 
Heron. He was ordained in May, 
1846, and left in Nov., 1848. 

1853. Rev. John Dean. He 
was ordained June 5th, 1855, and 
died at Martintop, January 9th, 

William Jowett came to 
preach at Martintop in i860, and 
left in 1 86 1. 

The pulpit is now vacant. 



About the year i860 some of 
the members of the church at Mas- 
borough went on Sunday mornings 

* Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falding. 

to Mexborough, a populous village, 
about six miles' distance, to conduct 
a Sabbath-school, and to hold 
meetings for prayer and reading 
the Scriptures. A small chapel 
belonging to one of the Methodist 
societies, was rented, and a con- 
gregation gathered. In 1866-7 a 
new chapel was erected. 



The chapel here was erected in 
the year 1838. The church was 
organized Dec. 20, the Revs. 
J. C. Potter, G. Swann, W. Haigh, 
J. Boyd, and Knox taking part. 

The successive ministers have 
been — 

1838. Rev. N. O. Burgess. 
His stay was short. 

Mr. Fairfax was invited to take 
a year's pastorate, but after six 
months his health gave way. 

1839. Rev. — Thompson. Mr. 
T. resigned his charge Sept. 12, 

1842. Rev. Charles Bingley 
(Airedale Coll.). Mr. Bingley re- 
moved in 1 85 1 to a church at 

1856. Rev. H. P. Bo wen 
(Airedale Coll.). 

On the 28th March, 1856, the 
foundation-stone of a new chapel 
was laid by Isaac Wilson, Esq., of 
Menthorpe Hall. The chapel was 
opened in the same year. 

Mr. Bowen resigned March 4, 
1858, for Brentwood. 

1858. Rev. Dandson Black. 
He resigned in 1864. 

Jan. 7, 1866. Rev. James Chad- 
burn (Airedale Coll.). The present 

* By aid of Rev. J. Chadburn. 





The Rev. Nathaniel Heywood, 
brother of Oliver, was, during some 
time before his removal to Orms- 
kirk, the devout and useful incum- 
bent of Illingworth Church, and 
Was useful in all the surrounding 
neighbourhood. But the Noncon- 
formist congregation at Mixenden 
began in the labours of Rev. M. 
Smith, M.A. This laborious man 
was born in York in 1650, intro- 
duced to the ministry by Rev. 
Ralph Ward, and was afterwards a 
graduate of the University of 
Edinburgh. His first settlement 
was at Kipping. Extending his 
ministry to the neighbouring parts, 
he began to preach at Mixenden 
on week-days, at the house of John 
Hanson. The congregation gradu- 
ally increased and began to demand 
Sunday services, and Smith, during 
some time, divided his labours 
between Kipping and Mixenden ; 
much to the dissatisfaction of the 
former congregation. He was not, 
however, yet ordained. On James 
II. 's declaration for liberty of con- 
science, it was resolved to hold an 
ordination at Heywood's house, 
Smith being one of the several 
candidates. The people at Thorn- 
ton, however, made objections; 
claiming that Smith's ordination 
should be in the midst of his flock. 
The service was consequently post- 
poned. Smith was afterwards 
ordained alone at the house of 
John Berry, Shuckden Head, mid- 
way between Thornton and Mix- 
enden. Ultimately, after much 
contention, Smith relinquished his 
charge at Thornton, though he did 
not cease to be a frequent preacher 
there ; and he settled at Mixenden, 
where he possessed property, preach- 

* Aided by the Rev. B. Dale, M.A. 

ing alternately at Mixenden and 

In a memoir (written by his son) 
prefixed to a volume of his posthu- 
mous sermons, it is stated : " The 
civil government had made it un- 
lawful for Nonconformists to hold 
any public assemblies, which 
obliged them to fly here and there 
for safety, preaching frequently in 
the night, and undergoing many 
hardships. Yet he weathered all 
difficulties and quickly gathered a 
flourishing congregation. He was 
frequent in prayer ; he had the 
strongest affection, and a most 
ardent desire to do good, which 
fired him with an uncommon zeal 
and an unwearied application to 
industry in his blessed work. He 
was not afraid to reprove wicked- 
ness sharply in whomsoever he saw 
it, and dealt faithfully with souls. 
He took spirit and life with him 
into the duties of God's worship. 
The Lord's Day was his delight. 
He prevented the morning watch, 
and in the cold and darkness of 
winter he forsook his bed many 
hours before day to celebrate the 
praises of God. He was willing 
to spend and be spent for the good 
of souls. 

" He found a people as rude and 
uncultivated as the soil they in- 

" Many never went to any place 
of Divine worship, the few Dis- 
senters from the establishment 
were rigid Antinomians, and he at 
first had only one man to encourage 
his preaching." 

(M. Smith was married to a 
daughter of Lieutenant Sharp, of 
Horton, cousin to Rev. T. Sharp, 
of Leeds. His wife's grandfather 
had been concerned in several en- 
gagements on the Royal side, in 
one of which he was wounded in 
the head. After the death of 



Charles I., he would never suffer 
his beard to be shaved.) 

The character of this exemplary 
man has suffered much from the 
representation of Joseph Lister, 
who, being a deacon at Kipping, 
may be well supposed to have im- 
bibed the prejudices of the people 
around him. They were doubtless 
vexed at having lost so able a 
minister, though the style of Smith's 
preaching seems to have been too 
little doctrinal for their perfect 
satisfaction. Smith's sentiments 
were, indeed, inclining to Bax- 
terianism,* and he probably cared 
more to preach practice than theo- 
logy. " Practical godliness," he 
says in a letter, "is our principal 
concern." He describes himself as 
being "neither a Calvinist nor an 
Arminian, but one that treats in 
media via.'''' 

Smith suffered much from per- 
secution at Mixenden, as at Thorn- 
ton; he preached at uncertain hours, 
often in the night ; but though 
soldiers were frequently sent to 
apprehend him, he always escaped. 
Sometimes, for greater security, he 
and his people met in the seques- 
tered ravine, called "Binns'-hole." 

The first chapel appears to have 
been erected about the period of 
the Toleration Act. This building 
was afterwards converted into 
cottages, and is yet standing, known 
by the name of "The Old 

The second meeting-house was 
erected in 1 7 1 7 at Moor End (site 
of present chapel), On Smith's 
own estate, and, it is believed, at 
his sole expense. It is distant a 

* Smith says, in a letter (to Thoresby), 
"Election is God's purpose, now revealed 
in His Word, of saving every sinner, 
through Christ, who repents, believes, and 

half-mile from the former, and 
being in the direction of Warley, 
is conjectured to have been so 
placed more for the convenience 
of the minister (who preached at 
both places) than for that of his 

Smith educated several students 
for the ministry, who aided him 
in his frequent and apostolical 
labours. (Among others Accepted 
Lister.) After his death, a whole- 
sale destruction of his papers took 
place, they being profusely sold to 
shopkeepers and others. 

We have elsewhere referred to 
Smith's " Treatise on the True 
Nature of Imputed Righteousness," 
which awakened not a little 
clamour at the time of its appear- 
ance. Mr. Joshua Wilson speaks 
of Smkh's work, and says, "It 
appears that the plan of doctrine 
he endeavours to establish is the 
same with that of Mr. Howe, 
Baxter, &c." 

In this opinion Mr. Scales seems 
to have concurred, for he is stated 
to have said in a conversation with 
Mr. Preston, that " instead of 
branding Mr. Smith's memory 
with heterodoxy, he believed him 
to be more orthodox than Oliver 
Heywood himself." It may admit, 
however, of doubt whether Smith 
fully held Evangelical doctrine, 
though he was a most popular, 
animated and eloquent preacher. 
His departure, however, if any, 
could not have been very wide, 
as the doctrine of Atonement is 
clearly set forth in his writings. 
If he erred, it was not upon that 
point. Mr. Preston says, in re- 
ference to his published sermons, 
"He speaks much of repentance 
and of a new life, but he says 
nothing of a new heart." 

In the latter part of his life, 
when age and infirmities had 



gathered over him, Smith was 
assisted by his son, who left 
Warley to be near him. 

In 1732, Nathaniel Skelton gave 
20s. yearly for the benefit of the 
" preaching minister." 

Smith died 1736, having been 
minister fifty years. He bore his 
last affliction with much patience, 
and his dying scene was peculiarly 
touching and edifying. 

He was a recipient for many 
years of the fund administered by 
Mr. Stretton. In a letter to 
Thoresby, he describes himself as 
receiving from his two congrega- 
tions 10s. per day (/./. Sunday). 
He had also ^10 per annum from 
Lord Wharton, through Heywood. 
1736. Rev. John Smith, son 
of the preceding, who had been 
previously minister at Warley. He 
remained at Mixenden seventeen 
years, after which, he removed to 
Chapel Lane, Bradford (1753). 
He died in 1678, and was buried 
at Mixenden. He gradually verged 
into Arianism in his later years. 

1753. Rev. James Ritchie, 
M.D., from Alton. Arianism was 
still the doctrine of the pulpit, and 
the congregation became very small. 
Ritchie published " A Criticism on 
the Modern Notion of Sacrifice," 
in answer to Dr. Taylor and others. 
(This work was well spoken of by 
Dr. Magee.) He also prepared for 
the press an elaborate treatise " On 
the Peculiar Doctrines of Revela- 
tion and the Jewish Sacrifices," 
which his widow published by 
subscription after his death (1763). 
He resided at Shawbooth, and did 
much good as a physician. 

One of Ritchie's elders was 
Benjamin Patchett. He published 
in 1759 " A short Inquiry into the 
proper Qualification of Gospel 
Ministers: with some Directions 
how we, who are hearers, may 

know whether the Doctrines our 
Ministers deliver from the pulpit 
are according to God's mind and 
will, or not." This man was in 
the habit of calling out to the 
minister in the pulpit when any- 
thing displeased him. He was 
much respected and feared. 

1764. Rev. Thomas Evans, 
from Denbigh. He is reported to 
have been an Unitarian. He was 
probably an Arian. After fifteen 
years' ministry he died, at the age 
of 65, May 25, 1779. He kept a 
school in the Old Hall. He was 
on the Hewley list, 1774- 

"To Mixenden belongs the 
honour of originating one of the 
first Sunday-schools in England, and 
perhaps the very first in the parish 
of Halifax. And this school was 
probably commenced during Mr. 
Evans's pastorate, some years prior 
to the first school established by 
the celebrated Robert Raikes. Mr. 
Raikes's first school was not com- 
menced till 1 78 1 ; the one at Mix- 
enden was begun several years 
before that time,* and it is not at 
all unlikely but that many schools 
of a similar kind were held in diffe- 
rent parts of the county before 
Raikes gave notoriety to them 
as a public journalist. An old 
MS. in possession of the writer 
states: "That one Abram Burns 
was a Sabbath-day teacher, and 
was paid a trifle for his labour," 
and that " Benjamin Patchett, yeo- 
man, assisted as a free teacher." 
Dr. Watts's Catechisms and the 
' Assembly's Catechism ' were used 
in the school ; and between the 
services on the Sabbath Mr. Evans 
frequently collected the children 
together in the aisles of the chapel 
to impart scriptural instruction to 

* See page 158. 



them, and examine in the cate- 

1780. Rev. David Gronow 
(Unitarian). He remained only- 
two years. He was a Welshman. 
He seems, from his entries in the 
church registers, to have only 
imperfectly understood and written 
the English language. 

In 1780 a house and land were 
given by G. Stansfeld, Esq., 
Sowerby, for a minister's house and 
a school-room. 

1783. Rev. Daniel Jones. He 
spent eight years at Mixenden, 
with little credit to his ministry. 
" The disadvantage of reading ser- 
mons was seen in his case. One 
Sabbath morning he left the chapel 
while the people were singing, 
telling the precentor to continue 
doing so till he returned, while he 
ran nearly half a mile to Sandyfore 
to fetch his forgotten sermon, and 
as the house was shut up, the 
family all being at the chapel, 
he put a little boy in at a small 
window behind the house, telling 
him he would find the missing 
sermon on his desk."f Mr. J. 
left Mixenden, March 1791. 

1 79 1. Rev. James Rattray, 
from Scotland. He was a zealous 
Calvinist, little to the satisfaction 
of his hearers. He is said to have 
been " starved out." He removed 
to Sheffield, 1793. 

1793. Rev. John Bates, from 
Stainland. He had been formerly 
a General Baptist, and afterwards a 
local Wesleyan preacher. He seems 
to have had no definite ecclesiastical 
opinions. He was on the Hewley 
List, 1795. He left in 1796 for 

* Rev. J. Brierley, " Cong. Register," 

* 86 3» P- 153- 

"t" "Cong. Register for West Riding," 

1797. Rev. David Howard. 
He had been a local Wesleyan 
preacher at Ripponden. He was 
never ordained, but exchanged 
with Mr. Harrison, of Allerton, 
on communion-days. He engaged 
in business, but was unsuccessful. 
Some of the hearers wished Mr. 
Bates to return. After a contest 
for the pulpit, Mr. Bates became 
a second time the pastor, and Mr. 
Howard settled at Wortley, 1802. 

1802. Rev. John Bates (the 
second time). He kept a school 
in Halifax. Published notes on 
the Bible, and some abridgment 
of Baxter's works. He remained 
thirteen years, till his death, April 
23, 1815, aet. 6$. 

During his pastorate the chapel 
was rebuilt, 18 10. 

1 8 16. Rev. Abraham Clark- 
son (Idle Acy.). A part of the 
congregation desired to have the 
services of Mr. J. O. Bates, son 
of the preceding minister, and a 
separation took place, the seceders 
joining the Wesley ans. Mr. Clark- 
son organized a church, but the 
division rendered his stay uncom- 
fortable, and he left, before being 
ordained, Sept., 181 7, for Bingley. 

1 8 19. Rev. William Gibson, 
from Idle Academy. After accept- 
ing the invitation from Mixenden, 
he stayed, with strange indifFerence, 
some months at Sutton, near Thirsk. 
He at length took the pulpit, and 
was ordained. But differences arose, 
and after a time he left for Whit- 
worth (1821). 

1823. Rev. John Preston, from 
Idle Academy. During his minis- 
try (1836) the chapel was rebuilt 
on a larger scale. Mr. P. removed 
to Warley, in 1841, and died 1853. 

1842. Rev. Isaac Brierley 
(Pickering Acy.). The grave yard 
was now enlarged, and the debts on 
the chapel and school-room removed. 



In the Bi-centenary year the chapel 
was beautified. Mr. B. removed 
to Great Ay ton 1864. 

The pulpit is now vacant. 



The old chapel at Morley stands 
in an imposing situation, being 
placed on an eminence which pre- 
sents a commanding view of the 
adjacent country, whilst it is easily 
accessible from the town itself. It 
has recently undergone consider- 
able alterations. These have doubt- 
less added much to its substantial 
comfort, but they have also dimi- 
nished the antiquarian interest with 
which it was wont to be regarded. 
The removed old chancel, now 
replaced, seems to have been 
part of a Saxon church. About the 
time of Elizabeth, a tythe-barn 
appears to have been added. When 
increased population rendered a 
larger church necessary, the barn 
became the church, and the chancel 
was employed as a vestry and 
school-room. At a later period 
ihey were thrown together. 

Morley originally possessed the 
church for the parish of Batley. 
When the parochial arrangements 
were altered, and the church at 
Morley became a chapel of ease to 
Batley, the advowson of Morley 
passed into lay hands, and ultimately 
into the possession of Saville, 
Earl of Sussex, a distinguished 
political Presbyterian, who then 
resided at the ancient seat of his 
family, Howley Hall, now in ruins. 
For a time, shortly before the 
Commonwealth, the chapel was 
used for Divine service, but appears 
to have been afterwards disused. 
When Presbyterianism had asserted 

its supremacy, in the 9 th year of 
Charles I., 1640, the chapel, to- 
gether with the glebe, and a parson- 
age house, was leased by this Earl 
of Sussex, Stafford's unrelenting 
opponent, — " for the use and benefit 
of a preaching minister;" — that 
term marking a distinction between 
those who preached and those who 
merely read prayers and homilies. 
At the Restoration, it was claimed 
by the Established Church, whose 
members, for a time, used it for 
worship,* but the Trustees still 
kept possession of the house and 
adjoining land, and maintained their 
right to the chapel itself. 

After the Toleration Act, the 
possessors of the house celebrated 
religious worship for a time in the 
parsonage, which was then rebuilt, 
and licensed to be used as a meet- 
ing house. In the mean time, as 
there was no pecuniary provision 
for a clergyman at Morley Old 
Chapel, and as the attendance at 
the services held there was ex- 
tremely small, the arrangement for 
worship, according to Episcopal 
forms, seems to have worn itself 
out, and between 1693 and 1698 
the building fell again into the 
hands of its former Presbyterian 

About the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, Rev. Samuel 
Wales is mentioned as minister at 
Morley. He was probably the son 
of John Wales, of Idle, and brother 
to Elkanah Wales, of Pudsey. He 
was an earnest and zealous Puritan, 
an intimate friend of Lord Wharton, 
and was one of those who led the 
way to the nonconformity of later 

* The king's coat of arms, with the 
date 1664, a Prayer-Book of the reign of 
James II., and sundry mottoes, some of 
which are evidently directed against Non- 
conformists, are still preserved. 



It is doubtful who was the 
first pastor of the dissenters at this 
place. Calamy mentions a "Mr. 
Etherington, of Morley," who con- 
formed, and settled at Bramhope. 
After the passing of the Five-mile 
Act, Christopher Nesse retreated 
from Leeds to Morley, where he 
probably preached in private. His 
stay does not appear to have been 
long. Before this, in 1 661, he 
had become a member of the Con- 
gregational church at TopclifFe. In 
coming to Morley, therefore, he 
seems to have sought a familiar 
home. From hence, Nesse re- 
moved to Hunslet, where he 
preached and taught a school in his 
own house. He was soon chosen 
pastor of the newly-formed Con- 
gregational church at Leeds. Dun- 
ton speaks of him as "a man of 
considerable learning, but who 
labours under some unhappiness in 
his style." (See Call Lane, Leeds). 
After Nesse, the Rev. T. Sharp, 
M.A. (see Bradford) preached at 
Morley, continuing, probably, to 
reside at his own house, Little 
Horton. He afterwards became 
pastor at Leeds. (See Mill Hill, 

About this time, Rev. David 
Noble, "a learned man," resided 
at Morley, and gave education to 
youth. Joseph Lister placed his 
son David under his care, about 
1673, and Oliver Hey wood his 
two sons. Noble is spoken of as 
" a diligent, faithful man." He 
often preached in the vicinity, as 
at Topcliffe and at Kipping, where 
the sum of 5s. is attached to his 
name for an occasional service. (See 
page 272.) 

1674. Rev. SamuelBayley is 
described upon his tomb-stone at 
Morley as " Minister of the Gospel 
at Morley and TopclifFe." He was 
certainly pastor of the church at 

TopclifFe, though he preached 
much at Morley, where he origi- 
nated a monthly exercise. Being 
rich, he could afford to receive 
and entertain those who were 
engaged. At these exercises Hey- 
wood was * a frequent preacher. 
In 1669, he records an incident 
which must have taken place 
in the old chapel itself, though 
how Heywood was admitted 
within its walls, when it was 
occupied by the Episcopalians, 
we do not know. In the neglect 
of Episcopal services, perhaps 
the inhabitants would occasionally 
welcome the services of a Non- 
conformist. So Heywood had 
found it at Coley, and such seems 
to have been the case here. 

"June 26 " (1669) "I preached 
at Morley. When I was in the 
pulpit singing a psalm, Mr. Broad- 
head, vicar of Batley (to which 
parish Morley belonged) comes 
up tossing among the crowd up 
the alley, and got with much ado 
to the clerk ; bade him to tell Mr. 
Heywood to come down, and let 
him have his own pulpit, and then 
hasted away to Batley ; told Justice 
Copley what a multitude of people 
there were at Morley, hearing a 
Nonconformist ; he took no notice 
of it ; bade let us alone ; and so, 
through God's mercy, we enjoyed 
the day quietly." — Hunter's " Hey- 
wood," p. 211. 

Bay ley died early, Dec. 6, 1675, 
set. 27. 

A tomb-stone is erected in Mor- 
ley Old Chapel-yard to the memory 
of Rev. W. Hawden, ej., Broads- 
worth. After some changes of re- 
sidence, imprisonment, and loss of 
sight, he abode for some time at 
Wakefield, and was buried at Mor- 
ley, 1669, ast. 88. It is not known 
whether he was the minister at the 
old chapel, but the supposition 



would fill a gap otherwise unac- 
counted for. 

We have next mention made of 
Rev. Robert Pickering, M.A., 
born at Kippax, ej. Barley Chape], 
Selby, afterwards chaplain to R. 
Dyneley, Esq., Bramhope. He 
died 1680, aet. 44. On his tomb- 
stone at Morley it is recorded — 
" He accounted himself the meanest 
servant in the work of Jesus Christ." 
1688. Rev. Joseph Dawson, 
ej. Thornton. He was the son of 
Abraham Dawson, Morley. He 
was ordained at the first Noncon- 
formist ordination at Manchester, 
and was intimate with O. Hey- 
wood. A. Dawson had been 
charged by Ralph Oates as an 
accomplice in the Farnley Wood 
plot. The accusation does not 
appear to have touched the son, 
probably because it was not 
believed of the father. Dawson 
was a pious, zealous, affectionate 
man, intent upon his great work, 
and though a sufferer from poverty, 
never complaining, nor regretting 
his choice of Nonconformity. 

The Scales MS. copies an auto- 
graph letter, once in the possession 
of the late Mr. Upcott, from John 
Coppendale (Morley) to Mr. Stretton. 
It is a plea for relief to Mr. Daw- 
son, who was desirous, it appears, 
to settle wholly at Mcrley, being 
old and infirm. He was then preach- 
ing once a fortnight at. Birstall. He 
had received an invitation to take 
alternate services at Halifax with 
Mr. Priestley, then very young, but 
had no desire to Jeave Morley. Yet 
his people could only raise ^"24 per 
annum. Jan. 4, 1696. 

He had six sons, one of whom, 
Eli Dawson, was minister of Little 
Horton, Bradford. Eli Dawson 
had again seven sons, five of whom 
conformed. Three of them proved 
worthless, one eminently good This 

conformity was a subject of great 
regret to the family and friends. 
Hunter (MSS.) relates that it was 
mainly owing to the persuasion of 
Dr. Leigh, Halifax, and that the 
question being asked of Dr. L., 
" Was it to make them better men 
that you did it ? " he replied, with 
good humour, " No, it was to make 
us better ! " So great was the in- 
dignation which this conformity 
occasioned, that when an applica- 
tion was made on behalf of Joseph 
Dawson (Idle) for assistance of a 
fund to educate him at Glasgow, 
it was deemed necessary to certify 
that he was not one of the same 

Rev. Jos. Dawson died 1709, 
ast. 73, and is buried in the Morley 

1709. Rev. Timothy Aldred. 
A scholar, who devoted much time 
to his studies. He was a recipient 
of the Hewley Fund. Mr. A. 
was energetic in opposition to 
Wesley's doctrine of Christian per- 
fection. In his time the chapel 
was under-drawn. It is said that 
during the fifty-four years he re- 
mained pastor, he was only once 
absent from his pulpit. He re- 
signed his office, 1763. Neal de- 
scribes him as having 450 hearers, 
1 7 1 5. His wife was Mary Wilson, 
a widow. 

Mr. A.'s successor was Rev. 
Thomas Morgan, from Delph, 
who accepted the pastorate in 1763. 
He appears to have left his former 
sphere because his people thought 
that he was not fully Evangelical (it 
may be presumed he was a " Bax- 
terian ") and he created the same 
feeling among some of his flock 
at Morley. A division accord- 
ingly took place, and a separate con- 
gregation was formed (see p. 323). 
Mr. Morgan was under no suspicion 
of heterodoxy as it regards the 



Atonement, for among other tracts, 
he wrote, " An Appeal to the 
Common sense of Plain and Com- 
mon Christians on behalf of the 
Old Christianity of the Gospel," 
which drew Dr. Priestley, then 
at Leeds, into the conflict, in 
Wright's " Leeds' Intelligencer." 
Mr. Morgan was the oldest Pres- 
byterian minister in the West 
Riding, and extremely able, popu- 
lar, upright, and useful. In con- 
sequence of paralysis, he resigned 
his ministry in 1794, and died 
Sept., 1799, aet. 80. Mr. Morgan 
is said to have had a very fine 
person, " his demeanour the 
most reverend and dignified," says 
Scatcherd, " I ever beheld." Dur- 
ing the earlier part of his life 
he associated much with the Uni- 
tarians, till roused by the extreme 
opinions of Dr. Priestley. Mr. 
Morgan's son was librarian to Dr. 
Williams's library. 

1795. Rev. Samuel Lucas, 
pastor. He was from the Aca- 
demy at Daventry, and brought 
with him no bias towards Calvinism 
or Trinitarianism, though he did 
not push his opinions to extremity. 
On an invitation from Pontefract 
to become chaplain in the family of 
Mr. Milnes, of Ferry-Frystone, who 
had once lived at the Hall at Great 
Houghton, he left Morley in 
1806. He died suddenly Dec. 30, 

1807. Rev. Mr. Duncan. After 
an unsuccessful pastorate, partly 
caused by the Unitarian sentiments 
prevalent in the now small congre- 
gation, he retired 1815. 

18 1 7. Rev. Abraham Huds- 
well, from Bingley, pastor. His 
plain, earnest, effective ministry 
rallied the congregation, and re- 
established Evangelical sentiments, 
bringing the church once more 
into union with other bodies of 

the Congregational order. He re- 
mained pastor during twenty-two 
years, and died Feb. 27, 1838. 

1838. Rev. Joseph Fox, resi- 
dent at Leeds, ministered as pastor. 
He resigned his charge in 1841. 

1842. Rev. John Morris, who 
continued till 1854, wnen he ac- 
cepted the Professorship of Brecon 
College. Still surviving. 

1854. Rev. James Wonnacott. 
His ministry continued till 1859, 
when he left for Hertford. 

1862. Rev. F. Barnes, B.A. 
(Spring Hill and Lond. Univ.). 
Left for Birkenhead, 1865. 

1865. Rev. G Southey, B.A. 
(Spring Hill and Lond. Univ.), the 
present minister. 

Among those interred in the 
burial-ground of the Old Chapel, 
Morley, are William Thompson, 
ob. 1675; Dorothy, daughter of 
the poet Waller, a dwarf, sent 
down into the North for her 
health, ob. 1717 ; Lady Lough- 
borough, wife of the Lord Chief 
Justice, ob. 1 78 1 ; Abraham Daw- 
son, ob. 1 671; Nehemiah Wood, 
of Gildersome, who married one of 
Major Greatheed's daughters, ob. 
1 707 ; and Henry Greatheed, his 
son, ob. 1718; the Reyner family, 
John Scurr (see Leeds), and many 
others whose history possesses some 



1763. A division took place at 
the old chapel, at the coming of 
Rev. T. Morgan, which resulted in 
a new erection — completed in 

1764. Rev. John Parish, the 
first minister. He died 1782. 

1782. Rev. Joseph Sowden 

Y 2 



(Trevecca Coll., from Truro). He 
accepted an invitation to Booth in 

1784. Rev. Thomas Clough. 
He was invited to Booth, but de- 

1825. Rev. J. Heselton. 

1828. Rev. John Calvert (Idle 
Acy., from Colne). Died 1847, 
aet. 60. A good and faithful man. 
He laboured at Morley 19 years. 

During his ministry the chapel, 
minister's house, and graveyard 
were seized by the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, because the people worship- 
ing there refused to pay church- 
rates. At this time the present 
chapel was built, and a new house 
for the minister. 

1849. Rev. Jonah Reeve. 
(Highbury Coll.). From Upper 
Mill. Removed to Stowmarket 

1 86 1. Rev. W. Orgar, from 
Bingley. He left 1864. 

1865. Rev. John James (from 
Hinckley). The present minister.* 


In the end of the last century, 
under the ministry of the Rev. 
T. Clough at the preceding chapel, 
a division of the congregation took 
place, and some members, dis- 
affected to Mr. Clough's ministry, 
withdrew and formed another con- 
gregation at Churwell. A chapel 
was built here in 1804, called 
"Daffield Chapel." The pastors 
have been — 

1804. Rev. N. Dickenson. He 
was never ordained, but was very 
acceptable and useful. He died 
1846, aet. 73. 

* Aided by Rev. J. James. 
f Aided by T. Dodgson, Esq. 

The pulpit was occupied for some 
years by occasional preachers. 

In 1850 the congregation re- 
moved to Morley. 

1857. Rev. Richard Harris 
(Hoxton Acy.), from Westbury. 
Mr. Harris left for Leeds, i860. 

1862. Rev. D. W. Roe (from 
Gainsborough). Mr. Roe removed 

The pulpit is now vacant. 


This chapel was erected in 1 8 1 5. 
The first minister was 

Rev. John Capps. 
The present is 

Rev. Luke Nichols. 


The chapel in this place was 
built by Mr. Richard Lee, of 
Birkit, in the year 1696, whose 
initials, R. L., are over the building, 
and was endowed with a small 
plot of land, situated at Grassing- 
ton, Craven. The ministers have 
been — 

Rev. John Jollie, nephew to 
Rev. Thomas Jollie, of Altham. 

Rev. Joseph Gillibrand (Frank- 
land's Acy.), here in 1705, "A 
very judicious preacher, and a labori- 
ous, and very popular minister." 
Mr. Gillibrand left Newton in 
1 71 5, for St. Helen's. 

Rev. Peter Walkden. He was 
pastor in 1722, till his death in 
1769, ast. 85. He preached at 
Newton and Hesketh Lane, and 
was interred at the latter place. 
He had left Newton 1745, and 
removed probably to Stockport. 
The congregation was then small, 

* Information imperfect. 



and a neighbouring minister (Bur- 
gess) recommended it to be at- 
tached to Horton. 

Rev. Henry Walkden. He 
seems to have preached at Walker- 
fold chapel, as well as at Hesketh 
Lane and Newton. 

Rev. Thomas Clark. He 
preached at Newton and Wymond 
Houses, and retired a short time 
before his death, in 1820. 

Rev. Benjamin Nightingale. 

1838. Rev. J. Dickinson. He 
retired in old age, 1 851, and still 
survives, at the advanced age of 79. 

1 85 1. Rev. B. Booth. The 
present minister. 


The chapel was opened 18 19. 

1825. Rev. J. Benson, M.A., 
until 1832. 

1839. Rev. Joseph Walker. 
Removed to Hexham 1842. 

1842. Rev. J. Elrick. He 
removed to Sudbury 1 844. 

1845. R ev * William Palmer. 
Removed to Peterborough 1847. 

1848. Rev. S.Jackson. Died 

1849. Rev. J. B. Lister. Re- 
moved to Lewisham 1852. 

1853. Rev. Thomas Yeo. Re- 
moved to Gloucester 1865. 

1865. Rev. Richard Crook- 
all. The present minister. 



The congregation at Northowram 
owes its existence to the Rev. 

* Aided by Rev. R. Crookall. 
f Aided by Rev. B. Dale, M.A. 

Oliver Heywood, B.A. In 1650 
he received an invitation to the 
chapel at Coley, and having been 
ordained at Bury, according to the 
Presbyterian furm, he came hither 
as the minister. The proceeds of his 
chapelry were small, never exceed- 
ing £36 per annum. But Heywood's 
heart was large, and his motives 
nobly disinterested. Larger spheres 
were open to him, which he refused, 
resolving not to quit his humble 
station, where God had greatly 
blessed him. 

Heywood's persecutions began 
from the Restoration (1660). He 
was cited for not reading the Book 
of Common Prayer, and suspended 
in June, 1662, before the passing 
of the Act of Uniformity. After 
that Act, Nov. 2, he was excom- 
municated. Upon the Five-mile 
Act he retired into Lancashire, 
though sometimes secretly visiting 
his home. At length he ventured 
to preach more freely. He was 
imprisoned in 1669, but soon 
released. In the same year his 
goods were seized, and would have 
been sold, but that no purchaser 
could be found. In 1680 he was 
again excommunicated, for not 
taking the sacrament. But the 
bailiffs in charge of the warrants 
against him gave him warning of 
their coming, and he thus escaped 
imprisonment. A fine of .£50 was 
imposed upon him in 1685, for con- 
vening a riotous assembly, and, in 
default of payment he was sent 
to York Castle, where he was 
confined for a year. After his 
ejection he lived at Coley Hall, 
being joint tenant with Captain 
Hodgson, of the Horton family. 
On 8th May, 1672, he removed 
into his own house at Northowram, 
which he opened for preaching. In 
1672 he gathered a congregation at 
Northowram. He afterwards built 



a chapel (opened July 8th, 1688), 
principally at his own expense. 

His labours were unwearied and 
most extensive. " It was asserted," 
says Calamy, " by those who had 
the best means of information, that 
some thousands were indebted to 
his ministry for deep and abiding 
impressions of divine things." Most 
of the Nonconformist congregations, 
in a very wide district (of which 
Northowram was a central point), 
owed their origin or their con- 
tinuance to his apostolical exertions. 
See his Life, by Rev. Dr. Faw- 
cett, by Rev. Richard Slate, and by 
Rev. J. Hunter. 

The pastors of Northowram 
have been the following :— 

1672. Rev. Oliver Heywood, 
B.A., of Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 
Several valuable practical treatises 
proceeded from his pen. Among 
them are " Heart - Treasure," 
" Closet-Prayer," " Sure Mercies 
of David," " Life in God's Favour," 
" Israel's Lamentation," " Life of 
Angier," " Baptismal Bonds," 
" Meetness for Heaven," " Family 
Altar," " The best Entail," &c. 

A church was formed at North- 
owram by Heywood, with some 
deviation from strict Presbyterian 
principles. After the death of 
Rev. Henry Root many members 
of the society at Sowerby united 
themselves to it (June 18, 1672), 
among whom were Mr. Joshua 
Horton and his wife, Mr. Root's 
widow, Josiah Stanfield and his 
wife, and Capt, Hodgson and his 
wife. Some of the members of 
this church resided at Halifax, some 
at Warley, some at Allerton, and 
some at Little Horton, Bradford. 

Mr. Heywood, after a life of 
almost unparalleled usefulness, died, 
May 4, 1702, aet. 73. 

1 702. Rev. Thomas Dickinson, 
(Frankland's Academy.) He was 

ordained at Gorton Chapel 24th 
May, 1 694, according to the Pres- 
byterian forms. Mr. Dickinson was 
a valuable and devoted minister, 
thoroughly orthodox and evan- 

1 7 10. A New Trust Deed, be- 
tween Jon. Priestley, of Wintredge, 
and Nath. Priestley, of Ovenden, 
clerk, T. Dickenson, clerk, and 
others, describes the chapel as a 
" meeting-place for religious wor- 
ship for Protestant Dissenters." 

Mr. Dickinson married Hannah 
Foster, of Ossett, by whom he had 
twelve children, four of whom died 
before himself. One of his sons 
had been in two battles, but escaped 
unhurt. He was seized with fever 
on his passage from Carthagena, 
and died 1741. 

Mr. Dickinson died 26th Decem- 
ber, 1743, having been minister 
forty-one years, ast. 74. His tomb- 
stone is still at Northowram. 

1744. Rev. Robert Hesketh, 
Glasgow, from Eastwood, "an 
aged and valuable man; orthodox 
and peaceable." Removed to 

Mr. H. died Jan. 19, 1774, aged 
yj y and was interred in the chapel 
yard, where there is a tombstone 
with Latin inscription. The house 
for the minister was built in his time. 

1774 or 1775. Rev. Samuel 
Walker. There were thirty-three 
members of church on the Congrega- 
tional plan, 1783. Mr.W. was popu- 
lar at first. A new gallery was 
erected ; but the cause afterwards 
declined; people were divided. 
Resigned in 1792. Mr. W. suc- 
ceeded for a time to the tutorship 
of Scott's Academy, (see p. 164). 
He died in 1796. 

1793. John Bates, of Mixen- 
den, came here, but returned to 
Mixenden 1799. He does not 
appear, however, to have resided 



at Northowram. No dates in 
church books, &c. 

1 80 1. Rev. Robert Harper, 
minister at Northowram seventeen 
years. Succeeded in March 5, 
and before long the congrega- 
tion fell into disorder, divided, 
and built another chapel. At length, 
in Sept., 1 818, he consented to 
leave, having been minister about 
seventeen years. 

1820. Rev. John White (from 
Idle Acy.). The two congrega- 
tions united, the new chapel being 
formed into a dwelling and sold. 

Another chapel was erected in 
1837, and was opened June 28. 
It bears the name of " Hey wood 

Mr. White died, having been 
minister at Northowram twenty- 
nine years, March 10, 1849. 
There is a small tablet to his 

1 849. Rev. Giles Hoyle, from 
Ancoats, Manchester. 

During his ministry the church 
increased from thirty-seven mem- 
bers to one hundred. He died 
1 861, much lamented. 

1862. Rev, J. H. Deex, the 
present minister.. 


This congregation was formed 
by a separation from Wakefield, in 
the year 171 7. At first the place 
of meeting was a pressing-shop, 
in which the Rev. Thos. Dickenson 
preached the opening sermon. Va- 
rious ministers officiated til ji 7 19. 

1 7 19. Rev. Samuel Hanson. 

* By aid of Rev. S. Oddie. 

He was a recipient of the Hewley 
Fund 1728-9. He left Ossett 

1 73 1. Rev. Thomas Lightfoot, 
from Long Houghton. Died Nov. 
3, 1758. A chapel was built 


1759. Rev. Richard Hodgson, 
from Daventry. He was not or- 
dained till 1762. He removed to 
Lancashire 1765. He was after- 
wards at Doncaster. 

1765. Rev. George Hagger- 
ston, from Hopton. Spoken of by 
Dr. Priestley, his pupil, as a Bax- 
terian. He was minister for 
twenty-two years, when he re- 
signed his charge (1787), though 
rendering occasional assistance to 
his former flock. He died 1792, 
and was buried in the chapel. Rev. 
Joseph Dawson (Idle) preached his 
funeral sermon. 

1788. Rev. John Coulson, 
from Yelverton. Resigned May, 
1788. Died 1793. 

An interval, during which, the 
place was supplied by ministers and 
Northowram students. 

1795. Rev. Thomas Taylor 
(Northowram and Idle Academies). 
Left for Bradford Sept. 16, 1808. 
During his successful ministry the 
chapel was greatly enlarged. He 
baptized 575 children. 

1808. Rev. Robert Blake, 
from Shelley. Resigned 1813, and 
removed to Darwen ; thence to 

1 8 14. Rev. Samuel Neale. 
Resigned for London, 18 19. 

1820. Rev. John Rheeder 
(Airedale Coll.). He relinquished 
his ministry here in 1 8 3 1 , removing 
to Hamburgh. 

1833. Rev. William Tyler, 
from Keighley. He resigned in 
1 843, and removed to Whit- 

1844. Rev. Samuel Oddie 



(Airedale), from Elland. He is 
the present minister. 

During his pastorate, now of 
twenty-four years' standing, the 
church has increased from ninety 
members to about 200. In 1849 
a new chapel was erected, to 
accommodate nearly 1000. In 
1864. spacious school-rooms were 
added, at a cost of £3000. 

Several members of the church 
at Ossett have become ministers. 
The Revs. C. Dewhurst (Bury St. 
Edmunds), Samuel Baines (Wils- 
den), James Scott (Cleckheaton), 
A. Clarkson (Bingley), &c. 

Flushdyke is an out-station of 
Ossett Green chapel, distant about 
a mile. This congregation origi- 
nated in efforts put forth by the 
young people, assisted by the peo- 
ple at Ebenezer Chapel, Dews- 
bury, then under the pastorate of 
Rev. E. H. Weeks. Mr. Potter, 
of Dewsbury, preached here for 
some time. After much labour 
and discouragement, a chapel was 
opened, 1864. Rev. John Hall 
is the evangelist. 

The following places have 
sprung, either directly or indirectly, 
from Ossett Green : — Ebenezer 
Chapel, Dewsbury ; Springfield, 
Dewsbury ; Zion, Gawthorpe, 
Highfield, Earl's Heaton and 
Northgate Chapel, Horbury. 



The Independent congregation 
at Otley was begun in the year 
1 82 1, at which time it worshipped 
in the Assembly Room. In 1825 
a chapel was erected, and it was 
enlarged in 1856. 

1829. The Rev. James Swift 
Hastie, of Airedale College, be- 
came the minister. He still remains. 



Is a village lying in the valley of 
the Don, before the river reaches 
Sheffield, just under the shadow of 
WharnclifFe. A chapel was erected 
here in 1833. Rev. J. Dunkerly 
was for some time minister. It is 
now supplied by lay preachers 
from Sheffield. 


Soon after the civil wars, a Mr. 
Freeman, one of the captains of 
Cromwell's army, came to reside 
in this neighbourhood, and was the 
means of erecting a meeting-house 
on Greenhough Hill. 

Rev. — Towers became its 
minister till his removal to Hopton 
in 1733. He was succeeded by 

Rev. — Carnson, who was un- 
happy in his ministry, and was 
compelled to resign. 

Rev. — Fletcher (from Otley). 

Afterwards the Rev. — Lamb, 
then incumbent of Pateley Bridge, 
was accustomed to conduct an 
afternoon service in the old chapel. 
About 1770 the chapel was partly 
pulled down, and the congregation 
became extinct. 

"About the year 18 10, Mr. 
Norris, of Boroughbridge, went to 
preach in the neighbourhood of 
Greenhough Hill, where there was 
formerly a Dissenting chapel. The 
miners flocked to hear him in great 
numbers, and brought their candles 
to light up the place, which was a 
dancing or ball-room connected 
with the village public-house. 
After the sermon they flocked 
round him and offered to pay 



him for his services, and urged 
his visiting them again. The 
appearance of things was so favour- 
able, that an offer was made by the 
students of Idle, under the care of 
Mr. Vint, to supply them gratui- 
tously for six months ; but instead 
of acceding to this proposal, they 
determined to subscribe amongst 
themselves to give the student 
supplying them half a guinea a 
Sabbath, and about the same 
amount to pay for his board whilst 
with them. Several of them, 
chiefly miners in the lead mines, 
met together one Saturday night, 
and entered in a blank book for the 
purpose, the sums they would 
severally subscribe] for one year, to- 
wards these objects, and not one of 
them broke his engagement. Con- 
siderable attention was excited by 
the preaching of the students, and 
the late — York, Esq., of Beverley 
Hall, Lord of the Manor, hearing 
favourable accounts respecting them 
— that they were young men of 
good character and respectable 
education — proposed to give them 
his countenance. There was a 
chapel annexed to his mansion, in 
which a clergyman was accustomed 
to officiate; he said that this clergy- 
man should continue to read the 
prayers, as he had been accustomed, 
and as he was qualified to do — that 
after he had done, the students 
should preach to the people who 
were assembled." They followed 
this plan till the death of Mr. 
York, when an Independent chapel 
was erected. 

1 817. Rev. Ralph Holgate. 
His ministry, which was at first 
useful, ended disastrously. In 1837 
the grant of the Home Missionary 
Society was withdrawn. 

1838. Rev. F. Newman (from 
Airedale Coll.). He removed to 
Shelton, Feb., 1844. 

1844. Rev - J- M - Calvert. 
He removed to Dronfield 1850. 

1850. Rev. A. F. Shawyer 
(Rotherham Coll., from Cocker- 
mouth). He removed to Delph in 

1863. Rev. L. S. Dewhirst 
(from Cavendish Coll.). The 
present minister. 

There was a congregation at 
Garsdale, three miles from Pateley 
Bridge. Rev. James Taylor is 
mentioned as the minister in 171 5. 



In 1649, the Vicar of Peniston 
was the Rev. Henry Swift. He 
was ejected on St. Bartholomew's 
day, 1662, and afterwards im- 
prisoned for three months in York. 
After his liberation he returned to 
his charge, which, by some in- 
advertence of the persecuting party, 
he held till his death, 1689, 
having been minister 40 years. 
During his imprisonment Rev. 
Peter Naylor, ejected from Hough- 
ton, Lancashire, afterwards at 
Wakefield, preached frequently for 
him. Swift was succeeded by Rev. 
Edmund Hough, who maintained 
the same principles as his prede- 
cessor, and died in 17 19. Oliver 
Heywood preached here in 1655. 

About two miles from Peniston 
is Bull House, now the name of a 
hamlet, but originally the residence 
of the Riches, a Nonconformist 
family of high respectability. 
Many of the ejected ministers 
found a refuge here ; and a chapel 
was built before 1692. The 
ministers were — 

1692. Daniel Denton, who 
about 171 5 had a congregation of 
200 persons. He died 1 720-1. 



William Halliday, here in 
1740. He was domestic chaplain 
to Hans Busk, Esq., at Bull House. 
He had been formerly classical 
tutor at Daventry. He removed 
to Keighley 1771. He died at 

Benjamin Shaw, who was here 
in 1748, and died in 1771. 
Whether he was Shaw's immediate 
successor is not known. The 
names of Rayner and Lewis occur 
without dates. 

1772. Thomas Halliday (from 
Keighley, educated at Daventry). 
He remained till 1793. In 18 10, 
having engaged in some iron-works, 
he failed in business ; after which 
he became a preacher at Diss, 
Norfolk. He was probably an 

Rev. — Reyner (from North- 
owram Acy.), probably succeeded. 
Mention is also made of John 
Hewitt, once a merchant at Shef- 
field, for a time a preacher in the 
Methodist New Connexion, then 
a preacher at Peniston, who re- 
linquished the ministry and resumed 
business. He became ultimately 
an Unitarian. Afterwards the place 
seems to have sunk into decline. 

Bull-House chapel is still used 
for Divine service, at least, once 
on the Lord's Day, though a church 
exists there no longer. The place 
has been in the hands of the Wes- 
leyans for half a century. It is 
said that a school-master, named 
Morton, having allowed 9J acres 
of land, belonging to the chapel, to 
be sold under its market value, 
endeavoured to give partial com- 
pensation by leaving £10 per 
annum to keep the chapel open, on 
condition that the minister or 
school-master should be a Wes- 

Bull House Hall, formerly the 
seat of the Riches, now belongs to 

Lord Houghton, who represents 
.that family * (see 364). He stands 
in some relation to the chapel, to 
which he pays an endowment of 
^10 per annum. It may be 
doubted whether the present settle- 
ment would bear a legal inquiry, 
especially as Watts's hymns are 
required to be used in worship. 
The minister is elected by the rate- 
payers, and the plan thus resembles 
Bramhope (see 243) and Long 
Houghton (see 264). 

The Bosviles and Wordsworths 
were also Puritan families of con- 
siderable property in this vicinity. 



After the death of Hough, the 
Vicar, in 1719, religion seems to 
have died out in that village, till, 
by God's providence, in 1750, the 
Rev. William Grimshaw, of Ha- 
worth, and with him some of 
Wesley's ministers, preached to the 
people at Peniston the truth as it is 
in Jesus. After this Rev. John 
Thorpe, of Masborough, often 
visited Thurlston and the adjacent 
villages, with gratifying spiritual 
success. Among the adherents 
gained by his ministry, was Rev. 
William Moorhouse, who had been 
one of Wesley's people, but who 
then embraced Calvinism. Many 
persons from Thurlston attended 
the ministry of Rev. H. Venn, and 
when he left Huddersiield, that of 
Rev. W. Moorhouse, originally from 
Thurlston, who became substantially 

* Richard Rodes, Esq., married Martha, 
daughter of Elk. Rich, of Bull House, 
Esq., and Mary, his sister, married William 
Rookes, of Rodes Hall, Esq. 

f By aid of Rev. J. Williams. 



his successor. In 1777, when a 
chapel was built at Holmfirth, they 
removed to that place for worship, 
under the charge of Rev. Joseph 
Galland. But about the year 1784, 
Rev. Samuel Midgely was invited 
to settle in the neighbourhood, and 
the chapel at Netherfield was built 
in the year 1786. 

1786. Rev. S. Midgely became 
pastor. He survived his ordination 
only a few months, and his funeral 
was the first in the chapel-yard. 

1789. Rev. George Richard- 
son succeeded. In 1794 he re- 
signed his charge. 

1796. Rev. William Thorpe 
(from Chester). Galleries were 
now erected in the chapel. In 
1800 he left for London. 

1803. Rev. Thomas Wood 
(from Tickhill). In 1808 he re- 
moved to Reading. 

1809. Rev. W. H. Crockford 
(from Nottingham). He remained 
till 18 13. 

1 8 14. Rev. George Harrison 
(from Thorne). Under his ministry 
a powerful impression was pro- 
duced. But untoward circum- 
stances occurred, and Mr. Harrison 
resigned his charge. In 1829 he 
removed to Thurlston, and died in 

1830. Rev. John Holker. In 
1834 he left for Clayton West. 
During many years he has lived 
without a charge. 

1837. Rev. James Buckley 
(from Thirsk). He laboured 
successfully till i860, when he left 
for Stockport. 

1 85 1. Rev. John Sutcliffe 
(from Easingwold). Through his 
efforts the Green School-room, 
Thurstone, was built. 

1858. Rev. T. W. Tozer. He 
left for Pudsey 1862. 

1862. Rev. John Williams 
(Airedale). The present minister. 


This congregation originated in 
the labours vf Rev. — King, the 
pious Vicar of Middleton (a mile 
distant from Pickering), then the 
only Evangelical Clergyman in the 
vicinity. People from the town 
flocked to hear him. Mr. King re- 
moved to Hull, and left earnest, 
godly men as curates. But at his 
death a change took place, the new 
Vicar not sympathizing with the 
sentiments of his predecessor. 
The earnest people began therefore 
to hold meetings of their own, and 
were much aided by Revs. Messrs. 
Brownfield (Whitby) and Bottomley 
(Scarborough), who preached alter- 
nately. A chapel became requisite. 
It was opened in April, 1789, when 
Rev. S Bottomley preached, and a 
Congregational church was formed. 
1 79 1. Rev. Thomas Gritton 
became pastor. Removed 1797 to 
Keswick, where he died. 

1797. Rev. Robert Blake. 

He left for Bridlington 1789, and 
subsequently emigrated to America. 
1800. Rev. John Willoughby 
(from Lady Huntingdon's Chapel, 
Helmsley). During his ministry 

the chapel was enlarged. He died 


1 81 2. Rev. J. Hinchcliffe 

(Idle Acy.). He removed to 

Stockton 1 813. 

In 1 8 14, the chapel was again 

enlarged by the erection of a 

gallery at the North end. In this 


1814, Rev. Gabriel Croft 

(Hackney Coll.), became pastor. 
In 1839, an .° tner gallery was 

erected. Mr. Croft, from bad 

health, resigned in 1848, and is 

now living at Preston, Lancashire. 

* By aid of Rev. M. A. Wilkinson. 



Several students for the ministry 
were educated under his care. 

1850. Rev. Joseph Hoyle,B. A. 
(Airedale Coll.). Left 1853 for 

1856. Rev. John Earnshaw 
(of AtterclifFe). Removed to Har- 
purhey 1863. 

1865. Rev. M. A. Wilkinson 
(from Harden, Bradford). The 
present minister. 



The gospel was introduced into 
Pocklington, in connection with 
Independency, by the preaching of 
Rev. — Watkins, in the market 
place (17 88). Application was then 
made to the church of the Rev. G. 
Lambert, of Hull, for more regular 
preachers. York also afforded 
occasional aid. The first minister 

1793. Rev. Robert Blake, 
who remained about two years. 
He removed to Pickering 1797. 

Rev. — McBean. His ministry 
lasted about three years. 

Till now the congregation had 
assembled in a building belonging 
to Mr. W. Collingson, who fitted 
it up at his own expense. But in 
1 807 a chapel was built, capable of 
containing between 300 and 400 
persons, and was opened 1808. 

1809. Rev. Thomas Hicks 
(Hackney Acy.). Mr. Hicks 
preached conjointly at Market 
Weigh ton. He remained six years.*, 
and in 18 14 removed to Doncaster. 

18 14. Rev. George Water- 
house (of Rotherham Acy.). He 
stayed two and a-half years, and 
then removed to Dewsbury 181 7. 

18 17. Rev. Thomas Hutton 

* Substantially communicated by Rev. 
W. White. 

(from Idle Acy.). After the ex- 
piration of ten years, Mr. Hutton 
removed to Allerton 1827. 

1828. Rev. Richard Jessop 
(Idle Acy.). He afterwards settled 
at Greenacres Moor, 1836. 

1836. Rev. — Shawyer (from 
Burlington) for a time occupied 
the pulpit. 

1840. Rev. Thomas Pearson. 
He died Jan. 27, 1844. 

Oct. 30, 1844. Rev. G. Hill- 
yard (from Airedale Coll.). He 
afterwards conformed to the 
Established Church. 

Rev. C, Claythorn occupied 
the pulpit for a time, but was never 

1 854 Rev. W. White (Yeovil, 
from Nailsea). The present 

There is a Sunday-school, 
numbering 80 children; and 14 



The congregation at Pontefract 
arose out of the operation of the 
Act' of Uniformity in 1662. Rev. 
Joshua Farrett, minister of St. 
Giles' Church, a learned and useful 
man, was then deprived. He 
found refuge, however, in the house 
of Mr. Ward, in Tanshelf, where 
he preached to those who prized 
his ministry. 

The Castle Chain House was 
used in the seventeenth century 
as a prison. Many Nonconformists 
were shut up there. 

The ministers of the congrega- 
tion thus formed have been — 

1662. Rev. Joseph Farrett. 
He died the following year, 1663. 

Mention is made of a Rev. James 
Creswick, who died at Beal, near 



Pontefract, in 1692, set. 75. "A 
worthy person, and a most earnest 
and faithful minister of the Gospel." 
(Jonathan Priestley was his exe- 
cutor.) He published " Advice to 
an Only Child," with a preface by 

1663. Rev. John Noble (ej. 
from Smeeton). Calamy calls him 
"An excellent, useful, and solid 
divine," " an excellent disputant, 
who never lost or disparaged his 
cause or reputation by ignorance 
or passion." He began to preach 
at Pontefract. Mr. N. died 1679, 
aet. 68. 

1679. Rev. Peter Naylor 
preached here alternately with 
Alverthorpe. Mr. N. died 1690. 

In 1 69 1, Jeremiah Gill, after- 
wards of Hull, then a candidate for 
the ministry, was preaching here. 
(See Heywood.) 

1 69 1 or 2. Rev. Timothy 
Manlove. Removed to Mill Hill, 
Leeds, 1694.. Author of "The 
Immortality of the Soul," and 
" The Soul's Preparation for 

1694. Rev. John Heywood, 
son of Oliver Heywood, from 
Rotherham. Mr. H. died 1704, 
set. 48. 

171 5. Rev. — Sandford. At 
this time the congregation, which 
was now Independent, included 
several families of influence. In 
1 72 1, a small endowment was 
left by Mary Reynolds. Mr. 
Sandford, who was a pensioner 
on the Hewley Fund, died 1746. 
Then occurs a considerable in- 

Rev. John Coppock (from Ken- 
dal Acy.). He was an Unitarian, 
and in his day the congregation 
greatly declined. He preached at 
Pontefract and Long Houghton. 
Ob. 1782 or 1789. 

The old meeting-house was now 

repaired by some persons of Evan- 
gelical sentiments. 

Rev. William Tapp, a Trini- 
tarian. A curious will case at York, 
1809. Mr. T. removed, 1791. 

1792. Rev. Benjamin Booth- 
royd (Northowram Acy.). Mr. 
B. was ordained 1794. ^* s stipend 
being small, he carried on the 
trade of bookseller. He was the 
author of " History of Pontefract," 
" Biblia Hebraica," after the text 
of Kennicot, " An Improved 
English Version of the Holy Scrip- 
tures," &c. &c. Mr. B. removed 
in 1 81 8 to Huddersfield. Dur- 
ing his ministry a new chapel 
became necessary. A sum of 
money was left for the purpose 
by H. Busk, Esq. It was opened 
in 1796. A Sunday-school was 
commenced in Mr. B.'s time. 

1820. Rev. James Rawson 
(Rotherham Coll.). He removed 
in 1835. 

1836. Rev. Henry Douglas. 
He left in the same year. 

1837. Rev. John Edgar Mill- 
son (Rotherham Coll.). Removed 
1847. During his ministry, the 
chapel, which had been changed 
in Mr. Boothroyd's day from 
Newgate to Finkle Street, was 

1847. Rev. John Harrop 
(Rotherham Coll.), from Rich- 
mond. Mr. H. removed to Bur- 
ton West, 1850. 

1852. Rev. Thomas Ellis. 
Mr. E. removed in 1855. 

1857. Rev. James Innes (Glas- 
gow Univ.). Mr. I. removed to 
Websey, 1861. 

1862. Rev. T. Willis (Aire- 
dale Coll.), the present minister, 
during whose ministry new Sun- 
day School-rooms have been 

* By aid of Rev. T. Willis. 




We have already related some of 
the incidents connected with the 
ministry of Elkanah Wales in this 
township. There is no doubt that 
the attachment of the inhabitants 
of this district to the cause of 
Puritanism was very strong. The 
Act of Uniformity removed Wales, 
like so many others, from the 
chapelry of Pudsey. He was at 
that time seventy-four years of age, 
and had held his incumbency for 
fifty years. The Five-mile Act 
drove him from his home at the 
age of seventy-eight. After some 
wanderings, this good old man 
settled in Leeds, where he preached 
privately till his death in 1669. 
The same rigorous act which re- 
moved Wales drove his son-in-law, 
James Sales, from Leeds to Pudsey, 
where he possessed a house. He 
preached here much in private 
(though he is named as one of 
the ministers of Mill Hill, Leeds), 
till his death, April 21, 1679. 
Sales was connected by marriage 
with the Huttons, descendants of 
the Archbishop of York, and with 
Thomas Sharp, of Leeds, whose 
second wife was Sales's daughter. 
Heywood often visited him as his 
friend, and preached, probably, in 
his house. He also attended his 
funeral at Calverley. 



The early history of the Non- 
conformist congregation in Pudsey 
is intimately associated with the 

* By aid of Mr. Rogers and Rev. J. 

name of Elkanah Wales, M.A., son 
of Rev. S. Wales, of Idle, born 
1588. Educated at Cambridge, he 
accepted in 161 1 or 161 2 the 
appointment of Pudsey Chapel (now 
Establishment). Here his labours 
were unwearied and extensively 
useful, whilst he greatly excelled in 
pressing home practical truths on 
his hearers. His life was as un- 
spotted as his doctrine. The 
country people flocked to hear him, 
and he obtained a wide celebrity. 
Joseph Lister relates a scene which 
took place during the Irish Rebel- 
lion, in 1641. "I remember one 
public fast day (for godly ministers 
appointed many, and kept them in 
their respective places : Mr. Wales 
kept many at Pudsey) ; it was two 
miles from Bradford, and thither 
my pious mother and all the family 
went constantly in those days. I 
have known that holy man of God, 
Mr. Wales, spend six or seven 
hours in praying and preaching, and 
rarely go out of the pulpit; but 
sometimes he would intermit for 
one quarter of an hour, while a few 
verses of a psalm were sung, and 
then pray and preach again. And 
O ! what confession of sin did he 
make ! What prayers, tears, and 
wrestling with God was in that 
place on those days! What tears 
and groans were to be heard in 
that chapel ! I am sure it was a 
place of weepers. \But that day, 
I say, which I am speaking of, 
I think about three o'clock in the 
afternoon, a certain man came and 
stood up in the chapel door, and 
cried out with a lamentable voice — 
' Friends,' said he, 'we are all as 
good as dead men, for the Irish 
rebels are coming; they are come 
as far as Rochdale and Little- 
borough, and the Batings, and will 
be at Halifax and Bradford shortly. 
He came,' he said, ( out of pity and 



good will to give us this notice.' 
And having given this alarm, he 
ran towards Bradford again, where 
the same report was spread about; 
upon which, the congregation was 
all in confusion — some ran out, 
others wept, others fell to talking 
to friends, and the Irish massacre 
being but lately acted, and all cir- 
cumstances put together, the people's 
hearts failed them with fear, so 
that Mr. Wales desired the congre- 
gation to compose themselves as 
well as they could, while he put 
himself and them into the hands of 
Almighty God by prayer. And so 
he did, and so dismissed us." This 
was doubtless a true picture of the 
scene, though the alarm proved to 
be a false one. Part of it has been 
elsewhere quoted. 

During the civil wars, some of 
the military movements which took 
place in his immediate neighbour- 
hood seem to have brought Wales 
into close connexion with Thomas, 
Lord Fairfax ; for we find that 
General, and others, afterwards 
offering him places of considerable 
profit, all which he saw it right to 
decline. He remained at Pudsey 
till the year 1662, when he, like 
the rest of his brethren, became an 
outcast. Ezekiel Rogers (see p. 
34.), writing from New England, 
says : " I can assure you that I do 
not know of any brother in Eng- 
land that hath been more desired 
by me to be my fellow-labourer in 
the church and the work of the 
ministry, than yourself." 

Dispossessed of his chapel, where 
he had laboured for fifty years, 
Wales still continued, however, to 
reside in the midst of his flock, to 
whom he preached privately. But 
the Five-mile Act rendered this no 
longer possible, and Wales suffered 
with the rest. They occasionally 
met each other at their several places 

of refuge, annd Hey wood mentions 
his having met " old Elkanah 
Wales," and others, at the house of 
Mr. Waterhouse, who had been 
ejected from Bradford vicarage, 
though he was spared further moles- 
tation ; and on a subsequent occa- 
sion he travelled with Wales, who, 
with his wife, was on his way to 
the North. This wife, by the way, 
added to the good man's sorrows, 
by her " harsh and severe temper." 
The loss of Wales's services was 
made up by the preaching of the 
Rev James Sales, his son-in-law, 
who, ejected from Leeds, preached 
privately in Pudsey, where he 
lived and had property. 

At length Wales settled at Leeds, 
where, though he was eighty years 
old, he still engaged in public ser- 
vices. He died in that town in 
1669, ast. nearly 80. He some- 
times ventured again to Pudsey, 
where Heywood met him in 1668, 
being summoned to visit his 
dying wife, and a service was 
held, which passed off quietly, 
though a Morley bailiff was known 
to have been in the village. Mr. 
Wales's chosen motto, descriptive of 
his humility of mind was, " Less 
than the least of all saints." A 
memoir of Wales was written by 
Rev. J. Sales. Wales bequeathed 
two fields of ten acres to the cha- 
pel at Pudsey, besides bequests to 
the poor of Idle and Calverley. 
Thoresby commends the extra- 
ordinary management by which, 
out of small means, he contrived to 
accomplish this. 

" In his old age," says Thoresby 
(MSS. Memoirs), " he was forced 
to travel into the North, through 
the unkind severity of his ill neigh- 
bours. When I come," he writes 
to his friends at Leeds, " my 
purpose is to keep at a distance 
from you, and not to be seen 

3 3 6 


near your corporation or my own 
dwelling, unless I be informed of 
a fit time when I may draw near 
with safety and secrecy. We are 
in tolerable care for bodily health, 
save that this sharp piercing weather 
doth punish us and makes us shrink ; 
but after a little the weather will 
grow warmer, and the air be more 
calm and favourable. Oh that our 
souls might now prosper, whatever 
becomes of our bodies!" He was 
now 79 years of age. 

A barn, occupying the spot 
where the Free Wesleyan chapel, 
Low Town, now stands, is tradi- 
tionally reported to have been fitted 
up for public worship, about this 
period. Certain it is, that in Oct., 
1695, Heywood was preaching at 
the new chapel, Pudsey, and it is 
handed down that this was the 
opening service. It is also reported 
that Heywood said on this occasion, 
" Friends, you have a pair of brave 
church doors." 

We are not sure, whether at this 
time, Pudsey had a settled Noncon- 
formist minister. But the North- 
owram Register records the death, 
in 1699, of Rev. John Ray, 
" preacher at Pudsey and Closes," 
(Cleckheaton). So that his name 
probably will supply the whole, or 
at least, part of the hiatus. After 
Mr. Ray's death we have another 
vacuum ; but Thoresby's diary 
mentions the sum of £3 sent in 
1707, and £6 in 1709, by 
Mr. Stretton. So that preaching 
was probably maintained with 

In 1708, mention is made of the 
death of Rev. Richard Hutton, of 
Pudsey. His son married a daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Richard Thorp, a 
man of property, then minister of 
Hopton. And in 1716 Pudsey is 
reported in Neal's list as having 
a congregation of 250 persons, 

twenty-one of whom were free- 

In the year 17 10, Richard 
Hutton, Esq., of Pudsey, a descen- 
dant of Sir Thomas Hutton, 
married Mary, the daughter of 
Rev. Richard Thorp, Hopton. 
She died 1724, and was buried at 
Calverley. Madam Thorp, of 
Hopton, mother of Mrs. Hutton, 
died at her son's-in-law, May 8, 
1725, and was buried at Mirfield. 
Richard Hutton, Esq., of Pudsey, 
died at Mr. Markland's, Hunslet 
Lane, Leeds, July 20, 1729. 

In 1 71 5, Joseph Lefton left the 
sum of £3 annually for the bene- 
fit of " a dissenting minister, settled 
in Pudsey." 

1727. Rev. John Wainman, 
son of Rev. T. Wainman, of 
Bingley. He received aid from 
the Hewley Fund, and, after the 
death of his father, preached for 
a time alternately at Pudsey and 
Bingley. Died June 10, 1770, set. 
64. Buried in the old chapel. 

Oct. 28, 1770, Rev. Michael 
Maurice (from Eastwood). Died 
July 1, 1773, ast. 49. Buried in 
the old chapel. 

Oct., 1773. Rev. Arthur 
Lloyd, died at Leeds. 

In 1782, Rev. W. Turner was 
ordained here, though not as pas- 
tor of Pudsey. The ministers 
engaged in the service were dis- 
tinctly Unitarian. 

1792. Rev. Thomas Laird, 
from Keighley, son-in-law to Rev. 
J. Toothill, Hopton. In the next 
year a new chapel was opened, 
Messrs. Moorhouse, Toothill, and 
Cockin being the preachers. Mr. 
Laird died 1831, set. 70, after a 
ministry of nearly fifty years. In 
1809, a Sunday-school was esta- 

1832. Rev. William Colefax 
(of Airedale Coll.), from Hexham. 



His ministry lasted nearly fifteen 
years, during which the chapel 
debt was cleared, the final subscrip- 
tions for that purpose reaching 
nearly ^400. An additional burial- 
ground was purchased 1846. 

1848. Rev. Thomas Jowett 
(Airedale Coll.). He was minister 
nearly six years, and resigned 
April 2, 1854. In 1849, the 
first stone was laid of a new 
school-room, which was opened 
in 1850, when a tea-party was 
held, E. Baines, Esq , presiding. 

1855. Rev. John Marsden, 
B.A. (Airedale Coll.). In 1859 
the school-room was freed from 
debt. Mr. M. removed to Kidder- 
minster in 1 86 1. 

1862. Rev. J. W. Tozer, from 
Peniston. Mr. T. removed in 

1864. Rev. J. Atkinson, from 
the Free Church, the present mini- 



Rev. James Towers, a student 
of Frankland's, was for a time 
minister here. In 17 16 the con- 
gregation numbered forty persons. 
Towers seems to have been a 
relative of Frankland. Extinct. 



After 1662, Rev. Sam. Ccates, 
A M., ejected from West Bridgford, 
Notts, came to reside in a house of 
his own in Rawdon, his native 
place. He preached at Wath, 
Idle, and Rawdon gratuitously. 
The house of — Rawdon, Esq., 
of Rawdon (ancestor of the present 
Marquis of Hastings), was a resort 

of Nonconformist ministers. O. 
Hey wood visited and preached here. 
The present chapel at Rawdon was 
erected mainly through the exer- 
tions and liberality of Henry Forbes, 
Esq., who in 1843 left Bradford 
to reside at Summer Hill. The 
congregation was first gathered at 
a school-room in the neighbourhood, 
and was afterwards removed to a 
more commodious sanctuary erected 
on a plot of ground presented by 
the late R. Milligan, Esq. The 
chapel was opened in 1846. The 
ministers have been — 

1847. Rev. J. H. Barrow, 
from Market Drayton. Mr. B. 
left in 1 85 1. 

1 85 1. Rev. Joseph Shaw (Ro- 
therham Coll.). He removed Sept. 
13, 1857, to Boston. 

1858. Rev. John Harrop (Ro- 
therham Coll.), from West Burton. 
Mr. H. left Rawdon in 1866. 

Recently the chapel has been 
altered and greatly improved, and 
new school-rooms have been added. 
The opening services took place in 
the month of April, 1868. 



From this village, many years 
ago, a considerable number of per- 
sons used to attend Masborough 
Chapel morning and afternoon. 
During " the time of the Walkers/' 
of Masborough, the large vestry of 
the chapel was filled with people 
who came from neighbouring vil- 
lages, some of them many miles 
distant. Here they would partake 
of refreshments which they had 
brought with them, and of beer 
provided by the kindness of the 
Walker family. Returning home 

* Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falding. 



after the second service, a student 
from the College in their company, 
they and their families gathered 
together for evening worship. A 
small chapel was erected in 1823. 
In 1865 a new chapel was built, 
which, under the ministry of the 
present pastor, the Rev. T. Fisher, 
has proved too- small. 



The congregation at Redcar was 
collected in 1855. A pleasant and 
commodious chapel has been erected 
in a style likely to be attractive to 

1855. Rev. William Lothian 
(Hoxton Acy.). He resigned his 
charge, and removed to Mussel- 
burgh, Scotland, 1861. 

1 86 1. Rev. David Wainwright 
(of Airedale Coll.). He died Sept. 

20, I862, c£t. 27. 

1863. Rev. George William 
Brownjohn (Cotton End). He 
left for Wymondham, Norfolk, 

1865. Rev. William J. Franks, 
the present minister. 


The chapel 
1783. The 
have been — 

1783. Rev. 

1 8 16. Rev. 

1 8 19. Rev. 
Left in 1823. 

1823. Rev. 

1836. Rev. 

1837. Rev. 
1840. Rev. 
1850. Rev. 

at Reeth was erected 
successive ministers 

G. Cooke. 
J. Joys. 
S. W. Underwood. 

J. Corns. 
T. Colledge. 
W. Hackett. 
J. Hurst. 
M. White, the 

* By aid of — Horner, Esq., M.D. 
f Aided by Rev. M, White. 

present minister. He was ordained 
June 6, Revs. Messrs. Kidd, Lister, 
Cragg, and Potter being engaged 
in the services. 

The chapel and school-rooms are 
at the present time (1867) in pro- 
cess of re-erection, at the cost of 


Preaching was begun in Rich- 
mond in an inn, and it was soon 
found that the erection of a chapel 
for Divine worship was indispen- 
sable. The case was taken up by 
the Durham and Northumberland 
Association, in connection with the 
West Riding Home Mission. The 
Rev. William Willits (Blackburn 
Acy.), was engaged in 1833, and 
the chapel opened 1835. The 
pastors have been — 

1835. Rev. William Willits. 

1837. Rev. Joseph Bottomley. 

1842. Rev. John Harrop (Ro- 
therham Coll.). He left 1 847. 

1848. Rev. John Yeates. 

. Rev. T. M. Reikie 
(Glasgow). Left for Bowmanville, 
Canada, 1854. 

1855. Rev. William Ander- 
son. Removed to Chesterfield, 

1857. Rev. Henry Oakley. 
Removed to Chester' le-street. 

1 866. Rev. Archibald Morri- 
son (Cotton End Acy.), the present 



Preaching was commenced in the 
house of Mr. Jackson, July 24, 

* By aid of Rev. A. Morrison. 
f Aided by Rev. J. Mills. 



1 8 1 5, and the Independent church 
at Malton supplied preachers. A 
barn was afterwards fitted up, and 
finally a small chapel, which was 
opened July 23, 181 8. 

The ministers of this chapel have 
been the following: — 

1823. Rev. George Sykes, 
who had been a member of the 
Wesleyan body. Mr. S. died on 
his birthday, 1826. 

1827. Rev. Joseph Redmayne. 
He left for Bishop Auckland, 1828. 

1829. Rev. William Hague. 
Left for Elland, 1831. 

1 83 1. Rev. Robert S. Watson. 
He resigned 1 831. 

1832. Rev. John Davis. Re- 
signed 1832. 

1834. Rev. W. McDowell. 
Removed to Kirkby Moorside. 

. Rev. William Ayre. 
Removed to Southham, 1844. 

1844. Rev. Henry Howard. 
Left for Whittlesea, 1 847. 

1848. Rev. George Thomas. 
Left for Stokesbridge. 

. Rev. — Mallard. Re- 
tired from the ministry 

1856. Rev. Nathaniel Wood- 
cock. Left in 1866. 

1 867. Rev. James Mills (from 
tuition of Rev. M. Mays, Ashby- 
de-la-Zouch), the present minister. 


Rev. E. Richardson, D.D., was 
ejected from the Deanery of Ripon 
at the Restoration. Being suspected 
of complicity in the Farnley Wood 
plot, he left the country, and be- 
came pastor of the English church 
at Leyden. 

Tanfield, near Ripon, was the 
residence of Rev. John Darnton 

» By aid of Rev. J. Croft. 

(who was ejected from Bedlington, 
Northumberland). He did much 
good in that neighbourhood, and 
died there July 9, 1680. In 1741, 
there was a congregation at Green- 
hough Hill. Rev. J. Cranstoun 
was the last minister. It was 
endowed by a farmer named Taylor 
with j£io per annum, and also by 
Sir T. White, Bart., of Notts, who 
was his descendant.* Extinct. 

In the year 18 16, the West 
Riding Home Missionary Society 
turned its attention to this ancient 
borough, and it was visited by the 
itinerants, preaching being com- 
menced in the house of James 
Foxton, in All Hallow Gate. The 
students of Idle also frequently 
preached there on week nights, on 
their way to and from their destina- 
tions. The house being filled, a 
room of greater size was engaged 
in St. Agnes' Gate, where the 
students began to preach regularly. 
It was now determined to erect a 
chapel in All Hallow Gate. The 
foundation was laid May, 18 18, 
and the chapel, capable of seating 
400 persons, was opened in the 
month of September, Revs. W. 
Vint, R. W. Hamilton, and James 
Scott preaching on the occasion. 
The whole debt was not removed 
till 1855. The following have 
been the pastors: — 

1823. Rev. Robert Martin 
(Idle Acy.). After a ministry 
of seven and a half years, Mr. 
M. left for Heckmondwike, Jan., 
1827. "Mr. M. was a sound 
preacher' and a consistent Chris- 

1827. Rev. Joseph Croft 
(Rotherham Coll.), who, after a 
long and useful ministry (forty 
years), has just resigned his faithful 
and. honoured pastorate. 

* Scales' MSS. 

Z 2 





After the death of the Rev Mr. 
Burnet, who had been Mr. Venn's 
curate, and who afterwards preached 
at Elland, some inhabitants of Rish- 
worth, accustomed to attend his 
ministry, felt themselves at a loss 
for Evangelical teaching. For a 
time they worshipped at Sowerby, 
four miles distant. At length Isaac 
NortclifFe began to preach to them 
in a private house at Parak Nook. 
In 1 8 1 8 he and John Wadsworth 
gathered a few children together to 
form a Sunday-school. All their 
apparatus of instruction was a frag- 
ment of a Bible, a Testament, and 
a spelling-book. In 1824 they 
removed into another cottage, 
which was fitted up somewhat 
more appropriately. 

The pastors of the congregation 
have been — 

1 8 16. Isaac Nortcliffe. For 
three years he received no remune- 
ration. At length his salary was 
from 7s. to ^1 5s. per quarter. 
He died March 18, 1830, ast. 73. 

The foundation of a new chapel 
was laid in 1832, and opened the 
following year. At this time a 
church was formed. 

The chapel received the help 
of students from Airedale College 
during several years. 

1843. Rev. Hanley Pickers- 
gill, from Bramley Lane. He 
removed to Marsden, 1847. 

In 1858 galleries were erected, 
and the necessary amount raised by 
the people. The chapel was re- 
opened on the Good Friday of the 
year. In 1 864 the congregation 
mourned the loss of John Wads- 
worth, their deacon. He was well 
known among the delegates of the 

* " Congregational Register" for 1867. 

West Riding Home Missionary 
Society, and was worthy of the 
esteem with which he was regarded. 
The pulpit is now vacant. 



This chapel was built in 1840. 
It is capable of accommodating 
about 400 persons. 

Raven Hill is connected with 
Robin Hood's Bay. A church 
was founded here in i860. 



Rev. Luke Clayton, a minister 
of eminence, was in 1662 ejected 
from Rotherham. His zeal for his 
former flock induced him to con- 
tinue his ministrations after his 
ejectment, and for this he was 
imprisoned in York Castle ; — the 
first Yorkshire victim under the 
Act of Uniformity. It is probable 
that John Shawe, who in June, 
1662, removed from Hull to 
Rotherham (where he had been 
formerly vicar), and who was 
allowed to remain undisturbed, 
carried on the work (which, 
indeed, he had shared with Clayton 
for a short time before the ejection 
of the latter). Clayton returned 
after his imprisonment to his 
preaching at Rotherham to be 
once more seized upon, and to 
resume his work again and again. 
He died 1674, ast. 50. The out- 
lines of some of his sermons, taken 
by Mrs. Eben. Shirley, are yet in 
the possession of her descendants. 
From his death till 1673, there is 
an interval of which no definite 
account can be given. " Indeed," 



says a MS. of Mr. R. W. Moult, 
of Wickersley, " there could be no 
settled minister during the period 
on account of the barbarous laws 
which were in force against the 
Nonconformists. I have heard of 
a Mr. Raistrick (he relinquished 
his living at Kirkton, near Boston), 
who must, I think, have been the 
minister during that period," The 
pastors have been — 

1693. Rev. John Heywood, 
son of Oliver Heywood, from St. 
Albans. He had been for a time 
tutor in the family of the Westleys, 
of Ravensfield, whence he was in- 
vited to the pastorate, and soon 
after relinquished his tutorship. He 
now married, and removed to 
Pontefract, probably in the follow- 
ing year.* Mr. Hollis gave £26 
per annum for the benefit of the 

Another chapel now arose at 
Rotherham, in which Oliver Hey- 
wood preached in the year 1695. 
The MS. above quoted states — 
" I have heard my grandfather say 
that Mr. Westby, old Mr. Hatfield, 
of Laughton, Mr. Staniforth, of 
Firbeck, Mr. Foljambe, of East- 
wood, and other highly respectable 
puritanic families, often attended 
at this place, and also at the pre- 
sent one, and that he has often 
seen three coaches together belong- 
ing to the above families." Most 
of these persons had private chap- 
lains at their own residences. 

1701. Rev. John Wadsworth 
succeeded. He had been assistant 
to Mr. Jollie, at Sheffield. He re- 
moved to Sheffield, 17 14. (See 
Upper Chapel, Sheffield.) 

. Rev. Thomas Wilson 
(Jollie's Acy.). At this time the 
congregation consisted of about 
100 persons. In Neal's list it is 
called Independent. 
* Thoresby's Correspondence I., p. 180. 

Rev. William Wilson 
(Jollie's Acy.), brother to the 
above, "from whom the family 
of Wilson, of Bolsover Woodhouse, 
is descended, as also the late Mrs. 
Pygott, of Long Houghton, and 
Mrs. Swift." 

1738. Rev. William Pendle- 
bury, son of the Rev. W. Pendle- 
bury, of Leeds.' He afterwards 
conformed. Rev. Richard Baron 
was for some time his assistant. 
"A singular and noted character." 

1743. Rev. Samuel Moult. 
Mr. M. died 1776, aet. 58. He 
was son of the minister of Call 
Lane Chapel, Leeds. 

1776. Rev. Josiah Townsend, 
son-in-law to the preceding. He 
removed to Fairford, Gloucester, 
in 1787; afterwards to Elland. 
He married Miss Moult, daughter 
of his predecessor. 

1787. Rev. W. Allard, edu- 
cated at Daventry. Here in 1790. 
He left 1794 for Peak Chapel, 
Derbyshire. An Arian, afterwards 
an Unitarian. 

1795. Rev. Thomas Oliver 
Warwick, M.D. Engaged in 
commercial speculations unsuccess- 
fully. Left Rotherham 1 8 16. 

1795. Rev. Jacob Brettell 
(from York Coll.). The congre- 
gation was now Unitarian. 

Thos. Hollis, Esq., jun., left an 
endowment to the minister of this 
chapel, and for the support of a 



The remarkable conversion of 
the Rev. John Thorpe has been 
already narrated in these pages 
(see p. 138). 

* By aid of — Habershon, Esq. 

34 2 


On his removal from the Wes- 
leyan Connexion an Independent 
church was formed here. The 
congregation worshipped in a 
school-room belonging to the 
Messrs. Walker. 

* The following have been the 
ministers : — 

About 1760, Rev. John Thorpe. 
He was ordained by Revs. J. Ed- 
wards (Leeds), Plumb (Nottingham), 
and Timothy Jollie, of Sheffield. 
The church now consisted of six- 
teen members. 

Samuel Walker, one of the first 
deacons, erected a new meeting- 
house, which was opened Jan. 1, 
1764. Forty or fifty members 
were added during Mr. Thorpe's 
ministry. He died 1777. A 
monument is erected in the chapel 
to his memory. 

1777. Rev. Thomas Grove, 
one of the Oxford students ex- 
pelled for praying, reading, and 
expounding the Scriptures. 

A larger chapel was now erected, 
principally at the expense of the 
Walker family, and a dwelling- 
house was added for the minister, 
afterwards purchased by Rother- 
ham College as a residence for 
its president. Mr. Grove was a 
zealous and laborious pastor. He 
removed to London 1793. 

In the year 1782 Mr. Samuel 
Walker died, set. 66, 

After Mr. Grove's removal, the 
congregation wrote to press him to 
return ; this, however, he declined 
to do. 

1795. Rev. Edward Williams, 

In 1 800, several members with- 
drew to form a church at West 

In 1805 a new chapel was built. 

The labours of Dr. Williams 
were valuable and unremitting. 
ft For some time previous to his 

death, serious apprehensions were 
entertained that his bodily strength 
was sinking under the ardour of his 
ever active and powerful mind. 
He visited Cheltenham and other 
places, and the hopes of the church 
were from time to time brightened 
and again clouded with painful 
forebodings ; but, instead of re- 
laxing from study, and by air and 
exercise giving permanent tone to 
the system, he still persevered in 
his usual course of incessant occu- 
pation, and entered upon the plan 
of re-writing the whole of his 
former works, besides projecting 
some new ones of both an extensive 
and important nature. The ad- 
monitions of friends were disre- 
garded, and their fears but too 
fully realized." Dr. W. died 
March 9, 1813. 

1 8 1 3. Rev. James Bennett, of 
Romsey. He was ordained Aug. 
22, the Revs. Gilbert, Boothroyd, 
Mather, and Boden taking the 
several parts of the service. 

In 1 815 died Joshua Walker, 
Esq., the second son of Samuel 

Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Bennett 
was a minister of considerable 
eminence. He possessed much 
influence, was popular, and very 
useful as a preacher, and will be 
remembered as one of the com- 
pilers, conjoined with Dr. Bogue, 
of the " History of Dissenters," 
and as the author of a life of 
Christ, and a volume of the Con- 
gregational Lectures, 

During Mr. Bennett's ministry 
several improvements were made 
in the chapel, and a girl's school- 
room was built. He received 
from Yale College the diploma 
of D.D. about 1 827. Dr. Bennett's 
health greatly failed in the year 
1828, and towards the end of that 
year he removed to Silver Street, 



London. 274 members were added 
to the church in the course of his 

After unsuccessfully soliciting 
Rev. Dr. Wardlaw and Rev. W. 
Orme to succeed to the pastorate, 
the congregation chose — 

1829. Rev. Clement Perrot, 
from Guernsey. The chapel was 
considerably enlarged 1831. In 
1834 Mr. P. resigned his pastor- 

Rev. William Hendry Stowell 
(afterwards D.D.), from North 
Shields. Mr. Stowell held the 
office of pastor in conjunction 
with the tutorship of Rotherham 
College. He published several 
treatises, among which was the 
Congregational lecture on " The 
Work of the Holy Spirit." He 
resigned the pastorship 1850, and 
in 1 85 1 he removed to take the 
presidency of Cheshunt College. 

1 850. Rev. Alexander Raleigh 
(Glasgow Univ.), now D.D. 
Mr. R. removed to Glasgow 1855. 
Now at Hare Court, Canonbury, 

1858. Rev. Isaac Vaughan. 
Mr. V. and some of his congre- 
gation afterwards removed from 
Masborough, and constituted them- 
selves a separate body. 

1 866. Rev. Wm. Gates (High- 
bury College), from Aylesbury, the 
present minister. 



Rev. I. Vaughan and several 
of his people separated themselves 
from the Masborough Independent 
Church in the year 1865. The 
congregation worshipped for a time 
in the Mechanics' Hall until a 
new chapel should be built. This 
erection, calculated to accommo- 

date 850 persons, was opened 
April 17, 1867, the Rev. I 
Vaughan having then recently 
died. Sermons were preached 
by the Revs. Dr. Raleigh, Dr. 
Vaughan, J. B. Brown, B.A., and 
J. W. Richardson, who is the 
first and present pastor. 



Whether the first Dissenting 
congregation in this fashionable 
watering-place was Presbyterian 
or Independent cannot be now 
determined. The erection of the 
chapel took place in 1 704. 

1700. Rev. W. Hannay was 
the son of one of the Scottish 
covenanters, and a sufferer with 
him in the same noble cause. 

After a pastorate of twenty-five 
years he relinquished his charge, or 
died, in 1725. 

1726. Rev. William Whitaker, 
from Goudhurst, Kent. 

Old age and infirmities compelled 
Mr. Whitaker to retire in 1773. 
He died in 1776, aet. 81, after a 
ministry of fifty years. A Mr. 
Skeaf preached here for some time, 
and died 1723. (Northowram 

1773. Rev. Samuel Bottom ley. 
At this time the congregation was 
extremely small, not exceeding 
thirty persons. But under Mr. B.'s 
ministry it greatly increased, and a 
new chapel was built 1774. In 
1 801 its enlargement became neces- 
sary, and during some considerable 
time the congregation, especially in 
the visitors' season, was prosperous. 
Mr. B. was a man of commanding 
presence. After a ministry of 
fifty-seven years he died, ast 80, 



1 83 1. His funeral sermon was 
preached by Rev. E. Parsons, Leeds. 
In 1 8 1 1 there were about eighty 

1 83 1. Rev. George Balder- 
stone Kidd (Rotherham Coll.). 
Mr. B. had been since 18 12 a 
member of the church at Scar- 
borough, and for three years Mr. 
Bottomley's assistant. He died, 
somewhat suddenly, 185 1. 

1 85 1. Rev Benjamin Back- 
house (Spring-hill). Left 1863. 

1866. Rev. E. L. Adams (Lan- 
cashire), from Nantwich, the 
present minister. 


This chapel was built in 1 85 1 . 
Its erection was demanded by the 
urgent necessities of this increasing 
and important watering-place, and 
has been abundantly justified by 
the spiritual success which has 
followed. The building is in the 
Gothic style, and is extremely well 

1852. Rev. Robert Balgarnie 
(Cheshunt). Mr. Balgarnie relin- 
quished his charge at the Bar 
Church, after a successful pastorate, 
April, 1868, to take the ministry 
at South Cliff. 




This handsome sanctuary was 
built in 1865, through the liberality 
of various friends, nobly headed 
by T. Salt, Esq., who has through- 
out taken the greatest interest in 

the undertaking. It was for a time 
conjoined with the Bar Church. 
During the present year this con- 
nection has been severed ; and 
the Rev. R. Balgarnie, after an 
affectionate leave of his former 
church, has accepted (April 1868) 
the pastorate. 



There was an ancient chapel at 
Garsdale, six miles east of Sedberg, 
which was endowed; but both 
chapel and endowment are now 
lost. Mr. Scales says (MS.): 
" First the endowment was bar- 
tered to a person who left the 
country without paying the pur- 
chase-money, and afterwards the 
building itself was sold, and is now 
occupied as a private dwelling or 
dwellings." One of the ministers 
at Garsdale was Mr. McMurray, 
a friend of Scott, of Heckmond- 
wike, whom he united with Crans- 
toun, of Green-how - hill, and 
Gardner, of Low-row, in ordaining 
as an evangelist, 1739. 

Oliver Heywood, in his diary, 
records that his son, John Hey- 
wood, preached during some weeks, 
on Frankland's suggestion, "at 
John Thornton's, nine miles from 
Lancaster, and John Thornback's, 
at Middleton Head, near Sedberg. 
But he had very few hearers, and 
those not very attentive ; and all 
the income they could promise 
him was £6 a year. His father 
fetched him away." Heywood 
says in his diary, May 24, 1826: 
" Frank Beckett, and others of my 
son's hearers, came to me, told me 
their discouragements as to danger, 
and the people's falling off. I took 
my son from them, being very 



unworthy ; wept and prayed among 
them ; they were little affected ; I 
saw his work was at an end 

The name of Garsdale, a village 
six miles east of Sedberg, occurs 
in Neal's list of congregations, 
coupled with the name of Mc 
Murray. He succeeded Rev. Peter 
Walkden, who, in 1710, left for 
Chipping and Nc wton. 

The unsatisfactory ministry in 
the parish church led the pious 
people in Sedberg, about the year 
1823, t0 un ite together for prayer 
and reading the Scriptures. Mr. 
Batty, at that time a Congregational 
lay-preacher at Dent, was invited 
to preach to them. Occasional aid 
was also obtained from neighbour- 
ing ministers. In 1825 help was 
given by students from Airedale 
College, and in 1826 a church was 
formed, consisting of eighteen 

The present chapel was erected 
in 1828. "The infant cause has 
grown up under circumstances 
likely to test powerfully the motives 
of its adherents." 

The pastors have been — 

1840. Rev. Christian Henry 
Bateman. He afterwards removed 
to Hopton. 

1844. Rev. T. B. Atten- 
borough. He left in 1846. He 
is now minister at Newark. 

1 85 1. Rev. G. F. Terry. He 
remained till 1853. Now minister 
at Crockerton. 

1 854, Rev. Pierce Jones (New 
College). Left in 1858. 

i860. Rev. Joseph Redman, 
now of Nuneaton. Left in 1863. 

1863. Rev. E. Clarke. He 
resigned in 1 864. 

1865. Rev. T. Hartley, the 
present minister. 

* Hunter's " Heywood," p. 304. 



In 1662 Rev. — Burdsell was 
silenced at the parish church. He 
became afterwards chaplain in the 
family of the Huttons, Poppleton. 

Rev. Noah Ward, assistant to 
Rev. Ralph Ward, of York, for 
whom he preached on every third 
Sunday, devoted part of his remain- 
ing time to itinerating, Selby being 
one of the places benefited by his 
services. He left Selby, however, 
a little before his death, in 1669. 

A meeting-house was built 
(Mountain, in his history, says, 
mistakenly, rebuilt), about the year 

Among the ministers at Mill- 
gate have been — 

1.698. Rev. John Travers. 
He was here in 171 5. 

Rev. John Hodgson. He re- 
moved to Lincoln. 

Rev. John Mush, a recipient of 
the Hewley fund, 1728 and 1729. 

1 79 1. Rev. John Smith (Ken- 
dal Acy.). 

1 810. Rev. — Smith, son of 
the preceding. He remained till 


The chapel had now become 
Unitarian. It was afterwards shut 
up for several years. 



"This congregation owes its 
origin to the zealous and generous 
exertions of Messrs. J. and W. 
Bowden, of Hull, and Messrs. W. 
and J. Claphain, of Leeds. These 
gentlemen procured supplies from 
the academy at Hackney, near 

* Information imperfect. 
f From Scale's MSS. 

34 6 


London, under the care of Rev. G. 
Collison. Mr. Andrew Reed, one 
of his students (afterwards so well 
known as a philanthropist and 
divine) was the first who came. 
He began his labours on the first 
Lord's day of July, 1808, and 
preached in a large room in the 
* King George/ which was filled to 
excess, but which the landlord 
afterwards refused to let the people 
occupy. They afterwards occupied 
a barn on the outside of the town. 
Appearances were so encouraging 
as to induce Messrs. Bowden and 
Clapham to comply with the earnest 
wishes of Mr. Reed and the con- 
gregation to purchase a piece of 
freehold ground for the site of 
a chapel. On the 18 th of August 
Mr. Reed left Selby. His ministry 
there had been very acceptable and 
useful. In the month of October 
following, Mr. Seaton, of the same 
academy, came to supply them. 

" The first stone of the new 
chapel was laid on Monday, Oct. 
31, 1808. 

" Mr. Seaton visited Thirsk in 
the month of February, 1839, and 
received an invitation from the 
people there to settle among them, 
which, however, he refused. He 
left Selby in April. In that month 
the chapel was opened. The 
preachers on the occasion were 
Messrs. Parsons (Leeds), Taylor 
(Bradford), and Eccles (Leeds). 
The discourses were afterwards 
published. Mr. Scott, one of the 
students from Hackney, arrived at 
Selby in the month of May, and 
laboured zealously and with accept- 
ance in the villages of Barlow, 
Bragton, Bourn, Balby, Gateforth, 
and Cliff, and continued there until 
the beginning of September, when 
he went to Hexham. The people 
were very much attached to him, 
and great good was done by his 

ministry. Afterwards Mr. Taylor, 

from the same academy, supplied 

them till the month of May, 1 810." 

The ministers have been — 

# # # 

1832. Rev. J. Robertson (Aire- 
dale Coll.). Mr. R. remained till 
1839, when he removed to Knares- 

1839. R ev - David Senior 
(Rotherham Coll.). Mr. S. re- 
moved to Malton, 1857. 

1 86 1 . Rev. David Clegg (Aire- 
dale Coll.), who is the present 



The academy, which was under 
the presidency of the Rev. R. 
Frankland, at Rathmell, during 
many years, must have greatly 
blessed the neighbourhood of 
Settle, though we have no memo- 
rials of its indirect operation. After 
its removal, however, ho evan- 
gelical efforts were made in this 
neighbourhood, except by the Wes- 
leyans, till the West Riding 
Itineracy resolved in 181 1 to visit 
the whole district. The congre- 
gation at Settle at first met in a 
private house ; a cottage was after- 
wards rented, and the upper room 
used as a gallery, by means of an 
opening in the floor. A chapel 
soon became requisite, and the Rev. 
Joseph Cockin, with his son, Rev. 
John Cockin, rendered essential 
service in its erection. Their 
cheerful, long-continued, and labo- 
rious exertions laid all the friends 
of religion, and the neighbourhood 
at large, under great and lasting 
obligations. The chapel was opened 
a.d. 1 8 16, the pulpit being first 

* Aided by Rev. S. Compston. 



occupied by students from Idle. 
A Mr. Brixton preached for nearly 
a year, with small success. 

Jan. i, 1824. Rev. Samuel 
Ellis became the first pastor. The 
congregation was now in a flourish- 
ing state, and continued so during 
his ministry. He removed to Bolton 
in September, 1827. 

His successor was Rev. James 
Wright, of Idle Academy, under 
whose ministry things greatly de- 

Rev. John Williams, from 
Grassington. Herein 1835. The 
congregation was now scattered, 
and brought to the verge of ruin. 
Mr. Williams left the place in 
February, 1838. 

A dissolution of the church was 
deemed desirable, and this the 
Rev. Professor Scott assisted in 
effecting. A fortnight afterwards 
the church was re-formed, the Rev. 
R. Gibbs, of Skipton, presiding. 
Four years were spent without 
a pastor. 

April 3, 1842. Rev. George 
Swann, from AttercliiFe. 

Aug. 17, 1845. Rev. John 
Greener, of Airedale College. 
He removed in 1 847. 

1850. Rev. — Jackson. His 
resignation, which was requested 
by the church, took place in 1852. 

June 24, 1855. Rev. Samuel 
Compston, of the Bradford Town 
Mission. After an honourable 
ministry he resigned, and left 
Settle June 30, 1867. 

The pulpit is now vacant. 



Rev. Stanley Gower, one of the 

* For much information relative to 
Sheffield I am greatly indebted to E. D. 
Leader, Esq., editor of the Sheffield Inde- 

Westminster Assembly of Divines, 
was minister at Attercliffe in the 
early days of the Commonwealth. 
The town was blessed also by the 
labours of Rev. William Bagshaw, 
who resided in the family of Col. 
(afterwards Sir John) Bright. His 
ordination took place at Chester- 
field, in 1650. He subsequently 
removed to Glossop, where his 
labours were most abundant 
throughout the whole neighbour- 
hood. After 1662 he ultimately 
settled at Ford, where he lived 
upon his own estate. His varied 
and extensive usefulness through- 
out the district gained for him the 
title of " the Apostle of the Peak." 

William Blythe, a commander in 
the Parliamentary army, was for a 
short time commander of Sheffield 
Castle. His family, of Norton 
Lees, was Nonconformist, and he 
married a Bright. His son was a 
Dissenting minister, and preached 
to a small congregation at Atter- 

It is clear, that from an early 
period the principles of Noncon- 
formity were understood and appre- 
ciated by the inhabitants of Atter- 
cliffe, and that the subsequent con- 
gregation greatly owed its origin to 
the influences which had preceded 
its formation. Two names are 
conspicuous in the history of 
Attercliffe Congregationalism ; — 
those of Hancock and Bloome. 

The Rev. Rowland Hancock 
came first to Sheffield as under- 
master of the Free Writing School. 
He became afterwards vicar of 
Ecclesfield, but relinquished the 
benefice at the Restoration to the 
old incumbent. In 1661 he was 
elected assistant minister by the bur- 
gesses. But as his right to the living 
was disputed, a meeting was held at 
the church June 11, 1662, Sir 
John Bright and others being pre- 



sent, when it was resolved — " That 
as for matter of title, Mr. Hancock 
is now an assistant, the burgesses 
will be ready to maintain." In 
the following August, however, 
this resolution was rescinded, and 
the old incumbent replaced, — a 
decision which the Act of Uni- 
formity, which came into operation 
immediately after, confirmed. The 
passing of the Five-mile Act drove 
Mr. Hancock from Sheffield, and 
compelled him to take refuge at 
Bull-House, the residence of Mr. 
Rich. On the indulgence Mr. H. re- 
turned to Sheffield, and to his own 
house at Shiercliffe Hall, and he 
preached at Attercliffe, and at 
Brookside, near Bradfield, where he 
could escape from hostile eyes. 
Though not a man of university 
education, Mr. H. was " a very 
good scholar, and a man of fine 
parts as well as real piety." 

Rev. Matthew Bloome was 
curate at Attercliffe, and was also 
displaced by the Act of Uniformity. 
He was imprisoned for a time in 
York Castle. Mr. Hancock and 
Mr. Bloome united, shortly after 
Mr. H.'s return, to form an Inde- 
pendent church. It worshipped 
at Shiercliffe Hall (Hancock's resi- 

The names of those who thus 
entered into communion have been 
preserved : — Mr. John Hatfield, 
Mrs. Anthony Hatfield, Mrs. Han- 
cock, Mrs. Jennet Bloom, Joseph 
Capper, Joseph Nutt, Robert Hool, 
(tanner), Wm. and Mary Wads- 
worth, Mary Nicholson (widow), 
Hannah Cox, Margaret Parkin, 
Margaret Sharpe, John Oldale, 
Widow Hoole, William Hoole 
(cutler), Robert Hoole (his brother), 
William Marsland. 

Shiercliffe Hall was in a private 
situation, whilst it was central and 
convenient of access. But before 

the church had been long in exist- 
ence, disagreements arose, and 
about the year 1681 it seemed 
desirable that the ministers should 
separate, which they did ; one part 
of the congregation worshiping at 
Attercliffe, where Bloome lived,* 
whilst the other part remained at 
the Old Hall, under the care of 
Hancock.t Soon after this separa- 
tion both ministers died ; Hancock 
in 1685, and Bloome in the year 
1686. He had latterly carried on 
the business of a maltster, at Sir W. 
Ellis's, Lincolnshire. The people 
then became re-united. At this 
time Rev. Nathaniel Baxter (ejected 
from St. Michael's, Lanes., and 
afterwards a private chaplain in 
Derbyshire), came to reside in 
Sheffield, for the education of his 
children. He willingly consented 
to preach. It appears, however, 
that he did not take the post of 
pastor. In the diary of Heywood, 
Rev. James Wright, J father to Dr. 
Samuel Wright, of Carter Lane, 
London, is mentioned as minister 
of Attercliffe. After him, the 
aged and venerable Mr. Pryme, 
ejected from the parish church, 
preached much at Attercliffe, and 
also, when possible, at a fortnightly 
lecture in Sheffield. He was a 
holy man, greatly beloved by the 
Attercliffe flock, and continued his 
labours till entirely disabled. He 
died in 1 708, having preached on 
the previous Bartholomew anniver- 
sary (according to his custom) from 
the words—" And now behold the 
Lord hath kept me alive these forty 

* Among Bloome's congregation was 
Mr. Spencer, Attercliffe Hall. The whole 
number of his adherents was twenty-two. 

f Hancock and Bloome were both de- 
cided Congregationalists. 

X "He married a daughter of Wm. 
Cotton, of Wortley, and Nether Den by, 
ironmaster, a great patron of the Noncon- 
formists."— Hunter's " Hallamshire." 



and five years." He was buried in 
the parish church, being the last of 
six ejected ministers laid there : — 
Thomas Burbeck, 1674; Robert 
Durant, 1678; Richard Taylor, 
1680; Rowland Hancock, 1684; 
Nathaniel Baxter, 1697; Edward 
Pryme, 1708.* A funeral sermon 
was preached and published by 
Robert Fern, at the request of his 
family. Text, Heb. xii. 23. 
" And to the spirits of just men 
made perfect." 

The name of Hawden, probably 
of Wakefield (see p. no), occurs, 
as preaching for Mr. Pryme, about 
1707. Samuel Blythe, a marriage 
connection of Pryme, and father 
to Blythe, of Birmingham, was 
here in 1716. The congregation 
then numbered 250. 

Attercliffe became about this 
time an attachment of the Upper 
Chapel, and was usually under the 
charge of Mr. Jollie's students. 
After Jollie's death the care of it fell 
upon Mr. Wadsworth, senior, and 
his assistants. On Mr. W.'s death the 
pastorate fell to Rev. F. S. Wads- 
worth, his son and assistant. He 
was educated by Doddridge, who 
had given him a high character, 
though he was unorthodox. The 
people at Attercliffe soon perceived 
that the doctrines he preached were 
unscriptural. He united the pas- 
torate at Attercliffe with the posi- 
tion of assistant minister to Mr. 
Haynes, at the Upper Chapel. 
The congregation miserably de- 
clined, and at length became 
extinguished. It is not known 
when the sacrament was last ad- 
ministered ; but the communion 
plate was taken away by Mr. F. S. 
Wadsworth, used in his family, 
and sold at his death. 

Hunter says ("Biographia Puri- 

* Hunter's " Sheffield." 

tanica, Mus. Brit.") : « Mr. John- 
stone, of Wakefield, told me he 
preached an annual sermon on 
'Death, Judgment, and Eternity/ 
in pursuance of directions left by 
Mr. Wilson, minister at Attercliffe, 
and received two guineas a year." 
" Mr. Frankland, the minister, 
established an annual sermon in 
May. See Will." 




A congregation was collected by 
Rev. Maurice Phillips, classical 
tutor of the Masborough Inde- 
pendent College. The ministers 
have been — 

1802. Rev. Maurice Phillips. 
In 1807 a chapel was erected, 
recently removed. Mr. P. left in 

181 2. Rev. R. Richards. He 
remained till 1824. 

1825. Rev. J. B. Jefferson. 
When he settled here the congre- 
gation was almost extinct. It re- 
vived considerably under his minis- 
try, but he died early (1826), 
aet. 23. 

1826. Rev. J. W. H. Pritchard. 
He published a life of his prede- 
cessor. Mr. P. died 14th July, 
1836, aet. 32. 

1840. Rev. George Swann. 
Mr. S. removed 1842. 

1842. Rev. George Water- 
house, from Dewsbury. He died 
June 5, 1844. 

Jan. 1, 1845. Rev. John Jeffer- 
son. He left in 1847. 

1850. Rev. John Earnshaw. 
Mr. E. removed in 1856. 

1357. Rev. John Calvert 
(Rotherham Coll.), the present 
minister. He was ordained Nov. 



1 6, 1859. Under his ministry a 
new chapel was erected, which 
cost ,£2,992, and was opened 
Feb. 4, 1863. 

Afterwards UPPER CHAPEL. 


The Rev. James Fisher, vicar of 
Sheffield, a Congregationalist in 
principle, remained in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sheffield after his 
ejectment. A large number of the 
laity withdrew with him from the 
services of the Established Church, 
and Fisher continued to hold a 
pastoral relation to them. But he 
was an object of special suspicion 
and hostility, especially to James, 
Duke of York (afterwards James 
II.), and having been charged with 
complicity in the Farnley Wood 
Plot (see p. j*j), was often com- 
mitted to prison. The Five-mile 
Act at length finally separated the 
minister from his flock, and the 
little life which remained after 
such repeated imprisonments came 
to an end in the village of Hatfield, 
near Doncaster, where Capt. John 
Hatfield, Fisher's relative,* resided. 
As Sheffield was not then a corpo- 
rate town, it was distinguished as a 
shelter for persecuted Noncon- 
formists, among whom were Rev. 
Richard Taylor and Rev. Nathaniel 
Baxter. One of those thus drawn 
to it was Robert Durant, already 
mentioned, ejected from Crowle, in 
Lincolnshire. He had been incar- 

* Fisher was by marriage brother-in-law 
to Stephen Bright, Esq., of Carbrook, father 
of Sir J. Bright, and related to many chief 
Puritan families in the neighbourhood. 
This relationship brought him to York- 
shire. He became Vicar of Sheffield in 

ce rated for his religion, and whilst 
in prison had formed the acquaint- 
ance of Thomas Woolhouse, Esq., 
of Glapwell, near Mansfield, a 
fellow sufferer. By him he was 
recommended to Fisher's bereaved 
congregation, then assembling in 
the utmost secrecy ; and after due 
trial, was invited to become their 
minister (1669). (In the same 
year John Barber was set apart to 
the office of ruling elder, and 
Richard Paramour to that of 
deacon.) His gentle and courteous 
manners, his edifying visits and his 
profitable preaching, endeared him 
to the suffering flock ; and as soon 
as the times permitted he gained a 
considerable congregation, and a 
building was erected at Snig Hall 
for their worship. It was called 
the New Hall. A principal con- 
tributor to this erection was Thomas 
Hollis (Baptist), a merchant of 
London, who, during a visit to 
Sheffield, had been converted by 
Mr. Fisher's ministry, and whose 
name is well known in Sheffield as 
the founder of its hospital and the 
author of other generous benefac- 
tions. The Brights of Carbrook, 
of whom mention has been already 
made, were at that time con- 
spicuous members of the congrega- 
tion. Scarcely, however, was this 
meeting-house opened, when Du- 
rant died Feb. 12, 1678.* Though 
Fisher had been an Independent, 
the congregation subsequently 
adopted Presbyterian principles. 
The Rev. Edward Pryme and other 
Nonconformist ministers preached 
for them after Durant's death. 

April 28, 1 68 1. The Rev. 
Timothy JoLLiEf succeeded to the 

* Rev. Thomas Burbeck, ejected from 
Ackworth, is said by Calamy to have often 
preached in his own house at Sheffield, 
where he did much good. He died 1674. 

f His father was the Rev. Thomas 


35 1 

pastorate. He was a Presbyterian, 
though very liberal, admitting Con- 
gregationalists to communion. This 
minister, whose education had been 
begun by Frankland, and completed 
in London, was ordained by Messrs. 
Heywood, T. Jollie, Hancock, and 
Bloome. The ordination was attended 
by many difficulties, arising from the 
objection taken by some of the In- 
dependents present to the Presby- 
terian form. It was one of the 
earliest which took place among the 

Timothy Jollie was much perse- 
cuted. Soon after his settlement 
he was compelled to seek shelter 
in privacy. Scarcely had he re- 
returned home, when another war- 
rant was put in force under the 
Five-mile Act. Jollie was brought 
before Sir John Reresby (1682), 
and hurried off to prison without 
being allowed to take leave of his 
wife and newly-born child. Mrs. 
Jollie (a daughter of Fisher) was 
subjected to great indignity, and 
her goods being seized and sold to 
pay the ^20 penalty, she was com- 
pelled, though recently confined, 
to take refuge in her brother's 
house. She was an exemplary 
woman, full of faith and patience, 
with a thankful disposition, which 
triumphed over all wrongs. Jollie's 
imprisonment was not at first 
severe. He was allowed to lodge 
in York city, and even to return to 
his family, on giving recognizances 
to appear at the assizes. But when, 
after trial, he refused to take the 
oath binding him to good be- 
haviour (which in fact amounted 
to a promise not to preach), he 

Jollie, a very pious man, and a sturdy 
Congregationalist, ejected from Altham. 
His grandfather, related by family con- 
nexion to Adam Martindale, held many 
important commands in the army of the 

underwent much reproach, and 
was sentenced to six months' im- 
prisonment in the castle. Yet he 
was allowed regularly to address 
the prisoners and citizens. Mrs. 
Jollie soon joined her husband, 
taking lodgings in the city. Here 
she and her servant were seized 
with sickness, — a new sorrow for 
Jollie, but the occasion of much 
kindness from their religious 
friends. In consequence, Jollie 
remained in York a short time after 
his liberation. He there visited 
many nonconforming families, and 
narrowly escaped another imprison- 
ment, and it was not till the year 
1683 that he felt it safe to appear 
at Sheffield. 

We have spoken elsewhere of 
Jollie's Academy, which was carried 
on in a retired situation at Atter- 
cliffe. The latter days of his 
ministry were passed in tranquility 
and harmony, and his labours were 
greatly blessed. In 1 700 a large 
and commodious chapel was built. 
Mr. Hollis was a considerable con- 
tributor. He purchased the former 
building, which he endowed as a 
hospital Mr. Francis Barlow also 
subscribed largely. Mr. Field Syl- 
vester laid the first stone, and Jollie 
preached the opening sermon. At 
this time he had the largest congre- 
gation in Yorkshire. Two years 
later, and when a separation had 
already taken place, Neale reports 
1,163 hearers, seventy-five of whom 
had votes for the county. Jollie 
died of dropsy on Easter Sunday, 
May 28, 1714, aet. 55. He 
was buried in the chapel-yard, 
where an inscription may still be 

The Rev. Jeremiah Gill (Jollie's 
Academy), afterwards of Hull, was 
Mr. Jollie's assistant. He was much 
beloved, and the congregation parted 
with him very reluctantly. After 



him Rev. John Wads worth* took 
the post. He left for Rotherham. 
The Rev. John De la Rose suc- 
ceeded, who preached Jollie's fune- 
ral sermon. 

After Jollie's death, a period of 
great contention and confusion 
followed. The church desired 
Mr. De la Rose to occupy the 
pulpit till a successor was regularly 
chosen. The trustees and con- 
gregation, on the other hand, 
wished to appoint Mr. Wads- 
worth, then at Rotherham, who 
had been De la Rose's prede- 
cessor. The latter party proved 
the stronger, and being resolved 
to accomplish their purpose, dis- 
charged De la Rose, and locked 
the chapel against him and his 
friends. They then proposed Mr. 
Wadsworth as minister, and at a 
meeting from which the officers 
of the church and Mr. W. pur- 
posely absented themselves, carried 
their point. A number of church 
members holding that there had 
been " a deliberate, resolute setting 
aside the great rights and privi- 
leges that Christ had purchased 
with His own blood," withdrew 
and formed another congregation. 

This aifair excited an immense 
sensation. It was the first in- 
stance, probably, of a Noncon- 
formist division, at least in the 
North. Both parties appealed to 
their respective friends. Mr. Wads- 
worth wrote to* many ministers, 
among whom were Watts and 
Colton, promising to publish their 
reply, which he never did. Young 
Thomas Bradbury was his warm, 
not to say violent, adherent. On 
the other hand, the seceding party 
made known their grievance to the 

* Mr. Wadsworth's father, of Atter- 
cliffe, had been imprisoned for Noncon- 

Congregational church at Leeds, 
and Mr. Moult and three mem- 
bers came to Sheffield to inquire 
into the affair. Their judgment 
was that the election of a pastor 
by trustees was an act of " un- 
exampled baseness," and they ex- 
horted the seceders to persevere. 
In this conclusion young Timothy 
Jollie (educated by his father), 
then in the north of Yorkshire, 
agreed, as a letter of his to Moult 
shows, though he afterwards be- 
came assistant to Mr. Wadsworth. 
In some private memoirs he assigns 
as the reason for afterwards leaving 
Sheffield " that he found an indo- 
lency of temper growing upon him 
in consequence of the way of 
living there." He was pastor of 
Miles Lane for thirty-seven years, 
died 1757. The next assistant 
was Rev. Daniel Clark. He re- 
sided at Attercliffe. He died 
1724. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Benj Roberts, who died 1 740. 

The Rev. John Wadsworth, 
late of Rotherham, accepted the 
pastoral office in 17 14. He was 
married to a daughter of Mr. Field 
Sylvester. He continued Jollie's 
Academy, but with diminished re- 
putation. He resigned the pasto- 
rate, owing to ill-health, in 1744, 
and lived only till the following 
May. He is buried in the meet- 
ing-house. The Rev. Field Syl- 
vester Wadsworth, his son, from 
Kibworth, was his last assistant. 
He was a pupil of Doddridge, but 
was requested by that tutor to 
withdraw, owing to his non-appre- 
ciation of Trinitarian doctrine, and 
finished his education under Mr. 
Eames. He usually preached at 
Attercliffe, and continued till 1758. 

1745. Rev. Thomas Haynes, 
from Nantwich. Rev. F. S. Wads- 
worth continued his assistant, and 
was also pastor at Attercliffe. Mr. 



H. was an Arian, but his assistant 
went farther, and the congregation 
adopted the more pronounced 
views. Mr. F. S. Wadsworth died 
in 1758. Mr. Haynes would have 
gladly introduced Rev. Joseph 
(afterwards Dr.) Priestley, now 
leaving Needham Market, as his 
assistant. But the congregation, 
though they might have borne his 
doctrine, disliked the impediment 
in his speech, and the Rev. John 
Dickinson was chosen in his stead, 
Mr. Haynes recommending Priest- 
ley to Nantwich, his former charge. 
The new doctrines now preached 
became so unpalateable to many of 
the hearers, that they withdrew to 
the Nether Chapel. Mr. Haynes 
died 1758. Attercliffe was then 
extinct, and Fulwood was taken 
into connexion with the congrega- 
tion in its place. 

1758. Rev. John Dickinson 
and Rev. Joseph Evans, co-pastors. 
Mr. D. (Kendal Acy.), had been 
minister of Diss. He died 1780. 

1780. Rev. Joseph Evans and 
Rev. Benj. Naylor (Warrington 
Acy.). Mr. E. resigned his pasto- 
rate 1798, and died 1803. 

The connexion with Fulwood 
was at this time dissolved. 

1798. Rev. Benj. Naylor. He 
left Sheffield 1805. 

Rev. Nathaniel Phillips, D.D. 
The congregation was now alto- 
gether Unitarian. 




In page 352 we have related the 
circumstances of the separation 
from the Upper Chapel upon 
a principle of essential importance 
— the right of the church to elect 

its officers. The seceding body 
was composed mainly of the middle 
class, in number about 200, and 
was led by Mr. Elias Wordsworth, 
a man of great piety and zeal. 
Mr. De la Rose was elected to 
the pastoral office, and a day was 
fixed for his ordination. On that 
day, the Rev. Messrs. Jollie, Hes- 
keth, Allwood, Moult, Kirby, and 
others were present. But some 
ministers whose services had been 
calculated on never appeared. A 
strong letter was at the same time 
sent by Mr. Wadsworth, of the 
Upper Chapel, entreating mini- 
sters to warn and protest against 
the sinful separation which was 
being perpetrated. Under these 
circumstances it was judged wise 
to defer the ordination altogether 
for the present, and to enter upon 
a solemn inquiry into the whole 
matter. Accordingly, in the follow- 
ing month (Nov., 17 15), a number 
of ministers met, and fully investi- 
gated all the facts of this important 
case. After hearing both sides, 
they pronounced their judgment, 
" that the first breach arose from 
the precipitant acts of those who 
now adhere to Mr. Wadsworth, 
and that those brethren that now 
adhere to Mr. John De la Rose 
have a just and righteous cause," 
and they, therefore, joined in or- 
daining Mr. De la Rose to the 
pastorship of Nether Church. Un- 
fortunately the signatures to this 
award have not been preserved, 
and we only know from other 
authority that at the ordination 
Mr. Moult, of Leeds, asked the 
usual questions, and gave the 
charge, and that Rev. T. Jollie, 
jun., preached on the following 

The congregation, which at the 
first numbered about 200, had 
fitted up two houses for tempo- 



rary worship, and had begun at 
once to build a chapel. It was 
finished in 1715, and from its 
situation in relation to the other 
sanctuary, was called the Nether 
Chapel. The ordination took place 
in it. 

The Rev. John de la Rose was 
the son of a French refugee. He 
had a brother settled at Stockport. 
His preaching seems to have par- 
taken somewhat of the character 
of Gallic oratory, and he was very 
popular. Yet he seems to have 
been wretchedly sustained by the 
contributions of his people, a fault 
for which Sheffield was remarkable 
about this time. He died Dec. 31, 
1723, and was buried in the chapel 

The Rev. Robert Kelsall, from 
Cheshire. He was young, and 
though a worthy and able man, 
did not gain the affections of his 
people. He resigned 1726, and 
became minister of two congre- 
gations in Derbyshire. He died 
1772. After his removal "great 
heats " are recorded to have taken 
place. This state of things ex- 
posed the congregation to much 

Rev. Ogle Radford. He re- 
mained but a short time, then re- 
moved to Nottingham, where he died. 

We have now mention of Rev. — 
Roberts, then of Rev. — Smith. 
The latter, we are told, " lost the 
respect of his people, and died in 
great distress." 

In 1748 a most worthy minister 
succeeded, in the person of the Rev. 
John Pye. He was very Evan- 
gelical in sentiment, and devoted 
in labour. Mr. Pye's niece was 
married to Mr. John Smith, a 
respectable bookseller in SheiEeld. 
Their son was the eminent Rev. 
J. Pye Smith, D.D., &c. Mr. Pye 
died May 24, 1773, aet. 55. He 

was infirm in body, but a truly 
pious and worthy minister. Mr. 
Pye was an intimate friend of Rev. 
James Scott, the tutor at Heckmond- 
wike, who often preached at Shef- 
field with great acceptance. 

May 4, 1774, Mr. Pye was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John Harmer, 
(from Homerton Acy.), a relative 
of the author of " Illustrations of 
Scripture," afterwards minister at 
Gosport. Mr. H. was an Evan- 
gelical minister, but laboured with 
less success than his predecessor. 
He died suddenly from angina 
pectoris March 27, 1798. Rev. 
S. Boden preached his funeral 
sermon. He was celebrated for 
mechanical skill, and invented a 
machine for shearing and raising 
cloth, which proved of value. 

1798. Rev. John Dawson. He 
resigned about 181 3, though he 
still lived at Sheffield. 

1813. Rev. Joseph Gilbert, 
then classical tutor at Masborough 
College. He was a man of great 
erudition, and of profound intellect. 
Whilst at Sheffield he married Miss 
Ann Taylor (sister of Isaac Taylor, 
well known by his numerous and 
important publications), herself an 

Mr. Gilbert removed in 1 8 1 7 to 
Hull, and afterwards to Notting- 

He was succeeded in 181 7 by 
Rev. Thomas Smith, M.A., or- 
dained Dec. 9, 1 8 19, who was also 
classical tutor at Rotherham College, 
an office which he resigned Jan. 2, 
1850. Mr. Smith was an accom- 
plished scholar, and a man of great 
power and eloquence when ade- 
quately excited. During his mini- 
stry the chapel was rebuilt and 
opened Aug. 19, 1828. Mr. S. 
resigned his charge at Nether 
Chapel Nov., 1852, and died 
Jan. 28, 1853, aet. 69. 



Oct. 16, 1853. R ev - Henry 
BATCHELOR(Newport-Pagnell Acy.), 
from Fetter Lane, London. Mr. 
B. preached his farewell sermon 
on leaving for Glasgow Dec. 25, 

July 30, 1859. Rev. T M. 
Herbert, M.A. He was ordained 
Nov. 24, 1859, and removed 1863. 

Jan. 11, 1864. Rev. Henry 
Quick (Hackney), from Bristol, 
the present minister. 

"In the burial-ground," says 
Hunter (from whom most of the 
foregoing particulars are derived), 
" are several tombs of the Words- 
worth family, originally of the 
parish of Peniston. Some mem- 
bers of this family acquired great 
wealth, in London. They have 
been considerable benefactors to 
the Society." 


On the introduction of Rev. 
John Harmer to Nether Chapel 
(1780) some of the congregation 
withdrew, and among others Mr. 
E. Bennett, by whom Coalpit Lane* 
was erected. He became the pastor, 
with an assistant, neither of whom 
received any emolument from the 
congregation. The sums contri- 
buted were laid up for the erection 
of a chapel, and Mr. B. added 
^250. The chapel at Howard 
Street was built in 1790, and the 
congregation removed to it from 

* Coal-pit-lane has been successively a 
place of temporary refuge for many con- 
gregations till their more permanent 
chapels have been erected. 

Coalpit Lane. Mr. Bennett died 
Nov. 29, 1788. 

The following have been the 
ministers — 

1789. Rev. — Burgess. 

Rev. — Slatterie, from 

. Rev. Moses Taylor. 

1797. Rev. J. Reece. "An 
amiable man, and most exemplary 
Christian." Mr. R. died Jan. 8, 

1803. Rev. S. Barnard, from 
Hull. Mr. B. died June 6, 1807. 
More than 500 members of the 
congregation attended his funeral. 

March, 1808. Rev. James 
Mather. He left Sheffield July 
15, 1827, and died at Islington, 
London, May 25, 1840. 

1830. Rev. T. R. Taylor 
(Idle Acy.). Mr. T. was a man 
of exemplary piety and distin- 
guished talent. After leaving Shef- 
field, he became classical tutor at 
Airedale College (see p. 188). He 
removed 1832. 

1832. Rev. Joseph Fox, from 
Hull. Mr. F. left Sheffield 1835, 
and is now residing at Manchester. 

Feb. 31, 1836. Rev. Robert 
Slater Bayley, F.S.A. (Hoxton 
Acy.). Mr. B, left Sheffield June, 
1 846, and died at Hereford Nov. 
15, 1859, «*• 5 8 - 

July 18, 1847. Rev. Samuel 
Clarkson (Spring Hill Coll.). He 
removed August, 1851, and is now 
at Manchester. 

Dec, 1 85 1. Rev. J. J. Shrub- 
sole. He left Feb., 1855. 

Oct. 12, 1856. Rev. R. C. 
Lumsden, F.R.G.S. Removed 
June 7, 1863. 

Mar., 1864. Rev. C. Curtis 
Tyte, Professor of Classics, 
Rotherham (from Doncaster), the 
present minister. 

a a 2 





This chapel was erected in the 
year 1780 for a congregation calling 
themselves Independent Methodists, 
which separated from Mr. Bennett 
(see p. 355), under the ministry of 
Rev. — Povah. It was sold 
Sept. 23, 1795 to Rev. Alexander 
McNab, and on his death became 
the property of his widow. It was 
afterwards rented by a congregation 
occupying Coalpit Lane, in which 
an Independent church had been 
formed under the pastorate of Rev. 
Francis Dixon. 

The ministers have been — 

1799. Rev. Francis Dixon. 
He was ordained Sept. 5, the 
Revs. J. Boden, Reece, W. Alliott 
(Nottingham), Dr. Williams, Bur- 
gess (Chesterfield), Phillips, Ellis 
(Barnsley), and Brooksbank (Lon- 
don), taking parts in the service. 
There were then fifteen members. 

In 1 806 the vestry was enlarged 
for the accommodation of a Sunday 
School. In 1814 the chapel was 
purchased and repaired. 

In 1827 a school-room which 
had been rented from the Wes- 
leyans was also purchased. 

In 1836 Mr. Dixon resigned, 
and died Jan. 7, 1 846. 

1836. Rev. John Thorpe, 
from Ramsden Street, Hudders- 
field. He was pastor here for 
two years; but the congregation 
becoming too large, a change of 
sanctuaries was effected with Rev. 
W. B. Landells, of Mount Zion 
Chapel. Mr. L. afterwards left 
for Australia. 

1853. Rev. James Rennie,M.A. 
Ordained Aug. 2. 

1857. Rev. Brewin Grant, 
B.A. (Highbury Coll. and Glasgow 

Un r v.). During his ministry the 
Cemetery Road Congregational 
church was built, and Mr. Grant 
removed thither with a large part 
of his flock. On his departure 
there was no settled minister till 

1 861. Rev. R. M. Macbrair, 
M.A. (Edinburgh Univ.), from 
Barbican, London. The church 
and congregation at once began 
to build a suburban chapel called 
the Tabernacle, to which they 
removed, and the old chapel was 
sold by auction in 1862, and pur- 
chased for £ 1 ,000 by the Roman 



This chapel was erected in 
1784. In 1783, the town bur- 
gesses of Sheffield granted to 
Thomas Vennor and John Read 
a lease of a piece of land for 
ninety-nine years. On this land 
the chapel was built. 

The ministers have been — 

1783. Rev. Jehoiada Brewer. 
" Mr. B. was a man of strong 
intellect, and passions as strong. 
Commanding in person, and 
possessed of a good voice, he 
was fitted to be what he really 
was, a very striking and popular 
preacher."* Mr. B. removed to 
Carr's Lane, Birmingham, 1795. 
(See life of Rev. J. A. James.) 

1796. Rev. James Boden, from 
Hanley. In 1797 the chapel under- 
went internal enlargement. In the 
following year, after a collection 
amounting to £181 4s., a large 
consignment was made for the 
ship "Duff." On Mr. B.'s in- 

* "Independency in Warwickshire," 
p. 179. 



troduction to Sheffield a division took 
place, which resulted in the erec- 
tion of Howard Street Chapel. In 
consequence of Mr. Boden's failing 
health, the Rev. Joseph Augustus 
Miller was elected his coadjutor. 
Mr. Boden resigned April I, 1839, 
and died at Chesterfield, June 4, 
1 84 1, set. 84. 

1839. Rev. J. A. Miller. 
Mr. M. resigned in 1840, and 
afterwards entered the Church of 

Dec. 5, 1840. Rev. J. H. Muir, 
from Spalding. Much respected. 
He died suddenly in his vestry 
between the morning and evening 
services, Feb. 2, 1862. 

Sept., 1862, Rev. J. P. Glad- 
stone (Rotherham Coll.), the pre- 
sent minister. He was ordained 
June 10, 1863. 



This church was originally 
formed by the secession, in 1801, 
of several members from Queen 
Street and Howard Street. They 
first met in Coalpit Lane, and re- 
moved to this chapel, which had 
been built in 1780 by a body of 
Independent Methodists, under the 
ministry of Rev. Mr. Bristol. On 
the 31st March, 1803, the Metho- 
dist trustees sold the chapel to the 
Rev. A. Bell, and on April 3, that 
gentleman and his congregation re- 
moved to it. 

The following have been the 
ministers — 

1802. Rev. Archibald Bell, 
from Wellington, After his coming 
the people withdrew to Garden- 
street, which they had bought from 
the Methodists. Mr. B. left through 
illness, 1805. 

1806. Rev. John Marton. He 
remained till 1809. 

1 8 10. Rev. Mark Docker, 
from Whkby, where he had been 
an itinerant. He remained at Shef- 
field nineteen years, and left, 1829, 
for Thorne, but afterwards re- 
turned, and became chaplain to the 
Dissenter's portion of the General 
Cemetery. He died Feb. 14, 1853, 
set. 74. 

1830. Rev. J. Speakman. 

Dec. 5, 1 841. Rev. Samuel 
Bellamy (Highbury Acy.), from 
Leeds. Mr. B. removed to Buck- 
ingham, 1 85 1. 

May 31, 1 85 1. Rev. H. Tho- 
mas, B.A. (Homerton Acy. and 
London Univ.), from Thetford, 
now at Derby. 

Nov., 1 85 1. Rev.H.F.RusTEDT. 
After his departure the chapel was 
let to the Wesleyan Reformers, un- 
til, by the aid of the Independent 
churches in the town, the cause 
was revived. 

Nov. 28, 1852 Rev. S. Dunn. 

1865. Rev. R. Stainton. 
Recognized June 26, 1865. Under 
his ministry the cause has so greatly 
prospered that a large new chapel 
has been erected on the old site. 
It was opened Nov., 1867. Mr. 
S. is the present minister. 



The first stone of this chapel 
was laid April 7, 1834. 
Its ministers have been — 
1836. Rev. W. B. Landells. 
Ordained Aug. 31. Chapels were 
exchanged, in 1838, with the con- 
gregation then at Lee-croft. (See 

P- 35 6 -) 

1838. Rev. John Thorpe, from 
Huddersneld. Mr. T. died at 
Manchester, May 29, 1847. 



1843. Rev. E. Tasker (Aire- 
dale Coll.). Ordained April 5, 

1845. Rev. Samuel Jackson. 
Ob. at Northallerton, Feb. 21, 
1849, **• 4-8- No stated minister 

Nov. 24, 1850. Rev. David 
Loxton (Highbury), the present 
minister, was chosen. New school- 
rooms were built at a cost of £ 1 600, 
and opened Dec. 12, i860. The 
chapel was freed from debt Dec, 

Mr. L. is the present minister. 



This congregation, an ofF-setfrom 
Queen Street, was formed of mem- 
bers who had for many years con- 
ducted a Sunday-school in the neigh- 
bourhood. The church was consti- 
tuted 1853, an d at fi rst worshipped 
in the school-room. The first stone 
of the chapel was laid April 18, 
1854, an d it was opened for wor- 
ship July 12, 1855. 

1864. Rev. J. Brown Paton, 
M.A. (London Univ. and Spring- 
hill), became the pastor. Mr. 
Paton left to become President of 
the Congregational Institute, Not- 
tingham, Oct., 1863. 

March 24, 1864. Rev. H. 
Tarrant, from Derby. He left 
Sheffield August, 1867, and is now 
at Salem Chapel, Leeds. 

The pulpit is vacant. 




This chapel was opened Oct- 
12, 1859, by sermons from Rev- 

Dr. Raffles and James Parsons. (See 

P- 356). 

Rev. Brewin Grant, B.A. 

(Highbury and Glasgow Univ.), 
from Lee-Croft chapel. 

Mr. G. is the present minister. 


This chapel was opened March 
12, 1862. The cost of its erection 
was £2,700. The Rev. R. M. 
Macbrair removed here with his 
congregation from Lee-croft chapel. 

1862. Rev. R. Macbrair, M.A., 
(Edinburgh Univ.). 

He subsequently became pastor 
of the congregation at Broom Park. 

1864. Rev. J. Newsholme 
(Airedale). Ordained Sept 20. 

Mr. N. is the present minister. 



The foundation-stone of this 
chapel was laid by J. Hoole, Esq., 
Sept. 23, 1863. It was opened 
Jan. 30, 1864. 

1864. Rev. R. M. Macbrair, 
M.A (Edinburgh), from Barbican, 
London, and afterwards from the 
Tabernacle, Sheffield (see super). 

Mr. M. is the present pastor. 


This church was formed Jan., 
1866, and at present assembles in 
Sheaf Street Temperance Hall, 
under the pastorship of Rev. F. 
S. Whitworth. A chapel with 



the above designation is planned, 
towards which, several contributions 
have been offered. See " Congre- 
gational Year Book," 1861, p. 350. 


A chapel capable of accommo- 
dating about 150 persons was 
erected here in 18 19, and a small 
church has been formed. The 
pulpit has been supplied from 
various quarters. 



By the endowment of Wm. 
Rowterby, Esq., of Gunthwaite, a 
native of the place, a small chapel 
was built at Fuiwood about 1724, 
and an annual sum provided for a 
minister. The chapel was en- 
dowed also by Thos. Hollis, jun., 
Esq, with j£io per annum, still 
paid. The ministers have been — 

Rev. Jeremiah Gill, perhaps 
the son of Rev. Jeremiah Gill, 
assistant to Rev. T. Jollie. He 
received aid from the Hewley fund. 
A house was built for the minister 
in 1754. Mr. Gill died 1758. 

Fuiwood was then taken under 
the care of the congregation of the 
Upper Chapel, who held a service 
in the afternoons till he removal of 
Rev. Jos. Evans, 1798. 

1798. Rev. Joseph Ramsbotham 
(Rotherham). He had a school at 
Sheffield. He removed 1 802. 

R.ev. W. Gorton. He died 1 806. 

The upper chapel again took 
charge of it for a year. 

1803. Kev. William White- 
legg (Warrington and Manchester). 
An Unitarian. He remained till 

The endowment which had been 
placed in the hands of the Roe- 
bucks was, during Mr. W.'s 
ministry, lost through their failure.* 
He removed to Piatt, 18 10. 

1 8 10. Rev. G. W. Elliott, 
whom Hunter calls " A heretic 
from an orthodox academy." He 
was previously at Burton-on-Trent 
and Coventry. On his removal, in 
1 81 7, Rev. J. Boden "helped to 
rescue it from heterodoxy, "f 

The Rev. John McDonald was 
ordained by the Rev. Dr. Bennett 
and the Rev. Jas. Boden, and con- 
tinued at the chapel till 1827, 
when he resigned. He lived to a 
great age, and died a few years ago. 
Unfortunately, when he left Fui- 
wood, he took with him the Bi >le 
and the registers of the chapel, and 
all efforts since made to recover 
them have been unsuccessful. 

In April, 1827, Philip Gell, 
Esq., of Hopton, Derbyshire, as 
heir of William Jessop, Esq., 
of Broom Hall, appointed the 
Rev. Hugh Garside Rhodes to 
be minister, and the document 
appointing him is witnessed by the 
Rev. Thomas Sutton, vicar of 
Sheffield, and by Mr. McDonald, 
the retiring minister of Fuiwood. 
Mr. Rhodes still holds the living. 
The chapel has recently undergone 
repairs, and is now said to be a 
comfortable place of worship. 

In 1 861, the only and surviving 
trustees were Messrs. Offley, Shore, 
and Thomas Astine Ward. A new 
deed was prepared, nominating 
Edward Bramley, William Edward 
Laycock, Paul England Fisher, 
Alfred Beckett, and Michael Hun- 
ter, jun., trustees. These gentle- 
men are all Unitarians. 

* The minister at Fuiwood was to he 
chosen by his friend Mr. Jessop and his 
heirs or by the inhabitants, 
f MSS. Mus. Brit. 





This large chapel, erected 1787, 
and capable of accommodating 1 000 
hearers, owes its origin to a clergy- 
man of Evangelical sentiments. 
Rev. Benj. Greaves, who was 
curate at Bradfield, in which 
chapelry Loxley is situated. Mr. 
Greaves's popularity, contrasting 
strongly with the incumbent's un- 
popularity, caused his dismissal. 
With the aid of parishioners he 
erected the chapel at Loxley, 
where he continued to preach 
until appointed to the living of 
Stoney - Middleton, Derbyshire. 
Mr. Greaves was succeeded by 
Rev. — Flockton (Church of Eng- 
land), appointed by the mortgagee. 
The chapel was then rented by 
the Independents, who afterwards 
bought it. The ministers have 
been — 

1802. Rev. Daniel Dunker- 
ley, from Stockport. He died, 
after a pastorate of eighteen years, 
and was buried here. 

1 82 1. Rev. David Dunkerley 
(the same name as the preceding, 
but no relation). He remained 
eight or nine years, and removed 
to Canada. 

Rev. — Cullen. He continued 
five or six years. 

Rev. John Hanson. He was 

minister for eighteen years, and 
died here. He was commonly 
known as "the Vicar of Loxley." 

1854. Rev. Thomas France, 
the present minister. 

A new school-room and mini- 
ster's house was built in 1855, the 
first stone being laid April 30, by 
F. Hoole, Esq. 

* Aided by Rev. T. France. 



At Stannington, near Sheffield, 
Richard Spoone built a small chapel 
in 1652 or 1653, and endowed it 
with a piece of ground for the sup- 
port of the officiating minister. 

Among the successive ministers 
have been — 

1652. Rev. Ralph Wood; till 

1655. Rev. Robert Mathew- 
son; till 1657. 

1657. Rev. Isaac Darwent. 
Though called an ejected minister, 
he had not ceased to preach till after 
1662, and he occupied the chapel 
lands till 1665. 

1663. Rev. — Hopwood; till 

1665. Rev. Joseph Bacon; 
till 1667. 

Rev. — Revell; till 1668. 

1668. Rev. Timothy Dighton, 
till 1 67 1. 

1673. Rev. Thomas Mellor; 
till 1674. 

1 674. Rev. William Walker ; 
till 1676. 

1684. Rev. George Crosland; 
till 1689. 

1689. Rev. Abraham Dawson. 
In his time the Book of Common 
Prayer ceased to be used in the 
chapel. Till 1696. 

1696. Rev. William Bagshaw 
(Jollie's Acy.). He preached the 
funeral sermon for Mrs. Jollie. 
Mr. B. died here, 171 3. 

171 3. Rev. Samuel Smith, 
who died here 1761. The con- 
gregation now numbered 350. 

In 1742 the old chapel gave 
way to a new one, erected by T. 
Marriott, Esq., of Ughill, with the 
aid of friends. 

1 761. Rev. John Hall. Re- 
moved to Rotterdam 1780. 



1779. Rev. Josiah Rhodes, 
an Independent (Heckmondwike 
Acy.), till 1785. 

1785. Rev. Edward Gibson. 
Mr. G. removed to Stockport, 

1794. Rev. Ashley Meanley, 
from Ashford, Derbyshire. He 
died 1 8 14. 

1 8 14. Rev. Peter Wright. 

We have no information as to 
the more modern history of this 
ancient congregation. 

Hunter says, " At a little distance 
from the chapel is a comfortable 
house built for the minister's resi- 
dence, with a spacious garden ad- 
joining, which were much im- 
proved by Mr. Meanley. The 
chapel is a plain building. On 
the communion-table lies the Book 
of Martyrs, the gift of some un- 
known hand. There have been a 
f&w interments at the chapel, and 
at no great distance, on the brow 
of the hill opposite, was a small 
decent enclosure, in which were 
deposited the remains of about ten 
or twelve persons of the family of 



After the death of the Rev. 
Mr. Kaye, vicar of Kirkburton, 
in the year 1793, a number of 
his hearers, dissatisfied with the 
theology and preaching of his 
successor, met for worship at a 
house in Lane Head, Kirkburton. 
Rev. Mr. Moorhouse, Huddersfield, 
Galland, Holmfirth, and other neigh- 
bouring ministers preached for them. 
Mr. Wm. Thorpe, afterwards of 
Bristol, succeeded for nearly twelve 
months, and then removed to Peni- 
ston, when it was resolved to hold 

the services henceforth at a house 
in Shelley, which is yet standing. 
A chapel was now resolved on. 
It was opened Jan. 1, 1797, by 
Rev. R. Rayson, of Wakefield. 

The ministers have been — 

1798. Rev. R. Harper. He 
removed to Northowram in 1801. 

A call was then given to Mr. 
Jonathan Gill, a Rotherham 
student, but was not accepted. 

1802. Rev. Robert Blake, 
from Bridlington. During his mini- 
stry the chapel was crowded with 
an attentive and admiring congre- 
gation. He was eminently suc- 
cessful. He removed to Ossett 

1808. Rev. Benjamin Sugden, 
from Horton-in-Craven. His pasto- 
rate was very short. He removed 

1 8 12. Rev. J. Hanson, from 
Stainland. During the ministry of 
this eccentric person great dissen- 
sions took place, and a number of 
persons of wealth and influence 
withdrew and erected a new chapel 
at Dogley Lane. Mr. Hanson re- 
signed 1822. 

1823. Rev. James Stewart, 
from Clayton West. Very high in 
doctrine. The congregation was 
now greatly reduced. Mr. S. re- 
moved to Partington 1826. 

1826. Rev. C. Whitworth, 
from Stockport. An almost de- 
serted chapel and very insufficient 
support compelled his removal in 

l8 34- 

A period intervened during which 

there was no regular pastor. In 
1846 a Christian gentleman at 
Huddersfield generously undertook 
to contribute towards the support 
of a minister. By the aid of the 
West Riding Home Missionary 
Society the services of a pastor 
were secured. 

1847. Rev. George B. Scott, 



from Manchester Town Mission. 
He removed to Brotherton 1849. 

Since his departure the pulpit has 
been principally filled by lay agents. 
A convenient school-room was 
opened Aug., 1850. 



Skipton was nearly destitute of 
any evangelical ministrations, until 
nearly the middle of the last 
century, though Oliver Hey- 
wood and a few others preached 
occasionally. Before any place of 
worship existed in Skipton, James 
Harrison opened his house to Con- 
gregationalists, and in the year 
1774 tne Court House, the site of 
of which is now occupied by the 
Devonshire hotel, was engaged for 
public services, and among those 
invited to preach were Rev. Joseph 
Cockin, of Kipping, and Rev. Mr. 
Galbear, of Holien. At length 
the Rev. Samuel Phillips, ofKeigh- 
ley, came and preached in a gown, 
and this circumstance seems first 
to have favourably impressed the 
inhabitants. Whenever Mr. P. 
preached the Court House was 
rilled with hearers. A chapel was 
therefore resolved upon. Mr. P. 
purchased (i 777) a plot of ground 
on the site of the present chapel. 
Sermons were preached at the 
opening by Revs. G. Burder (Lan- 
caster), and J. Cockin (Halifax). 
At first there were neither boards 
nor flags at the bottom of the 
pews. Between two and three 
years elapsed before the appoint- 
ment of another regular minister, 
aid being obtained from Heck- 
mondwike Academy. 

* By aid of the late Rev. R. Gibbs. 

I yyg. Rev. — Philips preached 
for a time. He was brother of 
Rev. S. Philips, of Keighley. He 
died soon after his coming. 

1780. Rev. — Williams, from 
Wales, became the first pastor, 
under whom the congregation did 
not greatly increase. He re- 
moved to Swanland in 1785. At 
this time there was little concern 
respecting religion in the town. 
Trade and amusements were car- 
ried on without check on the 
Lord's day, and the minister had 
not unfrequently to stop in his 
sermon and send out the members 
of his congregation to quiet the 
disturbers. Some of these at length 
became persecutors, and, by break- 
ing the chapel windows, laid them- 
selves open to legal proceedings. 
But they were allowed to apologize, 
and quiet ensued. 

1785. Rev. — Richardson. 
His fondness for dwelling on doc- 
trinal points diminished the con- 
gregation, and in 1788 he removed 
to Whitworth, and Joined Lady 
Huntingdon's connexion. 

1 789. Rev. — Harrison, from 
SafFron Walden, a candid and la- 
borious minister. He underwent 
some petty persecution, over which 
his Christian temper ultimately 
triumphed. He was chiefly instru- 
mental in the building of the 
chapels of Bury, Lancashire, and 
Allerton, Yorkshire. To the latter 
place he removed in 1793, and 
there he died. His brother James 
was the deacon of his church at 

1794. Rev. — Handforth, 
from Lancashire. He had been 
originally a soldier in the Spanish 
wars. He was not a man of edu- 
cation, but of great earnestness, and 
he left Skipton 1797, much re- 

1799. Rev. — Sugden, from 


3 6 3 

Lancashire. His ministry was not 
successful, and the congregation 
gradually declined. He removed 
to Shelley Nov. 19, 1809. 

The chapel then became closed, 
and the cause of Congregationalism 
fell very low. At length applica- 
tion was made to Idle Academy for 
aid on alternate Sundays. This 
was soon followed by more regular 
services, and the chapel soon 
enclosed a full congregation, till the 
erection of galleries became a 

18 1 3. Rev. T. Sharp (of Idle 
Academy). He continued at Skip- 
ton till 1833, when he was laid 
aside by sickness, of which he died, 
April 24, 1843, set. 70, and was 
interred in the chapel ground. 
During his ministry a Sunday- 
school was commenced, which, 
though feeble at first, was conducted 
with indefatigable energy by Messrs. 
Harrison and Herd, and speedily 
became very prosperous. At Mr. 
Sharp's retirement the church num- 
bered eighty-four members. 

1834. Rev. Richard Gibbs, 
from Darlington. During his la- 
borious and active ministry 129 
members were added to the church, 
the Sunday-school was increased, and 
much prosperity was enjoyed. Mr. 
G.was the apostle of the surrounding 
district, where his exertions and 
judgment commanded great respect. 
He resigned his charge in 1862, 
and died in 1867, greatly beloved. 
A new chapel was erected in 
Newmarket Street, and opened 
July 10, 1839. After its erection 
the congregation greatly increased, 
and was prosperous. 

1862. Rev. Thomas Windsor 
(Lancashire Coll ), who is the 
present minister. 



This was one of the earliest 
Congregational churches in the 
West Riding. It was gathered in 
1645, by the Rev. Henry Root, 
who succeeded Nathaniel Rathband 
as incumbent of the now Episco- 
pal chapel, and who continued to 
preach in it for half a year after 
Bartholomew Day, 1662. H. Root 
was educated at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and had been a consider- 
able traveller. He had at one 
time the prospect of the incum- 
bency of Denton, Lancashire ; but 
ultimately Angier, Heywood's 
father-in-law, received the appoint- 
ment. Root was subsequently 
minister at Gorton, and took a 
prominent part in the controversies 
of the time. In 1643 he was 
assistant minister in the church at 
Manchester,. He wrote a "Just 
Apology for the Church at Duckin- 
field," 1646, which was a defence 
of Congregational principles. He 
afterwards settled in the chapel at 
Sowerby (see p. 50). Tillotson 
wrote to consult him respecting 
taking " the engagement " of alle- 
giance to Cromwell, in 1649. 

The father of Archbishop Tillot- 
son was at one time a member of 
this church. He died Feb. 22, 
1683, 33t. 91, and was buried at 
Sowerby. Joshua Horton was 
now residing at Sowerby Hall. 
He was a Puritan, and a justice of 
the peace, and was involved in 
some suspicion of being concerned 
in the " Farnley Wood Plot." (See 

P- 79)- 

The pastors of the Congrega- 
tional church at Sowerby since 
its origin have been — 

1645. Rev. Henry Root (mini- 

* Greatly aided by Rev. B. Pale, M.A. 



ster during the occupation of the 
original — now Episcopal — chapel). 
After 1662 he suffered severely. 
" He was forcibly taken out of 
his own house (1663) by virtue 
of a mittimus upon a significavit. 
The three bailiffs who were em- 
ployed on this occasion broke the 
inner door of the room where he 
was sitting, and hurried him away 
in a manner very unsuitable to his 
age and weakness. They would 
not suffer him so much as to take 
his coat, his staff, or even the little 
money he had with him to defray 
his expenses. They treated him 
in various other respects with rude- 
ness and cruelty. He was prisoner 
in York Castle three months. Some- 
time after his release he was com- 
mitted a second time for three 
months more ; but the justices 
having declared the commitment 
to be illegal, he was discharged. 
Yet he was a third time sent to 
the same prison by Sir J. Armitage, 
without any cause being assigned. 
He was kept close prisoner in a 
small room for a considerable time. 
His wife was not permitted to visit 
him, nor even to come into the 
Castle." Henry Root died Oct. 
20, 1669, aet. 80. 

1669. Rev. Timothy Root, 
son of the preceding. His suffer- 
ings even exceeded those of his 
father. " He was obliged to leave 
his habitation and his family with 
the farm he occupied, to his great 
loss. While he was in Lancashire 
among some relatives, he was in- 
vited to preach in a chapel there. 
In the time of Divine service a 
certain doctor came and disturbed 
him, exhibiting an indictment 
against him for preaching, but the 
doctor having made a mistake 
respecting his proper name, he was 
dismissed. Five months after he 
was invited to preach in the same 

chapel again, and it being* vacant, 
he complied. For this he was 
indicted, and put to a great deal of 
trouble and expense. In August, 
1670, he was invited to preach at 
Shadwell Chapel, near Leeds. 
Whilst he was singing a psalm, 
Lord S. (Saville ?) came with 
twenty -four troopers, and some 
bailiffs. Mr. R. was dragged out 
of the pulpit into the chapel yard, 
where his life was endangered by 
the trampling of the trooper's 
horses. Mr. R. desired them to keep 
off their horses, saying : " I am in 
your hands, and ye are in the hands, 
of God." Lord S. said: "In God's 
hands ? No ! Thou art in the 
devil's hands." They searched his 
pockets, and finding a receipt in 
which his name was inserted, they 
made a mittimus and carried him to 
York gaol, where he was kept a 
close prisoner. The gaoler told 
him that except he would give him 
£20, he should be loaded with 
double irons and confined among 
the felons in the low gaol. After 
fourteen days confinement in an 
upper room he was brought forth, 
and double irons were put upon 
him, heavier than those of the 
common thieves whose fellow- 
prisoner he was now to be. The 
gaoler locked the inner door in the 
day time, and would not permit 
him the liberty allowed to the 
felons, of taking air in the castle 
yard. Mr. R. procured a bed, but 
the gaoler would not suffer him. 
to set it up, but compelled him to 
lie upon straw. On the Lord's 
day Mr. R. would have preached 
to the prisoners, but while he was 
at prayer an order was brought 
from the head-gaoler, requiring him 
to desist. When he had continued 
for some time in this confinement, 
two justices in the West sent a cer- 
tificate for him, upon which he was 



released, though not without giving 
bond for his appearance at the next 
assizes. He accordingly appeared, 
but no indictment being found 
against him, he was finally dis- 
charged. These troubles were 
attended with great expense, and 
were afflictive, and even hazardous 
to his wife, who about this time 
lay in of her fourth child." On 
his release, Heywood kept with 
him a day of thanksgiving, Captain 
Hodgson accompanying him. 

Calamy says of Timothy Root : 
"Just at the time when King James 
granted liberty of conscience, he 
conformed, but had little satisfaction 
afterwards. Mr. Trickett and 
others thought his complying, after 
such sufferings, so extraordinary, 
that they wanted to know whether 
he saw with clearer eyes than they, 
and desired he would give them an 
account of the reason of his pro- 
ceedings ; but this he declined. 
He brought up his son for the 
ministry, who was then about 19 
years of age. He and his mother 
were greatly troubled at his father's 
conformity, and died soon after. 
His father did not long survive." — 
Palmer's N. C. M. iii. 476. He 
died June 24, 1689. 

In 1672, Hey wood's church 
having been just formed, several 
members of the Congregational 
body at Sowerby sought alliance 
with the people at Northowram. 
Accordingly, they mutually agreed 
to unite, waiving minor differences. 
* On further debate and enumera- 
tion of our members," says Hey- 
wood, " they fully acquiesced in 
my fidelity as to the admission of 
our church members, and were 
willing to communicate with them 
as they stood." " We also owned 
them, and were willing to receive 
them to all ordinances." " This 
is the special work of God, for 

men's spirits are greatly altered. 
Captain Hodgson earnestly pro- 
moted this union." Joshua Horton 
and his wife, Mrs. Root, the widow 
of Henry Root, Captain Hodgson 
and his wife, were among these 

Horton was accustomed usually 
to attend the parish chapel, but on 
Sacrament days he went to North- 
owram. He desired accommoda- 
dation for worship nearer at hand, 
and in 1673 a license was taken 
out by him for a new house, which 
he had erected on " Quarrel 
(Quarry) Hill." It received the 
regular services of Heywood, 
Timothy Root, Bentley, and Daw- 
son. The erection excited the hos- 
tility of Dr. Hooke, then vicar of 
Halifax, who wrote an angry letter 
to Horton, requesting him to desist 
from what was " a sin, a scandal, 
a schism, a danger." He also in- 
veighed bitterly from the pulpit 
against the undertaking. But Hor- 
ton, who was a person of influence 
in his neighbourhood, being a rich 
man and a justice, was not daunted 
by these threats, but replied to the 
vicar in a manner at once firm and 

What became of Mr. Horton's 
chapel is unknown. There was no 
minister from Sowerby at the meet- 
ing of West Riding ministers, 1 691 
(see p. 109), nor is the place men- 
tioned in Evan's list, 171 5. The 
next chapel did not occupy the 
same site. It was built in 1720. 

"This chapel." says Mr. Bot- 
tomley, one of the subsequent 
ministers, "which has been recently 
taken down, was appropriately 
designated * The Dissenting Meet- 
ing-place.' It seems to have 
consisted of walls, doors and win- 
dows of the commonest order, — 
literally a ground-floor. Primitive 
usages obtained, but worshippers, 

3 66 


who were mindful of rhe luxuries 
of life, provided themselves with 
mats or rushes. What the order 
of benches was, we have never 
learned. In the memory of some 
yet living there was but one pew, 
which was occupied by a principal 
person — Mr. Lea, who was much 
respected and deservedly esteemed, 
a great help to the cause."* 

1 72 1. Rev. William Dodge. 
He bears the reputation of having 
been a faithful minister. The 
Northowram Register calls him 
"a useful preacher and physician." 
His name is on the Hewley list, 
1728. He was buried in the 

1744. ^- ev - — Thorburn. 

Rev. — Andrews. 

1752. Rev. Daniel Phillips, 
educated at Pulheli, Caernarvon; 
afterwards with Dr. Latham, from 
Eastwood. In Cockin's life he is 
styled " an Arian." After a long 
pastorate of more than forty years, 
he removed to Hap ton, Norfolk, 
1788. "The interest at Steep 
Lane," says Mr. Bottomley, " had 
originated before Mr. Phillips' 
settlement, and was probably a 
necessity arising out of the verging 
towards Unitarianism at the Dis- 
senting meeting-place." At his 
death Mr. P. was 84 years old. 

1788. Rev. Edmund Butcher 
(Daventry Acy.). He was at 
Sowerby only six months. He 
removed to Leather Lane, London, 

1788. Rev. Jacob Harwood. 
He was very popular for some 
years. Left for America, 1794. 

1794. Rev. Joseph Sowden 
(Trevecca), from Booth. He was 
an Independent. He resigned, 
probably, from insufficient sub- 
sistence, though he on the day of 
his farewell sermon received an in- 

* "Cong. Register," viii , p. 84. 

vitation to remain. He was very 
successful. Removed to Warring- 
ton 1800, and died at Bolton 18-62. 
1 800. Rev. Eli Hollingworth 
(Northowram Acy.). An eccen- 
tric man. His stay was short. 
He resigned 1803. 

1803. Rev. James Hatton 
(Hoxton Acy). His ministry lasted 
above thirty-six years. During 
his pastorate a chapel-house was 
erected, and a Sunday-school esta- 
blished, for which a room at the 
back of the building was provided. 
Mr. H. was a man who lived in 
the esteem of his people and of 
the public, and his memory was 
long regarded with affection. 

1 840. Rev. Joseph Bottomley 
(Airedale Coll.), from Richmond. 
Many difficulties occurred during 
his ministry. The chapel was 
damp as well as inconvenient, and 
greater accommodation was required 
both for the congregation and the 
school. At length, encouraged by 
J. Crossley, Esq., a new chapel 
was resolved on, which was opened 
Sept. 11, 1861, by sermons from 
Revs, Dr. Raffles and J. (now Dr.) 
Parker. The style of the chapel 
is pointed Gothic, with school- 
room below. Mr. B. exerted 
himself greatly to remove the 
debt ; which, however, was not 
entirely accomplished when he 
died. His congregation lost in 
him an efficient and valuable 
pastor. Ob. May 19, 1866. 

1866. Rev. R. J. Sargent 
(Western Coll.), from Bangalore, 
where he was agent of L. M. 
Society. He was afterwards at 
Billericay and Orsett, Essex. He 
is the present minister. 


3 6 7 



The foundation stone of this 
chapel was laid in 1839, by Rev. 
J. Ely, and in the following year 
the building was opened for public 
worship, by sermons from Revs. J. 
Ely, J. Kelly, and J. G. Miall. 
The church was formed in 1 840. 
The successive ministers have 
been — 

1840. Rev. Robert Bell from 
Stainland, (the first pastor). He 
removed to Brighouse in 1842. 

1843. Rev. Harford Jones 
(Cheshunt Coll.). He remained 
till 1847, when he retired from 
the ministry. 

March, 1849. Rev. Ritchie 
Moffett (Rotherham Coll.), the 
present minister. 


A chapel was erected here about 
the year 1755, and a congregation 
formed, comprehending Christians 
of different denominations, prin- 
cipally Wesleyans and Independents. 

The first minister known was 
Rev. S. Lowell, who left Stain- 
land in 1782 for Brighouse. The 
next was Rev. John Bates, who 
removed in 1793 to Mixenden. 
To him succeeded Rev. Samuel 
Barraclough, who afterwards 
joined the new connexion. Rev. 
Mr. Hanson (Idle Acy.), followed. 
He removed to Shelley 1812. 

Hitherto public worship had 
been carried on with a very mixed 
congregation. As Mr. Hanson once 
observed in answer to an inquiry 

* By aid of Rev. R. Moffett^ 
f By aid of Rev. J. Haley. 

respecting the denomination to 
which the people belonged : " We 
have Wesleyans, Independents, and 
Church-people ; an Independent 
parson in the pulpit, a Baxterian 
clerk, a Roman Catholic organ, and 
a drunken player, and so you may 
call us what you like." At length, 
in 18 13, the Congregationalists 
formed themselves into a separate 
congregation, and constituted a 
church. The pulpit was occupied 
principally for a time by students 
from Idle Academy. At length a 
regular pastorate was formed, and 
the ministers have been the 
following : — 

1 817. Rev. S. Rhodes (Idle 
Acy.). Mr. R. left in 1827. 

1 829. Rev. Robert Bell (Aire- 
dale Coll.). Under his ministry 
the congregation greatly increased. 
He left for Sowerby Bridge 1840. 
During this pastorate the chapel 
was enlarged, and a parsonage house 
was built. 

1 841. Rev. J. Bramall (High- 
bury Coll.), from Patricroft. He 
left in 1844 for Swanland, where 
his health failed. He was after- 
wards in London, where he was 
deacon of Union Chapel, Islington, 
and secretary to Cheshunt College. 
He died, much esteemed, Jan. 19, 

1846. Rev. J. Rawlinson 
(Lane. Coll.) He removed in July, 
1850, to Cheltenham. 

1853. Rev. W. S. Ball (from 
Havant. He removed in 1856 to 
Newton-le-Willows, where he died, 
in 1861. 

1859. Rev. W. Garner (from 
Denholme). He resigned in 1862. 
1863. Rev. J. Haley (Lane, 
Coll.), the present minister. 




This chapel was opened July 25, 
1855, by sermons from Rev. J. 

The ministers have been — 

1855. Rev. Henry Betty. 
Removed 1857 to Horncastle. 

Jan. 2, 1859. Rev. H. Hust- 
wick, from Great Ayton. Re- 
moved Feb, 1862, to Honley, 
near Huddersfield. 

June, 1862. Rev. G. W. Harris. 
Resigned Oct., 1865. Removed 
to Leeds. 

May, 1866. Rev. W. Jowett. 
The present minister. 



The chapel at Staithes was 
opened in the year 1823 (Sept. 
3). At first it was taken under 
the charge of the congregation at 
Whitby. The following is a list 
of the pastors — 

1827. Rev. R. Henderson, the 
first minister. 

1830. Rev. J. Raine. 

1834. Rev. W. Mitchell, the 
present minister, now upwards of 
70 years of age. 

The chapel was rebuilt in 1835. 

Runswick is attached to Staithes. 



The chapel at Stocksbridge was 
built in the year 18 19, at a cost of 


The list of pastors is — 

1847. Rev. G. S. Spencer. He 
removed to Wotton- under -edge 

1853. Rev. George Thomas | 

(Pickering). He left in 1856 for 
Usk, Monmouthshire. 

1857. Rev. Henry Robert- 
shaw (Airedale Coll.) the present 

A new school-room has been 
erected by the liberality of — Fox, 
Esq., at an expense of nearly 

Another chapel has been opened 
in Stocksbridge. The division, it is 
hoped, will not be of permanent 



Early mention is made of W. 
Kaye, "minister of God's Word 
at Stokesley," who published, 1645, 
" Answer to Objections against 
the Covenant," also " Baptism 
without Basin." 

The present chapel was erected 
Dec. 27, 1809. 

The successive pastors 
been — 

Rev. — Swann. 
Rev. — Hardman. 
Rev. — Smith. 
Rev. — Daw. 
Rev. — Wallace. 
. Rev. — Jackson. 
Rev. J. Whalley. 
The pulpit is now vacant. 




Several members of the churches 
of West Melton and Masborough 
resolved, about the year 1838, to 
erect a chapel for their own 
accommodation, and being poor, 
and unable otherwise to contribute, 

* Information incomplete. 



they dug the foundations them- 
selves. The chapel cost about 
.£1,600. In 1840 a church was 
formed by the Rev. M. Docker. 

The ministers have been — 

1844. Rev. William Orgar, 
from Hunslet. Mr. O. continued 
till 1850, when he removed to 

185 1. Rev. John Cummins. 
During Mr. C.'s ministry a school- 
room was erected, the burial-ground 
enlarged, and the chapel expanded. 
Mr. C. relinquished his charge, and 
removed to Sheffield, 1864. 

1865. Rev. William Orgar 
resumed his ministry, and still con- 



Nothing is known of the origin 
of this congregation, which is one 
of the oldest Independent societies 
in the county. It dates from the 
close of the seventeenth century. 

The following have been the 
pastors : — 

Rev. Emanuel Dewsnap. He 
was here in 1702, but we have 
no further information respecting 

1703. Rev. — Brook was or- 
dained here in 1704. 

Rev. — Gardner. Mr. G. re- 
moved to Chester in 171 3. 

Rev. Joshua Hardcastle. In 
his time, about 171 5, the congre- 
gation is reported as consisting of 
450, of whom twenty had votes 
for the county. 

Rev. Joshua Hoyle. He died 
Oct., 1738, and is interred at 

1 740. Rev. John Angier, from 
Cleckheaton. He was pastor of 
the church about forty years. He 

died here and was buried at 

1770. Rev. Samuel Bottomley 
(of Hecmondwike Acy.). He 
was minister during the space of 
three years. He removed to 
Scarborough 1773. A division 
took place during his stay, and 
the separatists erected a new 

1775. Rev. George Gill (Heck- 
mondwike Acy.), from Market Har- 
borough. He remained about six 
years and a half. 

1783. Rev. Richard Leggett. 
Left for Lincolnshire 1785. 

1786. Rev. David Williams, 
from Skipton. He resigned his 
charge after forty years' ministry, 
and died in 1827. In his time 
the seceders returned, or rather 
they united with the remaining 
congregation in building a new 
chapel on the site of the old one. 
This was done in consequence of 
a sum of money having been left 
to the old chapel for repairs which 
were found impracticable. 

1826. Rev. John Hayden 
(Homerton Coll.). Mr. H. re- 
moved to High Wycombe, 1834. 

1835. Rev. John Evison, from 
Limerick. Mr. E. died in 1844. 

1844. Rev. John Bramall, 
from Stainland. He left for London 
in 1850. 

1 85 1. Rev. Robert Thomson, 
M.A. (Blackburn Acy.). He re- 
signed 1853. 

1854. Rev. James Wishart, 
M.A. (St. Andrew's). Relin- 
quished his charge 1865. Now 
at Liverpool. 

1866. Rev. E. Newsum (Ro- 
therham). Resigned through fail- 
ing health, 1866. 

1867. Rev. George Snashall, 
B.A. (Airedale), from Rochdale, 
the present minister. There is 
an endowment of landed property, 





In this village a small chapel 
was erected chiefly by the endea- 
vours of the students of Rother- 
ham College and the assistance 
of Dr. Bennett, 1824. The 
church meeting here has some- 
times been united under the same 
pastorate as Melton. At present, 
and for many years past, it has 
been supplied by students. 


An old congregation existed here 
under the title of " Tadcaster and 
Clifford." It is mentioned in Neal's 
list of 1 71 5, but without being 
characterized as either Presbyterian 
or Congregational. Lady Hewley 
contributed to its funds. 

In 1864 a modern congregation 
was begun at Tadcaster, under the 
auspices of the West Riding Home 
Missionary Society. It is now no 
longer on their list. 



In 1 662 Rev. Matthew Hill was 
ejected from Thirsk. He after- 
wards preached for a time privately 
at York, but with considerable risk. 
In 1 7 1 5 Thirsk is reported as Inde- 
pendent on Neal's List, having sixty 
hearers. In 1758 a Nonconformist 
minister preached here, but his name 
and denomination are not known. 
In 1792 Rev. Mr. Browning, of 
the Countess of Huntingdon's Con- 
nexion, visited Thirsk, and preached 

* By aid of Rev. Dr. Falding. 
-f- Information incomplete. 
J Aided by Rev. H. Howard. 

under an elm tree with some success. 
Rev. W. Morris, employed as an 
itinerant in the North Riding by a 
London society, preached here fort- 
nightly in 1797; but the people 
could not, or would not, pay the 
small expenses of himself and horse. 
The Revs. Messrs. Howell and 
Jackson afterwards obtained leave 
of the lord of the manor to preach 
in the Tolbooth, which they did as 
often as they were able. They 
undertook at length a regular fort- 
nightly Sunday service with most 
encouraging results, and it was 
determined that a commodious place 
of worship should be erected. By 
the aid of some Christians at Green 
Hammerton and Knaresborough this 
was at length effected, and a chapel 
was opened in the year 1804 by 
Rev. W. Vint (Idle) and Graham 

Mr. Jackson, with Mr. Storey,* 
now undertook to preach at Thirsk 
in connexion with Boroughbridge 
and Green Hammerton. A large 
congregation was soon gathered. 
A gallery was erected and a church 
formed April, 1805. 

The following is a list of pas- 
tors : — 

1809. Rev. Samuel Neale. 
Ordained 1 810. He left for Ossttt 
1 8 15, and it is believed conformed 
to the Establishment. 

1 81 5. Rev. Henry Pawling 
(Hackney Acy.), left 181 7 for 
South of England. 

1 8 19. Rev. Joseph Jefferson, 
from Basingstoke. A memoir of 
him was given in the " Evangelical 
Magazine " for January, 1825. He 
was a considerable contributor to the 
History of Thirsk, though his son, 
Rev. J. B. Jefferson, Attercliffe, 

* This gentleman was intended for the 
Church of England, but relinquished that 
design. He afterwards joined the Wes- 



was the ostensible author. He 
preached before the annual assem- 
bly of the London Missionary 
Society at one of its early meetings. 
Mr. B. died June 12, 1825. 

1825. R ev - James Buckley 
(Idle Acy.). Left for Peniston 
1833. He now resides at Stock- 
port, without pastoral charge. 

1834. Rev. Abraham Pickles 
(Airedale Coll.) . He died at Leeds, 

1 844. Rev. Edward Gatley, 
from Lichfield. Removed to Tos- 
side 1854. He died at Knotting- 
ley, January 14, 1866, and was 
buried at Thirsk. 

A new chapel was opened in 
1845, but was so imperfectly built 
as to render it necessary to take it 
down and rebuild it. 

May, 1855. Rev. Henry Howard 
(Pickering Acy.), from Norwich, 
the present minister. 

During his ministry the chapel 
has been re-erected, 1866. Sermons 
at the opening were preached by 
Revs. Dr. Campbell, E. Conder, 
and W. Thomas. 



The church here was founded 
1 799. After its formation it was 
for a time under the ministry of 
Rev. John Morley, till he removed 
to Hull, 1 801. In that year a 
chapel was built. Among the 
ministers since that time have been 
Rev. — Stephenson, who was 
here in 18 15, and Rev. R. Kirkus, 
who was here in 1833. The 
present minister is Rev. W. Bet- 

Information imperfect. 



Before the building of a meeting 
house the congregation assembled 
in a private dwelling. The chapel 
was erected in 1800, and at first 
supplied by students from Rother- 
ham. The following have been 
pastors : — 

1806. Rev. George Harrison. 
He remained till 18 14. 

1 8 14. Rev. J. Doney. He 
relinquished his pastorate in 18 17. 
18 1 7. Rev. H. Earle. He 
removed in 1828. 

1829. R ev - Mark Docker. 
In 1 83 1 he removed to Broadway, 

1831. Rev. John Edgar Mill- 
son (Rotherham Coll.). He left 
for Pontefract 1837. Students from 
Rotherham preached during some 
following years. 

1 84 1. Rev. George Dunn. He 
remained till 1844. 

Students again occupied the 

1847. Rev. H. J. Rustedt. 
He removed to Sheffield 1855. 

1855. Rev. James Hillyard. 
His pastorate ended in 1857. 

1859. R ev - R« W. Valentine 
(Trin. Coll., Dublin). He left in 
1 861. The pulpit is now vacant. 
There was a Unitarian meeting 
house at Thorne, of which we have 
obtained no reliable particulars. 



This church originated in the 
exertions of the Rev. Benjamin 
Sowden (Horton), who, by his 
frequent visits, gained a numerous 
and attentive congregation, out of 
which a church was formed. A 

B B 2 

37 2 


chapel was at length resolved 
on, by the aid of itinerants, 
who regularly preached at the 
place. It was opened in 1812, 
and was calculated to hold about 
300 persons. The people desired 
Mr. Sow-den as their minister, but 
this intention was overruled. The 
academy at Idle furnished preachers 
during some time, till an invitation 
was given to 

18 14. Rev. — Hart (of Idle 

■ Academy). He obtained crowded 

congreg?tions But some doctrinal 

differences arose, and Mr. Hart 

removed to Wortley. 

Rev. J. Capper, from Kirkham, 
Lancashire, then preached as a 
candidate, but was never regularly 
invited. Many most disorderly 
proceedings now took place, and 
Mr. C. was compelled to leave. 
Nearly a half of the congregation 
left the chapel, and applied to Rev. 
Henry Driver (Holden) to preach 
for them on Sunday forenoons, and 
under his presidency they were 
formed into a separate church. 
Those who remained at the chapel 
invited Mr. Hart to return, but 
through the influence of Rev. J. 
Scott (Cleckheaton) and Rev. J. 
Cockin (Holmfirth), who were 
trustees, this intention was aban- 
doned. Rev. Archibald Laing 
preached for some time, and after- 
wards Idle Academy furnished 
occasional ministers. 

Dec. 1 819. Rev. John Cross- 
ley (of Blackburn Acy.). Attempts 
were now made to reconcile the 
divided parties, but without success. 
Mr. Crossley left in 1824. 

May, 1825. Rev. David Cal- 
vert. During his ministry the 
church enjoyed peace and pros- 
perity. He remained here sixteen 
years, and removed 1841 to Calder- 
brook, near Rochdale, where he 

May, 1844. Rev.GEORGEBERRY, 
a successful labourer. Removed 
1854 to Over Darwen. 

Rev. Edward Gatley, from 
Thirsk. During his ministry the 
congregation greatly declined. He 
removed in i860 to Knottingley. 

i860. Rev. John Robinson. 
After six years and a half he 

The pulpit is now vacant. 



This chapel was erected in 1 842. 
Its ministers have been — 

1855. Rev. John W. Rolls, 
from Kirby Moorside. He left in 
i860, and is now at Roxton, Beds. 

1 85 1. Rev. John Marples. 
He removed in 1863. 

The congregation is now prin- 
cipally aided by students from Aire- 
dale College, with other occasional 


The chapel at Upper Mill arose 
(1807) from the efforts of two lay 
preachers, J. Winterbottom and J. 
Buckley, who has been associated 
with the New Connexion. It was 
bought and transferred to the Inde- 
pendents by some friends from the 
Independent Chapel, Delph, about 

1832. Rev. Reuben Calvert 
(Airedale College). 

Mr. Calvert left for Hyde 1841, 
and is new dead. 

1 841 Rev. R. Thompson, 
M.A., irom Middlesboro. Mr. T. 
removed to Upminster in 1843. 

* Aided by Rev. W. Burrows. 



Mr. Thompson is now without 

1845. R ev - J- Reeve, from 
Aspatria. Mr. R. removed to 
Morley 1849, and is now at Stow- 
market, Suffolk. 

1849. Rev. S. Dyson (Lanca- 
shire College). Mr. D. left 1856 
for Idle. 

1857. Rev. T. Sturgess. Mr. 
S. left 1859, and retired from the 

1861. Rev. W. Burrows (B.A., 
London Univ.), (Lancashire Coll.), 
the present minister. 


Mention has been made of a 
congregation which was gathered 
at Alverthorpe. Rev. Christopher 
Richardson, ejected from Kirk- 
heaton, retired to his own house, 
Lassell Hall, where he preached 
on Sundays, and held a lecture 
once a month. This must have 
been considerably after 1672, for 
after the issuing of the Act of In- 
dulgence, Richardson preached for 
some time in Castle Hey, Harring- 
ton Street, Liverpool. Among the 
ejected ministers in the neighbour- 
hood was the Rev. Joshua Kirby, 
Camden lecturer at the parish 
church. "This brave and con- 
scientious man was expelled from 
one living because he could not 
sign f the solemn league and cove- 
nant ;' he was driven from another 
because he could not sign ' the 
agreement ;' and from his lecture- 
ship at Wakefield parish church 
because he could not obey ' the 
Act of Uniformity.' When he 
was in the south, he was im- 
prisoned at Lambeth ; when he 
came into the north, he was im- 

prisoned at York. He would pub- 
licly pray for King Charles in 
exile in the days of the Common- 
wealth, and he would not pray at 
all out of the prayer-book in the 
days of the Monarchy. * Kirby 
was a substantial preacher, quoting 
Scripture very abundantly in his 
sermons. He was a very holy 
man, of inflexible principle, and 
was remarkable for the plainness 
of his attire. After his removal 
by the Act of Uniformity, he 
preached in his own house, f 
Hey wood often visited and assisted 
him. He died under a sentence 
of excommunication June 12, 
1676, aet. 59, and was buried 
in his own garden, as was his 
wife after him.";]; 

Kirby was, after his fashion, a 
poet. Many specimens of his 
verses are still extant. An ex- 
ample or two may be given: — 

" It yields joy now, and will do evermore, 
To go to prison on my Master's score ; 
Whose honourable cause and pleasantface 
Made me forget a prison was disgrace. 

* Wicksteed. 

f Kirby, in a letter to Thoresby, men- 
tions a Mr. Edward Watkinson who, being 
in poor health and unable to attend wor- 
ship, desired to have some minister like 
Hkanah Wales, who would take up his 
abode in his family. Wales preferred to 
live with his relations at Leeds. 

J There was a Rev. Thos. Johnson, 
M. A., who resided at Painthorp, where 
he was born, and had an estate. He was 
for a time chaplain to Sir Edward Rhodes,, 
and afterwards Vicar of Sherburn-in-Elmet, 
whence he was ejected, and where he re- 
mained pieaching in private till the Oxford 
Act drove him to Wakefield. He preached 
at Bramham and Shad well. After 1672, 
he went to Idle, and preached in the 
public chapel for about two years, no ob- 
jection being made for a time, because he 
took nothing for his services, and rode over 
from Painthorp ; but he was at length pro- 
hibited. He was a worthy man, though 
not a popular preacher. He received aid 
from the Stretton Fund. 



I never knew what Heaven was till I knew 
The favours which in prison God does 

Prisons declare what pulpits are forbid, 
And truth breaks out the more, the more 

'tis hid." 

Again — 

"Shall I recant, and wheel about and turn, 
That I may say, unworthy right hand burn? 
Shall I deny my Lord, in hope that I 
May go with Peter, and weep bitterly? 
Shall I, the fury of a man to shun, 
Under the terror of Jehovah run? 
Shall I, when God says preach, and men 

say nay, 
Take time to study whether to obey? 
Shall I, to feed a carcase that must die, 
Nourish a worm to all eternity ?" 

In 1672, Killice House, Flan- 
shaw Lane, was licensed. A malt- 
house (I know not if this be the 
same) was about this time opened 
for worship at Alverthorpe. O. 
Heywood ministered there in the 
above year to many hundred hearers. 
He was preaching at the same 
place in 1674, when three bailifFs 
came in the morning, " and in the 
afternoon many profane persons 
from Wakefield, among whom was 
'a wild young scholar, one RatclifFe ' 
(who must have been he who was 
afterwards the celebrated physician 
of that name), and who subse- 
quently entertained his riotous com- 
panions with mimicry of Mr. Hey- 
wood's sermon, and the delivery of 
it."* The congregation at Alver- 
thorpe had at first some divisions 
respecting the choice of a minister, 
but afterwards agreed, and forgot 
their differences. 

Kirby died in 1677. After his 
death his widow, who survived 
him for twelve years, continued to 
hold the meetings at her house. 

Rev. William Hawden, ejected 
from Broadsworth, was at a later 
period a preacher at Sherburn. 
On the landing of the Duke of 

* Hunter's Heywood, p. 260. 

Monmouth, he was sent as a 
prisoner to Hull and to York. 
But the matter was compromised. 
He was, probably, for some time 
preacher at Morley. During the 
latter years of his life he was blind. 
He died at Wakefield 1699, aet * 84 
(Calamy says 88), and was buried 
at Morley. 

1672. Rev. Peter Naylor, 
an ejected minister, was pastor of 
the church at Alverthorpe. He 
had previously preached for Mr. 
Swift, at Peniston, during Mr. S.'s 
imprisonment. He ministered alter- 
nately at Alverthorpe and Ponte- 
fract. He died June 2, 1690, 

During his ministry, Thomas 
Bradbury, whose father was a 
member of Mr. Naylor's church, 
came first into notice. " So tena- 
cious was his memory at this early 
period, that he was employed by 
Mr. Naylor to report to him the 
state of public affairs, which he 
learned from a newspaper that was 
read aloud at a public-house in 
Wakefield." * He was sent to 
Jollie's Academy ; went thence 
into the family of Mr. Whitaker, 
of Leeds, and became ultimately 
the eminent minister of New 
Court, Carey Street, London. 

1693. Rev. Joshua Sagar, son 
of Rev. — Sagar, Blackburn. He 
had been ordained in his father's 
chapel, but was at this time pub- 
licly recognised as pastor at Alver- 
thorpe. He married Baptista,f 
daughter of Capt. Poole, Wake- 

* Wilson's " Dissenting Churches," 
vol. iii. p. 504. 

f A sister of this lady married Mr. 
Richard Milnes, of Wakefield. From 
this marriage descended R. S. Milnes, 
Esq , of Great Houghton and Frystone. 
He married Rachel Busk, who became 
sole heiress of the property of the Rich 
family. Lord Houghton is descended from 
this marriage. 



field, cousin to the celebrated 
Matthew Poole, the commentator. 
She was sister to the wife of 
Lister, Topcliffe. 



In the year 1697, a meeting- 
house was opened at Westgate 
End, Wakefield, when O. Hey- 
wood preached. After that time 
the congregation removed from 
Alverthorpe to Wakefield. 

Rev. T. Bradbury says : « Mr. 
Joshua Sagar was a good scholar, 
a hearty friend, a substantial, 
useful preacher, and of so sober, 
blameless conversation, as to have 
the good report of all men, and 
of the truth itself." He died 17 10, 
and was buried at Tingley. His 
funeral sermon was preached by 
Rev. T. Whitaker, of Leeds, and 
was published in a posthumous 
volume by Bradbury. 

Rev. William Benson. He 
died in 17 12. 

Rev. Isaac Hawkins (Jollie's 
Acy.). In 171 5, the congregation 
amounted to 400, of whom forty 
were freeholders of the county. 
Mr. H. died Nov. 24, 1724. 

Rev. John Aldred, son of Jere- 
miah Aldred, of Morton, who was 
a pupil of Frankland. 

1 76 1 . Rev. William Turner. 
Mr. T. was a man of considerable 
talent and high character, and was 
much esteemed. He wrote pleas- 
ing verses. During his ministry 
he and the congregation became 
Unitarian. In 1790 the Rev. 
Thomas Johnstone was his assist- 
ant. Mr. T. died 1794. 

We need not pursue farther the 
history of the congregation. 



Many different ministers made 
attempts during the eighteenth 
century to form a congregation at 
Wakefield, but for a time without 
success. Among these were the 
Rev. John Edwards, of Leeds, and 
the Rev. Mr. Ralph. The latter 
preached in the playhouse-yard. 
The next morning his host, Mr. 
S. Thompson, received a written 
notice from the churchwardens 
that if he preached again he 
would be prosecuted. 

In 1781, the Rev. James Wrath, 
of Bolton, then visiting Wakefield, 
preached during the week at his 
brother's house. He offered to 
preach again on the Sunday follow- 
ing, but his brother, being afraid of 
a disturbance, declined. Thomas 
Ward, however, of Flanshaw Hall, 
opened his doors to Wrath,f 
and a few inhabitants of Alver- 
thorpe became interested in the 
Gospel Afterwards a room was 
taken in Wakefield, at the bottom 
of the Great Bull yard, the Rev. 
James Scott, of Heckmondwike, 
the Rev. S. Tapp, S. Cave (con- 
nected by family with Wakefield), 
and other ministers, conducting 
service there. The number of 
the people increased, though very 
gradually, and the congregation 
resolved to build a chapel. In 
1782, the Rev. Samuel Bruce, 
Grimsby, passing through the town, 
on his way to Barnsley, gave an 
occasional service. He was re- 
quested to preach on the folio w- 

* Aided by Rev. ]. S. Eastmead. 
f Thomas Ward, of Flanshaw Hal], the 
descendant of the above, was one of the 
first deacons of the church under Rev. S. 

37 6 


ing Sunday, and ultimately re- 
ceived a call. 

The order of ministers has been 
the following : — 

Oct. 2, 1782. Rev. Samuel 
Bruce (Heckmondwike Acy.), a 
native of Heckmondwike, pre- 
viously settled at Great Grimsby. 
Mr. Bruce preached his first ser- 
mon as pastor, in the room then 
occupied by the congregation, on 
Sunday, Oct. 13, 1782, from 
Acts viii. 5, " Then Philip went 
down to the city of Samaria, and 
preached Christ unto them." 

Jan. 1, 1783, the new chapel at 
the bottom of Rodney Yard was 
opened by the Rev. John Cockin 
and Thomas Grove. 

A church was formed in April, 
1783, when the pastor and mem- 
bers signed " a solemn covenant," 
which still remains extant in the 
church records. The first sacra- 
ment was administered on the first 
Sunday in June, 1783, to eighteen 
members (including Mr. and Mrs. 
Bruce). 176 members were ad- 
mitted during the pastorate of 
Mr. Bruce. 

The congregation was at first 
small, but gradually increased in 
numbers till the chapel was filled 
with attentive hearers. In 1793 a 
minister's house adjoining the chapel 
was built, the salary raised by the 
congregation during the whole 
ministry of Mr. Bruce averaging 
only about ^105 per annum. In 
1799, the chapel becoming too 
small was enlarged, and some 
differences arising as to the re- 
arrangement and allotment of pews, 
a secession took place, and a new 
chapel (Salem) was built in George 
Street. Mr. Bruce preached his 
last sermon on Sunday, April 2, 
1826, from John iii. 29, "This 
my joy therefore is fulfilled." 
.During the succeeding week he 

was seized with illness, which 
permanently laid him aside ; he 
died June 1, 1833, &*• 79- A 
memoir of Mr. Bruce, with some 
further particulars as to the early 
history of Zion Chapel, will be 
found in the " Evangelical Maga- 
zine " for August, 1833, p. 337, 
et seq. 

1827. Rev. John Douglas 
Lorraine (Rotherham Coll.), a 
native of Alnwick. 

In 1843 the then existing chapel 
and minister's house were pulled 
down, and a new chapel erected 
on their site. The latter was 
opened May 9, 1854, by Rev. 
Dr. Leifchild, of London. 

Mr. Lorraine was a pious, 
laborious, and useful minister, be- 
loved of his people, and greatly 
esteemed in the West Riding. - His 
health was latterly much shattered. 
He died May 11, 1853, act. 52. 

1853. Rev. Joseph Stuchbery, 
B.A. (Lond. Univ. and New Coll.). 
Ordained Jan., 1854. He resigned 
Jan., 1859, and was afterwards 
settled at Tiverton. 

1859. Rev. H. Sanders (Ro- 
therham Coll.), from Whitehaven. 
He received a call during the spring, 
and commenced his pastoral labours 
Sept. 4, 1859. He is the present 


(congregational. ) 

This congregation arose out of 
a secession from Zion Chapel in 
1799. The chapel was opened 

The ministers have been — 

1 801. Rev. B. Rayson. Mr. R. 

* Aided by Rev. J. S. Eastmead. 



removed to Tonbridge Chapel, 
London, in 1817. 

1820. Rev. John Jeffekson 
(Rotherham Coll.). Mr. J. was 
a man of great piety and earnest- 
ness. He was, during some years, 
secretary to the West Riding 
Home Missionary Society, which 
was formed in his chapel. 

1823. Rev. R. Cope, LL.D. 
(Hoxton Acy.), from Launceston. 
Dr. Cope removed to Manchester 
in 1829. 

1829. Rev. J. Kelly, from 
Ringwood. He afterwards became 
a minister in the Church of Eng- 

1842. Rev. William Lamb. 
Changes in Mr. L.'s religious views 
induced him to leave the chapel in 
1848, and to carry on his ministry 
in a public room. The bulk of his 
congregation accompanied him. 

1850. Rev. William Creed 
(Airedale Coll.). Mr. C. after- 
wards settled at West Bromwich. 

1852. Rev. J. S. Eastmead. 
Mr. E. is the present minister. 



In 1672, the Rev. O. Hey wood 
began to preach at Warley, at the 
house of John Butterworth. After 
continuing occasional services for 
some time, he relinquished Warley 
to Sowerby. Subsequently, the 
Rev. M. Smith, of Mixenden, on 
leaving Kipping, frequently offici- 
ated, and at last preached alternately 
at Mixenden and Warley. After 
the avowal of his opinions on 
Imputed Righteousness, Heywood, 
alarmed at what he regarded as a 
defection from the faith, endea 

* Aided by Rev. F. James. 

voured, but in vain, to procure 
Smith's dismissal from Warley. 
The people remained strongly at- 
tached to him, and his labours 
were greatly blessed. 

In 1705 a meeting-house was 
erected here : some of the family 
of Archbishop Tillotson, who were 
worshippers, liberally assisting in 
its erection. 

1705. Rev. Isaac Wilkinson. 
He was zealous and successful. In 
1715 he had 300 hearers. During 
part of his ministry the aisles were 
crowded, as well as the seats. Mr. 
W. died in 1721. 

1722. Rev. J. Huthwaite. 
He removed to Idle 1724, where 
he died, and his tomb may still be 

1724. Rev. John Smith (see 
Mixenden). He alternated with 
Mr. Cordingley, of Eastwood. 

1734. ^v. Evan Stock. He 
left for Cleckheaton 1741, after 
a painful disagreement. 

The Rev. — Ford then preached 
for about a year, 

1742. Rev. William Graham, 
M.A., a man of learning and ability. 
During the former part of his 
ministry Warley enjoyed much 
prosperity. Mr. G afterwards 
became an avowed Unitarian, and 
wrote in defence of those senti- 
ments. He was closely associated 
with Dr. Priestley. In his latter 
years he resided in Halifax. He 
died 1763. 

1764. Rev. Richard Simpson 
(Dr. Doddridge's Acy.). He was 
pastor for thirty -two years, and 
published " Seven practical and 
experimental Sermons." He died 


1796. Rev. Thomas Hawkins, 
from Aylesbury. Mr. H. resigned 
in 1823, an d died Feb. 9, 1838. 

1823. Rev. John Preston. 
Mr. P. died Feb. 18, 1853. 



1853. Rev. T. M. Newnes 
(Blackburn Acy.), from Matlock. 
Mr. T. resigned in 1859. 

1 86 1. Rev. William Hewgill, 
M.A. (New College.) Removed 
to Farnworth, June, 1865. 

1865. Rev, F.James, the pre- 
sent minister. 


The Rev. James Wilkinson con- 
ducted occasional services here 
about 1848 and 1849, and a chapel 
and school-room were erected 1 85 1, 
the site being given by J. Ham- 
mond, Esq. The cost was about 
^300. The following have been 
the pastors : — 

1850. Rev. John Harrop 
(Rotherham Coll.). 

1858. Rev. John Marples. 

1 861. Rev. R. Ward Valen- 
tine (Trin. Coll., Dublin). 

1863. Rev. Thomas Betty. 

1865. Rev. John Richard 
Jepson Binns (Airedale Coll.), the 
present minister. 


Many of the persecuted Noncon- 
formists enjoyed, after 1662, a 
hospitable asylum in the house of 
Sir E. Rodes, Great Houghton, 
four miles from West Melton ; but 
at some time subsequent not a 
single Dissenter was to be found in 
the neighbourhood. 

The Rev. — Entwistle, of Barns- 
ley began to preach occasionally 
at Wombwell, and afterwards at 
West Melton. About 1790, a 

* Aided by Rev. J. R. J. Binns. 
f Aided by Rev. J. Boyd. 

more vigorous attempt was made to 
form a congregation. Rev. Thos. 
Grove, of Masborough, preached 
in the open air to large assemblies, 
sometimes with great opposition, 
but, on the whole, with encourag- 
ing success. By these means several 
persons were added to his church. 
Some Baptist itinerants seconded 
these exertions. 

About this time Mr. Carnley, a 
pious inhabitant of London, whose 
parents resided in this neighbour- 
hood, was induced, by a desire for 
usefulness, tc settle as an agricul- 
turist in this vicinity. Having 
united himself to Mr Grove's 
church, Rotherham, he promoted 
all measures which might tend to 
the evangelization of West Melton. 
Students were regularly sent to it 
from Rotherham Academy, then 
under the presidency of Dr. Wil- 
liams; and when a chapel was 
reared, fourteen or fifteen members 
were transferred from Masborough 
to form a church. In the year 
1802, Mr. Arundel was invited to 
settle as minister, but refused. 

1804. Rev. William Moor- 
house (Rotherham Acy.), son of 
Mr. Moorhouse, Huddersfield, be- 
came pastor of the church, and 
held the pastorate thirty-three 
years. He preached also at Womb- 
well and Stubbin, and occasionally 
at Great Houghton and Swinton. 
He conducted a school at Wath, 
afterwards at Brampton, and edu- 
cated some useful and eminent 
men. He published (1809) " A 
candid examination of Dr. William's 
Essay on Equity and Sovereignty." 
1838. Rev. Mark Docker 
(Hackney Acy.), from Broadway, 
Worcestershire. He took the double 
pastorate of Melton and Swinton, 
which he retained for eight years, 
retiring from the ministry at the 
close of 1846. He then became 



chaplain to the Sheffield Cemetery, 
and died Feb. 14, 1853. 

1849. R ev « Thomas Galls- 
worthy (Airedale Coll.), from 
Pinchbeck. He resigned March, 


1855. Rev. Joseph Boyd, the 
present minister. 

In 1862 the chapel was re- 
paired and beautified, at a cost of 
about .£450. There is a good 
school-room attached to it ; also a 
burial-ground and minister's house. 



An old Presbyterian congrega- 
tion has existed in Whitby since 
the year 1695. It at first wor- 
shipped in a private house in 
Bridge Street, Rev. — Brookes 
(ob. 1699) being their minister. 
He was succeeded by Rev. — 
Worthington, who removed to 
Durham 1702, then by Rev. — 
Duckinfield, who conformed, and 
Rev. — Thompson, who left for 
Nottingham, 171 5, when the place 
of worship was removed to Staith- 

In 1 7 1 5, Rev. J. Reddid 
(Jollie's Acy.), accepted the pasto- 
rate, during which Mr, Leonard 
Wilde, a sail-maker, bought a plot 
of ground in Flowergate, where a 
chapel was erected and liberally 
endowed by Mr. W. Mr. Reddid 
received the Hewley Fund, which 
after his death in 1729 was con- 
tinued to his widow. Mr. Reddid 
was probably an Arian. 

1729. Rev. Isaac Barker. 
Ob. 1756. 

1756. Rev. Wm. Lee. Re- 
moved to Sunderland in 1 764. 

1764. Rev. W. Wood, M.D. 
Ob. 1769. 

The chapel must henceforth be 
regarded as Unitarian. 



The associate congregation arose 
1789, at first occupying a room in 
the New Way, and afterwards re- 
moving to Brewster Lane. In 
1790 a new chapel was erected 
in Cliff Lane. 

The ministers have been — 

1789. Rev. Thomas Craig. 
Removed to Leeds, 1793. 

1799. ^ ev - Peter Thompson. 
Removed to Leeds, 1804. 

1 806. Rev. George Young, 
D.D., author of several works, one 
of which, " A History of Whitby," 
possesses great antiquarian value. 
He died 1848, and was succeeded 
by Rev. G. Bartholomew, who 
resigned in 1855, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. H. S. Campbell. 

In 1 8 16 Mrs. Joanna Kirkwood 
left to the poor of the congregation 
an endowment of ^ioo. 




This congregation originated in 
a division of the Methodist body 
in Church Street, in the year 1770. 
The Rev. James Brownfield, one 
of Mr. Wesley's followers, seeing 
reason to doubt the Scripturalness 
of some of the doctrines he had 
been accustomed to preach, with- 
drew from his former connexion, 
and erected a meeting-house, which 

* By aid of Rev. J. C, Potter. 

3 8o 


at first called itself Presbyterian, 
but gradually merged into Inde- 
pendency. Mr. Brownfield died 
at Whitby, 1803. 

In 1 803, Rev. J. Arundel became 
the pastor. Under his ministry the 
congregation increased greatly, and 
in 1805 a new chapel was erected 
in Silver Street. 

Rev. J. Arundel removed to 
London 181 8. 

Mr. Arundel was a Rotherham 
student. After fifteen years, suc- 
cessful labour at Whitby he accepted 
the office of Home Secretary to the 
London Missionary Society. He 
also became pastor, after three 
years, to Union Chapel, Borough. 

1 819. Rev. W. Blackburn, 
minister, ordained 1821. Mr. 
Blackburn removed to Bamford at 
the close of 1837. After some 
years he accepted the office of 
Superintendent of the Manchester 
City Mission. In this office he 
remained many years, discharging 
its duties very efficiently, until com- 
pelled by paralysis to retire. He 
died at Southport, 1862. 

1838. Rev. John Cass Potter, 
minister. He began his ministry at 
Whitby on the first Sunday in 
Jan., 1838, and after increasing 
comfort and success year by year, 
was compelled, by disease of the 
heart rendering public speaking 
physically impracticable as well as 
extremely dangerous, to resign his 
charge, Feb., 1865. 

He still survives, the valued 
secretary of the North Riding 

i 866. Rev. Wm. Jackson (Ro- 
therham Coll.). 

Mr. Jackson is (1867) the pre- 
sent pastor. 


(See Bradford.) 


The chapel at Wilsden arose in 
1795. Before this, preaching ser- 
vices had been held in farm-houses 
and barns. The ministers have 
been — 

Circ. 1793. Rev. Joseph Har- 
rison, from Bingley, where he had 
charge of a Baptist church. Mr. 
H. left for Bury circ. 1805. 

1806. Rev. Samuel Baines. 
Mr. B. was a native of Ossett, 
and studied for the ministry at 
Idle. The "new chapel" was 
built for him, as the "old" one 
was for Mr. Harrison. He re- 
signed his charge 1834. Died 
1835, and was buried in front of 
the chapel. He was greatly es- 

In 1 8 16 the present chapel was 
opened, and the former was con- 
verted into a school-room. It is 
used by the day-school as well as 
the Sunday-school. There is also 
a chapel house. 

1835. Rev. Samuel Blair, 
from South Shields. Resigned his 
charge near the close of 1837. 

1839. Rev. J. A Savage, from 
Ilkeston. Mr. S. left for Gomersal 

1858. Rev. W. Inman. Mr. 
I. left for Ovenden i860. 

1 86 1. Rev. J. Parnaby (Aire- 
dale Coll.). The present minister. 



In 1854 a school was established 
in this locality, and was conducted 
by teachers from Idle. The chapel 
was erected and opened in 1856. 

The first minister was — 

* By aid of Rev. J. Parnaby. 



i860. Rev. Professor Hartley, 
M.A., tutor of Airedale College. 
His ministry was attended with 
considerable success. Mr. H. left 
England as a missionary to Mada- 
gascar in May, 1863. 

July, 1864. Rev. Edward 
Ollerenshaw, from Bradford. 
Till now no regular church had 
been formed, though the sacrament 
had been administered. 

Mr. O. has just resigned. 


The chapel here is of con- 
siderable antiquity. During Oliver 
Heywood's time a congregation 
assembled at the houses of John 
Hey and Richard Mitchell, of 
which O. H.'s memoirs make fre- 
quent mention. The first York- 
shire Nonconformist ordination was 
held here, 1677. Subsequently 
John Heywood was ordained here, 
Aug. 23, 1 68 1, and preached in 
the neighbourhood for some little 
time during two periods. The 
Rev. John Isott, who had been a 
pupil and assistant of Frankland, 
was the first pastor. 

A building for worship was 
erected here by Mrs. Lambert. She 
was one of the Asshetons of Arnolds- 
biggin, now Gisburnpark. She was 
married* to John Lambert, Esq. (son 
of Major-General Lambert), a gen- 
tleman of elegant tastes and good 
education. His family seat was at 
the village of Calton, near by, 
where his father had resided. It 
was a handsome structure, but was 
burned in his lifetime and replaced 
by a very plain erection. Mrs. 
Lambert was a zealous Presbyterian, 
and the chapel at Winterburn was 
erected as a place of worship for 

* According to Whitaker, this lady was 
twice married. Craven, p. 182. 

the miners on the estate. It was 
in this neighbourhood (Calton) that 
Oliver Heywood preached some of 
his earliest sermons. An endow- 
ment was left to Horton by Mrs. 
L. for the purpose of maintaining 
preaching at Winterburn, but was 
subsequently misappropriated. (See 

The chapel is still standing. It 
was repaired, 1862. Services have 
been since that rime held in con- 
nexion with the West Riding 
Home Missionary Society. 



A new and very commodious 
chapel was opened in this village 
in 1857. It originated in the 
labours of the students of Rother- 
ham College, in the neighbouring 
colliery village of Wombwell Main, 
at which a room had been set 
apart by the colliery proprietors 
for worship. Chiefly owing to the 
zeal and exertion of Mr. William 
Utley, one of the managers of the 
works, a handsome chapel was 
built in Wombwell, which is likely 
hereafter to be the centre of very 
considerable population. Rev. J. 
Parton is'now the minister. The 
cause is greatly aided by the sup- 
port of the West Riding Congre- 
gational Union and Home Mis- 
sionary Society. 



Here is a chapel of many years' 
standing. For a long time it was 
sustained by a zealous and intelli- 
gent farmer of the neighbourhood, 
a Mr. Hattersley, who was a lay 

* Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falding. 
f Communicated by Rev. Dr. Falding. 

3 «2 


preacher of considerable repute in 
the neighbourhood. Subsequently 
it was supplied by lay preachers 
from Sheffield. By the liberal 
assistance of the W. R. Congre- 
gational Union, and with the wise 
and kind assistance of Rev. J. Cal- 
vert, of Attercliffe, a minister has 
just commenced his labours here, 
the Rev. J. Kitchin, from Airedale 



This early Congregational body 
owes its origin to Rev. Christopher 
Marshall, who, whilst he occupied, 
as minister, the parochial building, 
formed a spiritual society on the 
principles of Independency. This 
church met for worship in Topclifre 
Hall, then inhabited by Capt. Picker- 
ing, a person in whom Cromwell 
expressed great confidence. Mr 
Marshall was " educated partly in 
Cambridge, and partly under Mr. 
Cotton, at Boston, in New Eng- 
land." The church record, pre- 
served in copy amidst the MSS. of 
Mr. Scales, commences Feb. 15, 
1653, and seems to indicate the 
time of the Society's origin. It 
Was probably drawn up by the 
pastor. The order of ministers 
was the following: — 

Circ. 1653. Rev. Christopher 
Marshall. In 1654 mention is 
made of Brother Gleadhill (Gled- 
hill) and Brother Hargreave, as 
having been admitted members of 
the community. They will be 
mentioned afterwards. 

In 1 66 1 , Mr. Nesse was admitted 
into church fellowship, and in the 
same year Josias Holdsworth. 

These names become interesting 
from subsequent events.* 

Marshall was ejected in 1662 
After this he appears to have re- 
sided in his own house at TopclifFe, 
in the midst of his little flock, to 
whom he probably preached in 
secret. The Five-mile Act drove 
him to Horbury : yet the meetings 
of his society were not suspended, 
and Marshall still met with them 
privately. About this time David 
Noble was received into com- 
munion. The baptism of Accepted 
Lister took place here May 25, 
1 67 1. In 1672, when a Congre- 
gational church was formed at 
Leeds, under the pastorship of 
Ness, who was then dismissed from 
the church at Topcliffe, Gledhillt 
and Hargreaves were sent as a 
deputation to recognise and con- 
gratulate the new Society. 

In 1673, Gamaliel Marsden, who 
had been twice ejected, once from 
Dublin at the Restoration, and 
again from Chapel-le-Brears in 
1662, joined himself to the little 
community, and became engaged 
by the church (1674) as " teacher, 1 ' 
his work being to educate young 
men for the ministry, and pro- 
bably to catechise the youth of the 
church. He was a man of sound 
learning, but not an attractive 

* James Naylor, the Quaker enthusiast, 
was originally a member of the church at 
TopclifFe. He was brought before the 
church on a charge of adultery. The 
meeting was held at'Haigh Hall, in the 
room called the Lord's parlour. Naylor 
went afterwards to London, and joined the 
Baptist church of which Hanserd Knollys 
was minister, whence he was again ex- 

f In a funeral sermon, published by 
Dr. Harris, 1719, for Mrs. Bathsheba 
Barker, Gledhill's daughter, he speaks 
of the eminent piety and holiness of this 
Gledhill. His daughter, he says felt it a 
singular honour to have descended from so 
good a man. 



preacher. In this year Mr. Bailey 
was ordained pastor, and it appears 
from his tomb-stone at Morley, 
was pastor of both congregations, 
though the Topcliffe register 
makes no mention of the fact. 
He died Dec. 6, 1675, and was 
buried in the Old Chapel-yard, 
Morley. He was a minister of 
great influence among the Con- 
gregationalists. He established a 
monthly lecture at Morley (see 
p. 321). Mr. Marshall died two 
years before him ; but as he is 
said to have had " a crazy body," 
it is probable that he was unable 
to preach much in his latter years. 
Gamaliel Marsden married his 

In 1677, mention is made of the 
dismission of "Jennet, the wife 
of Nathaniel Slack, dismissed to 
us by Mr. Larkham."* 

Mr. Marsden died May 25, 
1 68 1. Service was for some time 

* This Rev. George Larkham was 
minister of Coclcermouth till the passing 
of the Act of Uniformity, when the pur- 
suit of his enemies was so keen as to drive 
him among his relatives at Topcliffe. In 
his diary we find the following entries : — 

"July 20, 1663. I went from Booth 
towards Gomersal, in Yorkshire. I came 
to my Aunt Pollard's on the 25th of the 
said month. 

" Sept. 2. My wife and Thomas, my 
sonne, came to Gomersale to my Uncle 
Pollard's, there to sojourn with me for a 

" 1666. I took some rooms at Stan- 
cliffe Hall, in Yorkshire, Jan. 21. I 
began to keep house Feb. I. Sept. 28, 
I came to Heckmondwike with my family 
to dwell in the house of one Rich. Naylor. 
I am to give for rooms xi. 3. per annum." 

In the Cockermouth church register is 
the following explanation : — 

"From the year 1662 to the year 1668, 
the pastor being forced away into another 
county, viz., into Yorkshire, where he hid 
himself by y r - advice, counsel, and^ con- 
sent," &c. "The pastor was imprisoned 
in York city for five weeks' space upon the 
account of Nonconformity." 

after his death conducted by Mr. 
Holdsworth (Heckmondwike), Mr. 
Jollie (Altham), and other ejected 

1684. Rev. Thomas Elston 
(Frankland's Acy.). He was 
minister here for thirty-four years. 
Mr. E. removed to Chesterfield, 
July 8, 1709, "at the desire and 
in answer to the invitation of a 
Congregational church there." He 
died 1 7 10, set. 59, and was buried 
at Chesterfield. His funeral ser- 
mon was preached by Rev. T. 

In 1 69 1, the church record 
states : " Mr. John Gledhill ad. 
into our commn. 1 5 April, and dis- 
missed to a church at Colchester 
to be their pastor, July 15, 1694." 
After Mr. Elston's death, the 
meeting-house was almost deserted. 
The congregation removed to Lee- 

Rev. John Lister was attached, 
in some way not now discoverable, 
to this congregation. He died, 
April 11, 1707, after a short ill- 
ness, and was buried in the bury- 
ing-place, Tingley. 

Oct. 14, 1 7 14. Rev. John 
Riley. The number of the con- 
gregation was now about 60. Mr. 
R. died Aug. 19, 1727. 

Oct. 5, 1727. Rev. Thomas 
Lax. Mr. L. was a grantee of the 
Hewley Fund. He remained till 

1736. Rev. Robert Hesketh. 
He removed to Eastwood, 1749. 

Leefair was now given up as a 



This chapel was built in 1827. 
For a considerable time it received 


the unpaid services of the Rev. B. 
Firth, who kept the Manor-house 
Academy, near at hand. It after- 
wards became a station of the West 
Riding Home Mission. Rev. B. 
Firth died in 1854, and was suc- 
ceeded by 

Rev. Charles Illingworth, 
from Bradford. Mr. I. resigned 
his pastorship, 1868. The pulpit 
is now vacant. 


" In this city we find several 
indications of the existence of a 
spirit of reformation and improve- 
ment in religion, long before the 
fatal Bartholomew Act in 1662 had 
compelled so large a portion of the 
pious clergy and laity to become 
Dissenters. Many of the ministers 
in and around York were inclined 
to Puritanism; and though, of 
course, it would follow that such 
principles would be carefully and 
vigorously opposed, they appear 
nevertheless to have made converts. 

" Edwards, in his Gangraena, re- 
fers repeatedly to York as a place 
where sectaries of various opinions 
had busied themselves to diffuse 
their sentiments. If credit is to be 
given to him, there were Indepen- 
dent churches gathered in many 
other towns in Yorkshire, as well 
as York in itself. 

** After the bill had been brought 
in for establishing episcopacy, the 
different parishes were allowed to 
elect their own ministers, who 
were afterwards, if the Westmin- 
ster assembly approved them, con- 
firmed in their benefices by the 
Parliament. An ordinance of Feb. 
27, 1643, authorized Lord Fairfax 
to supply the vacant pulpits in 
Yorkshire. " (Neal, ii. 75.) 

" ' On the reduction of York,' 

says Calamy (I presume in 1644, 
after the battle of Marston Moor), 
'the State supported four ministers 
in the city, with honourable sti- 
pends, to preach in their course at 
the Minster. Among these were 
the ejected Edward Bowles, son of 
Oliver Bowles, of the Assembly of 
Divines, born 161 7,* Thomas Cal- 
vert, and Richard Perrot. The 
plan is given, Cal. iii., 455-6. Mr. 
Perrot received this appointment 
in 1658, but Mr. Calvert and Mr. 
Bowles had their appointment 
from the commencement. Their 
associates were Mr. Rathbandf and 
Mr. Herring. Mr. Calvert had 
held a living in the city as rector 
of Christchurch so early as 1638. 
After Mr. Rathband's removal Mr. 
Peter Williams was appointed.' " 

" Bowles was a man of great in- 
fluence. It is said by Calamy, 
that whilst his preaching was 
much esteemed, 'his prayers were 
much of a piece with his sermons.' 
There were four things which he 
particularly prayed for — sound doc- 
trine, purity in worship, true Chris- 
tian liberty, and the power of god- 
liness." t 

When General Monk was on his 
way to London, a sermon was 
preached before him at the cathe- 
dral, and Bowles, as chaplain of 
Lord Fairfax, was the preacher. 
Several private interviews followed 
between Monk and Bowles, the 
latter pressing the General to de- 
clare for the king. Bowles was, a 

* Bowles was the author of several 
publications, "The Mystery of Iniquity," 
&c. We have elsewhere related that he 
was one of the ministers sent to welcome 
Charles II. 

■f The son, probably, of the Rathband 
who wrote against Brownists. 

J Scales' MSS. These are the only 
sentences which Mr. S. appears to have 
really prepared for his projected work. 



little later, one of the deputation 
who visited Charles at Breda. 

It is recorded that the Deanery 
of York was offered him, but he 
refused to conform ; he was there- 
fore removed from the Minster at 
the Restoration, though he con- 
tinued to preach at Allhallow's, and 
afterwards at St. Martin's. The 
parishioners of Leeds elected him 
vicar; but Dr. Lake, afterwards 
Bishop of Chichester, was ap- 
pointed. Bowles was a great 
friend of Drs. Tillotson and Stil- 
lingfleet, who much desired to 
induce him to conform ; their 
efforts were, however, in vain. 
In his last illness he was asked, 
"What of Conformity he dis- 
liked?" and he replied, "The 
whole." He died on the eve of 
St. Bartholomew, and desired to 
be buried without ostentation; 
there was, therefore, no funeral 
sermon. It is supposed that the 
enactments of the Act of Uni- 
formity greatly oppressed his spirits, 
seeing he had taken a conspicuous 
part in bringing about the Restora- 
tion, and that he died almost broken- 
hearted at the anticipated conse- 
quences of that measure. 

The name of Christopher Cart- 
wright appears among the Puritan 
worthies of this period. His fune- 
ral sermon was preached by Edward 
Bowles, who published it in 1680. 
Cartwright left his papers of Rabbi- 
nical learning to T. Calvert, saying 
that he was the only person who 
could understand them. 

There is no record of any of the 
parochial clergy of York having 
been ejected by the Act of Uni- 
formity. Several lecturers and 
others were, however, removed. 

Thomas Calvert had been for- 
merly in the family of Sir Thomas 
Burdett, in Derbyshire. He after- 
wards removed to York, where he 

wafe one of the preachers in the 
cathedral, officiating also at Christ 
Church and AH Hallows. He 
preached and published a course 
of lectures on Is. liii., which he 
entitled " Mel Cceli," or " Medulla 
Evangelii," 4to. He published pre- 
viously, in 8vo, "The Blessed Jew 
of Morocco ; or, the Blackamoor 
turned White." This book, which 
showed abundance of learning, 
gained him the title of "Rabbi 
Calvert." After his ejection, he 
lived in private, doing what good 
he could. He was driven from 
the city by the Five-mile Act, and 
removed to Lady Berwick's, near 
Tadcaster. He returned, however, 
to York before his death, and pub- 
lished many works. He died of a 
fever April 15, 1679, **• 7 2 > an d 
was buried in Allhallow's, Pave- 

Peter Williams remained in safety 
under the protection of Sir John 
Brook, carrying on a week-day 
service at Lady Lister's. He died 
1680. Richard Perrot, after prac- 
tising medicine at Barniston, died 
at York, in 1671, set. 41.* Many 
other ejected ministers resided at 
York — Stephen Arlush(ej. Howden, 
East Riding), who died in 1680; 
Joshua Whitton, M.A., godfather 
to Archbishop Tillotson (ej. from 
Thornhill), who died 1680; — 
Plackstone (ej. Sherringham), who 
died 1686; Matthew Hill, once 
of Helaugh (ej. Thirsk), who after 
having preached for a time with 
much risk in the city, and under- 
gone great straits, at length re- 
moved to Maryland, and died 
there. We have also the names 
of Parrett, who died 1666, and of 
Hasle, of whom we know nothing. 

But the first Nonconformist con- 

* Andrew Perrot, perhaps some rela- 
tion, was High Sheriff of York in 1070, 
and Lord Mayor in 1693. 

c c 

3 86 


gregation owed its existence prin- 
cipally to Rev. Ralph Ward. This 
laborious minister was born in the 
parish of Peniston, and began his 
ministry in Denby Chapel. He 
was ordained in Newcastle 1653, 
but had been driven from Hart- 
born, in Durham, soon after the 
Restoration. He subsequently be- 
came chaplain to Sir John Hewley, 
and was much honoured in that 
family. He preached, alternately 
with Mr. Williams, at the house 
of Lady Watson (who died, accord- 
ing to the Northowram Register 
Oct. 6, 1679). Though driven 
from his post for a short season by 
the Five-mile Act, he returned and 
preached in private. It does not, 
however, appear that any Noncon- 
formist meeting-house was erected, 
during his life, in this city. 

The first congregation probably 
met at Micklegate, at the house of 
Mr. Andrew Taylor, a spirited 
merchant, who afforded refuge to 
the persecuted Nonconformists. 
Heywood mentions his having paid 
a visit to Ralph Ward and Mr. 
Taylor, in Ousebridge Gaol. This 
was the result of one of a series of 
persecutions to which the Non- 
conformity of these good men 
exposed them. After being ex- 
communicated, being subjected to 
a writ of capias, being fined suc- 
cesively in the sums of ^20 and 
£40, and after having his doors 
broken open by night, Ward was 
seized in 1684, and accused of a 
riot. The case was brought be- 
fore Judge Jefferies, who railed at 
him, in his usual style, and sen- 
tenced him to be imprisoned upon 
Ouse Bridge. But he was allowed 
to preach to his visitors. At length 
he was liberated by the special 
order of James II., the prosecution 
being found illegal. Though his 
long confinement had much injured 

his health, he resumed his public 
duties. Thoresby mentions that 
he heard him and Mr. Bloome (of 
Sheffield) preach in 1681. Mr. 
Noah Ward, not a relation, was his 
assistant. He died March 13, 1 69 1 , 
after a thirty years' pastorate, aet. 
62. " He resided at one of the 
Askham's villages, near York." 
(Hunter's Heywood, 334.) 

Heywood furnished much of the 
above information through Thores- 
by to Calamy. He says, in writing 
to Thoresby : " Sir, some that have 
seen my catalogue of York mini- 
sters, advise me to expunge three 
of them, Mr. R. Town, Mr. Core, 
and Mr. Robinson, because they 
were Antinomians." 

There were in York many Non- 
conformists of eminent zeal and 
piety. Among these was . Lady 
Watson, of whom the following 
account is taken from one of the 
Thoresby MSS. "Her father's 
name was Nelson, born in West- 
moreland. Was married at eleven 
years old ; her first husband Jived 
but two or three years after 
they were married. Was mar- 
ried by Stephen Watson, of York, 
who was Lord Mayor in King 
{illeg.) days.. Was eminent for 
piety and hospitality. His lady 
lived about eighteen years after 
his decease, in times of greatest 
trouble and persecution, when 
liberty was most restrained. She 
kept her doors open for both 
Lord's-day and week-day meetings ; 
Mr. Ward on Tuesdays, Mr. Wil- 
liams on Thursdays. And in times 
of trouble, when York Castle was 
filled with prisoners, very libera] 
and bountiful to prisoners in the 
Castle, and improved her interest 
in procuring their liberty, and 
was very successful in procur- 
ing liberty or divers. She died 
Oct. 4, 1678, aged 80 years."— 



(Letter from Joseph Jackson, Up- 
cott Coll.). 

Oliver Heywood, in his diaries, 
enables us to form some notion of 
the persons conspicuous for their 
nonconformity in the city of York. 
He lodges at Sir John Hewley's, 
preaches at Lady Watson's, spends 
the evening at Lady Hewet's. 
Some of the persons he visits at 
York are, Lords Clifford and Fairfax, 
Sir Gilbert Gerherd, and Sir John 
Brooke. Among the favourers of 
Nonconformity in the city, were 
also Mrs. Hutton,* of Poppleton, 
sister to Lord Fairfax, called in the 
Northowram Register, " a gracious 
woman ;" Alderman Dawson, " an 
ancient professor ;" Mr. Samuel 
Smith, who married a daughter of 
the Tutor Frankland, and Mr. Pailer, 
" a good man," near York, whose 
wife had been Lady Carey. 

Rev. Timothy Hodgson was 
chaplain to Sir John and Lady 
Hewley. He and his father, Cap- 
tain Hodgson, had been originally 
members of the church at Sowerby, 
which was distinctly Congrega- 
tionalism He seems never to have 
had any pastoral charge. He died 
in December,! 7 1 7. 



The meeting-house at St. Sa- 
viour's Gate was erected 1692. It 
was built in the form of a cross, 
and was near to the residence of 
Sir J. Hewley. O. Heywood 

* Mr. Bowles married one of this 
family, viz., Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Hutton, of Poppleton. This 
family was connected by marriage with 
the descendants of Dr. Tobias Matthews, 
whose children and grandchildren married 
into Dissenting families. 

preached in it in 1693, and in the 
same year Thoresby, visiting York, 
heard Dr. Colton to his satisfaction. 
Heywood preached here again in 

The ministers of St. Saviour's 
Gate were the following : — 

1692. Thomas Colton, M.D., 
educated at Leyden. He succeeded 
Ward in the pastorate. He mar- 
ried for his first wife a daughter of 
Ralph Ward, and for his second, 
the child of Sir Robert Duckinfield, 
of Duckinfield, a well-known Non- 
conformist. Colton was much 
esteemed by the Hewleys. Lady 
H. was very liberal to him, and 
remembered him in her will. Being 
a man of considerable property, 
Colton left a benefaction to the 
city, endowing a hospital for eight 
poor women. He preached Lady 
Hewley's funeral sermon in 1 7 10. 

Dr. Colton's assistants were Rev. 
Thomas Baxter, son of Rev. Na- 
thaniel Baxter, of Sheffield, till 
1678 (ob. 1 7 10), and Rev. John 
Hotham after that date. 

173 1. Rev. John Hotham 
(Jollie's Acad.), succeeded Dr. Col- 
ton in the pastorate. He continued 
the week-day lectures, which had 
been begun by Mr. Ward, but at 
increasingly long intervals, till they 
quite died out. He had been a mem- 
ber of the church of Mr. Jollie of 
Sheffield, and was probably a Con- 
gregationalist. Mr. H. died 1756. 

In the latter years of Mr. 
Hotham, Rev. — Buck, of Bolton, 
was invited to become co-pastor. 
He, however, having declined — 

1732. Rev. John Brook was 
appointed to the co-pastorate. He 
is spoken of in the " Gent.'s Mag." 
as "eminent." He died in 1735. 

1735. Rev. John Root, pre- 
viously assistant to Mr. Whitter, 
Hull (whose daughter he married), 
became co-pastor till 1755. 

3 88 


1756. Rev. Newcome Cappe, 
son of Rev. Joseph Cappe, Leeds 
(studied under Dr. Aikin and Dr. 
Doddridge). Mr. C. was for a 
short time co-pastor with Mr. 
Hotham. He introduced Arianism 
into York. He was subsequently 
an intimate friend of Dr. Priestley, 
with whose opinions he sympa- 
thised. Latterly the congregation 
became very small. 

Rev. Charles Wellbeloved was 
assistant from 1 791. 

1799. Rev. Charles Well- 
beloved became pastor. The con- 
gregation had now become entirely 
Unitarian. Mr. W.'s name is well 
known as one of the defendants in 
the suit instituted respecting Lady 
Hewley's trusts, of which he was 
a sub-trustee. He received from 
these trusts the annual sum of ^80 
as the preacher of St. Saviour's 
Gate Chapel. Ob. 1862, aet. 90. 

Between the years 1752 and 
1767 Rev. G. Whitefield paid 
several preaching visits to York. 
In the last year he was accom- 
panied by Lady Huntingdon, Mr. 
Venn, and Capt. Scott, and a site 
was selected for a chapel, which 
was afterwards erected, in College 
Street. In 1779 Rev. W. Wren 
was sent thither. He was very 
devoted and earnest. Lady Hunt- 
ingdon wished him to accept 
another appointment, but his 
ministry having been useful at 
York, he decided to remain, and 
withdrew from Lady H.'s con- 
nexion, 1780. A chapel was 
built for him, as an Independent, 
in Grape Lane. But he did not 
long survive this change, and died 
in Scarborough, 1784, aet. 33. A 
stone was erected to his memory, 
which is now in the school-room 
of Salem Chapel. 

The Society became disorganised 
after his death, and in 178 1, Rev. 

E. Parsons (Leeds) undertook the 
superintendence of the chapel for 
a year, but at the end of the time 
the services were discontinued. 
Application was again made to 
Lady Huntingdon, who sen t several 
ministers, and among the rest Mr. 
Watkins, under whom the congre- 
gation increased. Mr. W. being 
incapacitated by a fall from his 
horse, Mr. Wydown was sent to 
supply his place. But differences 
arose as to terms of communion, 
and on Mr. Watkins's recovery a 
separation ensued, Mr. Wydown 
withdrawing with the disaffected. 
Mr. Watkins finding himself de- 
serted, left York for Bradford, 
Wilts. He was succeeded by Mr* 
Jones and Mr. Robinson. The 
chapel was at length sold to the 
Kilhamites, afterwards to the Bap- 
tists, who ceased to have services 
in it about the year 1820. 

In the meantime, Mr. Wydown 
erected a chapel in Jubbergate, 
which was opened in 1796. After 
some difficulties, Mr. W. was or- 
dained, the ministers engaged being 
Rev. E. Parsons, J. Cockin, and 
SamuelBottomley. Mr. W. soon left, 
became a prisoner of the French, 
and at last emigrated to America. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Thur- 
garland, who resigned, in considera- 
tion of a sum of money, in 18 14, 
the congregation being then almost 
extinct. " Mr. T. remained as a 
schoolmaster, in a very unsatisfac- 
tory state spiritually, but was re- 
stored under Mr. Parson's ministry, 
and was admitted a member of the 
church in Lendal Chapel in 1836. 
He remained so till he died." The 
chapel was then taken up by the 
West Riding Itinerant Society, who 
resolved to erect a new chapel in 
Lendal. This building was opened 
Nov., 1 8 1 6, by sermons from Revs. 
T. Raffles, Joseph Cockin, and S. 



Bradley. The cost of the chapel 
was upwards of £3,000. 



The following is a list of the 
successive pastors : — 

1822. Rev. James Parsons* 
second son of Rev. E. Parsons, 
Leeds (of Idle Acy.). He was 
ordained Oct. 24. The chapel, 
which seats 900 persons, was 
rapidly filled. It underwent sub- 
sequent internal enlargements, 
and the congregation continued in 
a state of great and increasing pros- 
perity till the year 1837. An un- 
successful attempt was then made 
to enlarge Lendal Chapel, but as 
ground could not be secured, it was 
resolved to erect a new building, to 
which Mr. Parsons and his con- 
gregation removed in 1839. 

Lendal Chapel was left as the 
starting-point of a . new congrega- 
tion. Eighty members constituted 
the church there, 360 removed with 
Mr. Parsons. 

1840. Rev. Charles Payton. 
Mr. P. died in Dec, 1844. 

1845. Rev. Richard Soper, 
from Grantham. Mr. S. removed 
to Farringdon, Berks, in 1847. 

1853. Rev. Stephen S. N. 
Dobson, B.A. (of Airedale Coll.); 
Mr. D, left for Yarmouth, 1855. 

1856. Rev. Thos. Raffles 
Hoskin. Now at St. Petersburg. 

1 86 1. Rev. A. B. Atten- 
borough. Removed to Sevenoaks, 

1863. Rev. Thomas Morgan 
(Rotherham Coll.), who is the 
present minister. 


This chapel was erected and 
opened in the year 1839, when 
sermons were preached by Rev. 
Dr. Raffles, Rev. Dr. Harris, and 
Rev. James Griffin, then of Man- 
chester, It is calculated to seat 
1,600 persons, and was erected at 
an expense of £6,000. 

The present pastor is the Rev. 
James Parsons, whose earnest and 
zealous labours, distributed during 
so many years over the whole 
country, and among almost all 
Christian denominations, render 
commendation superfluous. May 
he be long spared to the congrega- 
tion and religious body he has so 
much adorned ! 

The assistant minister is Rev. 
T. Hindsley (Airedale Col.l). He 
succeeded Rev. W. Deans, who, 
on account of ill-health, removed 
for a time to Australia, but was 
lost at sea whilst on his return to 


Airedale College, Origin of, 1 67 ; 
Progress of, 186. 

Anne, Queen : Hostility to Dis- 
senters during her Reign, 124. 

Armine, Lady, 97. 

Assembly of Divines, 42, 45, 48. 

Bennett, Rev. Dr., 182. 

Bennett, George, 185. 

Bewglass, Rev. Dr., 192. 

Book of Sports, 33. 

Boothroyd, Dr., 193. 

Bowles, E., 42 ; Grief after the 
Restoration, 71 ; Refused Vicar- 
age of Leeds, ib. 

Bradford, W., 30. 

Bright, Sir J., an upholder of Re- 
ligion, 54. 

Browne, Robert, 27. 

Brownfield, Whitby, 139. 

Bunney, Dr., 10. 

Burton, Henry, 38; his Publica- 
tions, 46, 49. 

Buckingham, Duke of, 83. 

Chapels, Dissenting, 199. 
Charles I., 33 ; at York, 41. 
Clifton, 30. 

" Club," « Holy," 135. 

Church of England, Effects of 
Ejectment of 1662 on, 81. 

Congregationalism among early Puri- 
tans, 5 ; in Assembly of Divines, 
45 ; Avowed by Burton, 46 ; 
during Commonwealth, 57. 

Congregational Church, first in 
Yorkshire, 50. 

Congregational Union, 201. 

Conventicle Act, 79. 

Conventicles forbidden in Private 
Houses, 61. 

Conyers, Dr., 151. 

Cook, Vicar of Leeds, 25. 

Corporation Act, 63. 

Coverdale, 2, 9. 

Craven, District of, not famed for 
inflexible principles, 64. 

Cromwell, 57. 

Defoe, D., 125. 
Denton, Richard, 36. 

Ejection of 1662, 65 ; Number of 
Ejected given by Calamy for 
Yorkshire, 65 ; Enormity of, 
66; Consequences of, 73. 


Elizabeth, Queen, 5. 
Elmete, 3. 

Ely, Rev. John, 195, 202. 
"Exercises" at Halifax, 24 
Leeds, ib. 


Fairfax, Lord F., 43 ; his Main- 
tenance of Religion, 53. 

Farrer, Bishop, 3. 

" Farnley Wood Plot," 75. 

Favour, Vicar of Halifax, 22. 

Favourers of Nonconformists, 74. 

Frankland, locked out of his Church, 
63 ; at Rathmel, 87 ; persecu- 
tions of, 119. 

Fraser, Rev. Dr., 188. 

Freeman, Capt., 56. 

Fisher, Vicar of Sheffield, 78. 

Five-mile Act, 80. 

" Gangraena," 48. 
Geree, John, M.A., 38. 
Grimshaw, William, 150. 
Grindal : his Description of York- 
shire, I. 

Halifax, "Exercises" in, 24. 

Hamilton, Rev. R. W., 1 79 ; Con- 
troversy with Hutton, 1 80 ; 
Education Question, 202 ; Death 
of, 205. 

Heath, Archbishop, 7. 

Heckmondwike, 145. 

Hewley,Lady, 1 1 6, 1 8 1 , 1 83, 1 89. 

Hey wood, Oliver: his Troubles 
after the Restoration, 61 ; his 
Ejection, 72 ; his Imprisonment, 
93 ; Meeting-house, 97 ; his 
Labours and Death, 123. 

Hodgson, Captain, 55. 

Hollis, T., no. 

Horton, Joshua, 79. 
Hull, Religion in, Seventeenth Cen- 
tury, 25. 
Hutton, Archbishop, 22. 

Independency disliked by Presby- 
terians, 49. 

"Independent," not the Name 
Chosen by the Early Congrega- 
tionalists, 48. 

Independent Congregations, Num- 
ber of (171 5), 128 ; (circ. 1772) 

Indulgence, Declaration of, 84; 
Effect of, ib.; Withdrawal of, 88. 
Ingham, Benjamin, 135. 
Irish Rebellion, 41. 

James I., 22, 33. 

James II., 94 ; his Suspension of 
Penal Laws against Dissenters, 


Jollie, T. : his Academy, 121. 

Kipping Meeting-house, Records 

of, 92. 
Knight, Titus, 151. 

Lambert, Rev. George, 176. 
Lambert, Maj.-Gen., 55. 
Lancaster, Joseph, 173. 
Leaf, John, 3. 

Leeds, "Exercises" in, 25. 
Llandaff, Bishop of, 9. 
London Missionary Society, 163, 

" Manchester Socinian Contro- 
versy," 182. 
Marsden, Jeremiah, 62. 
Marsden, Gamaliel, 62. 



"Martin Marprelate," 21. 
Marvel, Rev. A., Hull, 25. 
Matthews, Archbishop, 23. 
Maynooth College, 207. 
Methodism, Origin of, 134; Dis- 
ruption, 208. 
Missions, 160. 
Mitchell, M., 35. 
Monteigne, Archbishop, 34. 
Moore, Rector of Guiseley, 18. 

Neile, Archbishop, 34. 
Nelson, John, 136. 
New England, Emigration to, 37. 
Nonconformists, Characterized, 97; 
Number of (1688), 106, 128. 

Ordinations, Nonconformist, 90 ; 

First Public, 122. 
" Oxford Tracts," 195. 

Parsons, Rev. E. (Leeds), 174. 

Pilgrim Fathers, 31. 

" Pilgrimage of Grace," 2. 

Presbyterians, Promoters of the 
Restoration, 5 8 ; Rejoicings, 59 ; 
Resolutions on Indulgence, 85 ; 
Union with Congregationalists, 
109; Failure of, 110; Defec- 
tions in Doctrine, 123. 

Pretender, 141. 

Priestley, Dr., 143 ; Minister of 
Mill-hill Chapel, Leeds, 152; 
Opposition to Trinitarian Doc- 
trine, 153. 

Priestley, N., 79. 

" Prophesy ings," 12. 

" Provident Society," 198. 

Pudbey, Scene at, 41. 

Raikes, Robert, 157. 

Ramsden, Vicar of Halifax, 24. 

Religion in England in the Six- 
teenth Century, 1 2 ; Ditto, in 
the Eighteenth Century, 129. 

Robinson, John : his Congrega- 
tionalism, 28 ; Pastor of Congre- 
gational Church at Scrooby, 30. 

Robinson, H., Vicar of Leeds: his 
Ejectment, 43. 

Rodes, Sir E., 55. 

Rogers, Rev. E., 34. 

Root, Henry, 50. 

Rotherham Academy, Origin of, 
164; Progress of, 189. 

Sacheverell, 125 

Sandys, Archbishop, 14. 

Saxton, Rev. Peter, Vicar of Leeds, 


Schism Bill, 1 26. 

Scott, Rev. James, 146; his Aca- 
demy, 147; his Death, 157. 

Scott, Rev. Walter, 187. 

Scottish Church, Disruption of, 70. 

Scrooby, Congregational Church 
formed there, 29 ; People emi- 
grate to Holland, 30. 

Sharp, Archbishop, 121 ; Abra- 
ham, 140. 

Shawe, John, 37, 43, 62. 

Sheffield, a Centre of Puritanism, 2 5 . 

Shepard, Rev. T., 34. 

Silcoates School, 191. 

Slavery, 197. 

Smith, John, Demerara, 184. 

Smith, Matthew, 132. 

Smyth, John, 29. 

Snell Brothers, 4. 

Stretton, Richard, 97. 

Styles, W., Vicar of Pontefract and 
Leeds, 26, 37. 

393 INDEX. 

Sunday Schools, 157, 171. 

Taylor, T., D.D., 38. 

Test and Corporation Acts, 154. 
Thorp, Mrs., 131. 
Thorpe, John, 138. 
Tillotson, Archbishop, 88. 
Toleration, Act of, 105. 
Toleration, disliked by Presby- 
terians, 49. 

Uniformity, Act of, 63. 

Vestments, 9. 
Venn, Henry, 149. 
Vint, Rev. W., 187. 

Wales, Elkanah, 26, 41. 

Wakefield, Meeting of Presby- 
terians and Congregationalists at, 

Walkden, P., Diary of, 134. 

Walker, S., Northowram, his Aca- 
demy, 164. 

Warrington Academy, 148. 

Wharton, Lord P., 112; Bible 
Charity, 113. 

Whitaker, Jeremiah, M.A., 38. 

Whitefield, George, 137. 

Whitgift, Archbishop, 14. 

Wigginton, Vicar of Sedberg, 19. 

Wilson, of Skipton, 1 8. 

Williams, Dr., 165, 166, 181. 

Wycliffe, 2. 

York, Religion in (Seventeenth 
Century), 26. 


Neal's History of the Puritans. 

Brook's Lives of the Puritans. 

Strype's Reformation. 

Strype's Lives of Grindal and 

Mather's Magnalia. 

Foxe's Martyrs. 

Price's Chronol. History of N. 

Marsden's Early and Later Puritans. 

Cotton's Reply to Williams. 

Calamy's Nonconformist Memorial. 

Calamy's Life and Times. 

Hanbury's Independency. 

Hunter's Old Dissent. 

Thoresby's Diary and Correspond- 

Wilson's Dissenting Churches. 

Thoresby's Ducatus Leodensis. 

Hunter's MSS. Mus. Brit. 

Thoresby's MSS. lb. 

Dunton's Life and Errors. 

Scatcherd's History of Morley. 

Smith's Rambles about Morley. 

Joseph Lister's Memoirs. 

Memoirs of Gen. Fairfax. 

Memoirs of Captain Hodgson. 

Memoirs of Sir J. Reresby. 

Watson's Halifax. 

Hunter's Hallamshire. 

Whitaker's Craven. 

Whitaker's Loidis et Elmete. 

Drake's Eboracum. 

Clarkson's Richmond. 

Baillie's Letters, 

Edwards' Gangrama. 

Edwards' Antapologia. 

Whitaker's Sermons. 

Wicksteed's Mill-hill. 

Middleton's Biographia Evangelica. 

Tickell's History of Hull. 

Toulmin's Historical View. 

Neal's Free and Serious Remon- 

Eachard's Causes of Contempt of 

Birch's Life of Tillotson. 

Gentleman's Magazine. 

Howell's Second Voyage of Ship 
" Duff." 

Hunter's Founders of New Ply- 

Narrative of H. Burton — King's 

Defoe's Works. 

Fawcett's Life of O. Hey wood. 



Slate's Life of O. Hey wood. 

Life and Times of Lady Hun- 

Boothroyd's Pontefract. 

Sibree's Independency in Warwick- 

Young's Whitby. 

Knight's Dialogues. 

Mountain's Selby. 

Life of Rev. Dr. Priestley. 

Bogue and Bennett's History of 

Cockin's Memoirs of Cockin. 

Gilbert's Life of Williams. 

Walkden's Diary. 

Memoirs of Thomas Wright. 

James's History of Bradford. 

Baines' History and Directory. 

Baxter's Life and Times. 
Walker's Sufferings of Clergy. 
Ellis's History of London Mission- 
ary Society. 
Watson's Fifty Years of the Sunday 

Hamilton's Works. 
Hamilton's Memoir of Ely. 
Stowell's Memoir of Hamilton. 
Memoirs of T. R. Taylor. 
Census of Population, 1851. 
Evangelical Magazine. 
Congregational Magazine. 
W. Riding Congregational Register. 
Congregational Year Book. 
Skeats' History of Free Churches. 
Numerous Sermons, Charges, &c. 
Case of Lady Hewley's Trusts, &c. 
&c. &c. 

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